[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV infection is pandemic in humans and is responsible for millions of deaths every year. The discovery of new cellular targets that can be used to prevent the infection process represents a new opportunity for developing more effective antiviral drugs. In this context, dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3 grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN), a lectin expressed at the surface of immature dendritic cells and involved in the initial stages of HIV infection, is a promising therapeutic target. Herein we show the ability of a new tetravalent dendron containing four copies of a linear trimannoside mimic to inhibit the trans HIV infection process of CD4+ T lymphocytes at low micromolar range. This compound presents a high solubility in physiological media, a neglectable cytotoxicity, and a long-lasting effect and is based on carbohydrate-mimic units. Notably, the HIV antiviral activity is independent of viral tropism (X4 or R5). The formulation of this compound as a gel could allow its use as topical microbicide.
ACS Chemical Biology 03/2010; 5(3):301-12. · 5.44 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DC-SIGN is a C-type lectin receptor of dendritic cells and is involved in the early stages of numerous infectious diseases. DC-SIGN is organized into a tetramer enabling multivalent interaction with pathogens. Once formed, the DC-SIGN-pathogen complex can be internalized into compartments of increasing acidity. We have studied the pH dependence of the oligomerization state and conformation of the entire extracellular domain and neck region. We present evidence for equilibrium between the monomeric and tetrameric states of the extracellular domain, which exhibits a marked dependence with respect to both pH and ionic strength. Using solution x-ray scattering we have obtained a molecular envelope of the extracellular domain in which a model has been built. Our results highlight the central role of the neck domain in the pH-sensitive control of the oligomerization state, in the extended conformation of the protein, and in carbohydrate recognition domain organization and presentation. This work opens new insight into the molecular mechanism of ligand release and points to new avenues to block the first step of this important infection pathway.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2009; 284(32):21229-40. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) 3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) is a C-type lectin that appears to perform several different functions. Besides mediating adhesion between dendritic cells and T lymphocytes, DC-SIGN recognizes several pathogens some of which, including HIV, appear to exploit it to invade host organisms. The intriguing diversity of the roles attributed to DC-SIGN and their therapeutic implications have stimulated the search for new ligands that could be used as biological probes and possibly as lead compounds for drug development. The natural ligands of DC-SIGN consist of mannose oligosaccharides or fucose-containing Lewis-type determinants. Using the known 3D structure of the Lewis-x trisaccharide, we have identified some monovalent alpha-fucosylamides that bind to DC-SIGN with inhibitory constants 0.4-0.5 mM, as determined by SPR, and have characterized their interaction with the protein by STD NMR spectroscopy. This work establishes for the first time alpha-fucosylamides as functional mimics of chemically and enzymatically unstable alpha-fucosides and describes interesting candidates for the preparation of multivalent systems able to block the receptor DC-SIGN with high affinity and with potential biomedical applications.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DC-SIGN, a lectin, which presents at the surface of immature dendritic cells, constitutes nowadays a promising target for the design of new antiviral drugs. This lectin recognizes highly glycosylated proteins present at the surface of several pathogens such as HIV, Ebola virus, Candida albicans, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, etc. Understanding the binding mode of this lectin is a topic of tremendous interest and will permit a rational design of new and more selective ligands. Here, we present computational and experimental tools to study the interaction of di- and trisaccharides with DC-SIGN. Docking analysis of complexes involving mannosyl di- and trisaccharides and the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) of DC-SIGN have been performed. Trisaccharides Manalpha1,2[Manalpha1,6]Man 1 and Manalpha1,3[Manalpha1,6]Man 2 were synthesized from an orthogonally protected mannose as a common intermediate. Using these ligands and the soluble extracellular domain (ECD) of DC-SIGN, NMR experiments based on STD and transfer-NOE were performed providing additional information. Conformational analysis of the mannosyl ligands in the free and bound states was done. These studies have demonstrated that terminal mannoses at positions 2 or 3 in the trisaccharides are the most important moiety and present the strongest contact with the binding site of the lectin. Multiple binding modes could be proposed and therefore should be considered in the design of new ligands.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The design and preparation of carbohydrate ligands for DC-SIGN is a topic of high interest because of the role played by this C-type lectin in immunity and infection processes. The low chemical stability of carbohydrates against enzymatic hydrolysis by glycosylases has stimulated the search for new alternatives more stable in vivo. Herein, we present a good alternative for a DC-SIGN ligand based on a mannobioside mimic with a higher enzymatic stability than the corresponding disaccharide. NMR and docking studies have been performed to study the interaction of this mimic with DC-SIGN in solution demonstrating that this pseudomannobioside is a good ligand for this lectin. In vitro studies using an infection model with Ebola pseudotyped virus demonstrates that this compound presents an antiviral activity even better than the corresponding disaccharide and could be an interesting ligand to prepare multivalent systems with higher affinities for DC-SIGN with potential biomedical applications.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The design of glycoconjugates to allow the generation of multivalent ligands capable of interacting with the receptor DC-SIGN is a topic of high interest due to the role played by this lectin in pathogen infections. Mannose, a ligand of this lectin, could be conjugated at two different positions, 1 and 6, not implicated in the binding process. We have prepared mannose conjugates at these two positions with a long spacer to allow their attachment to a biosensor chip surface. Analysis of the interaction between these surfaces and the tetravalent extracellular domain (ECD) of DC-SIGN by SPR biosensor has demonstrated that both positions are available for this conjugation without affecting the protein binding process. These results emphasize the possibility to conjugate mannose at position 6, allowing the incorporation of hydrophobic groups at the anomeric position to interact with hydrophobic residues in the carbohydrate recognition domain of DC-SIGN, increasing binding affinities. This fact is relevant for the future design of new ligands and the corresponding multivalent systems for DC-SIGN.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DC-SIGN (dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3 grabbing non-integrin) is a C-type lectin receptor of dendritic cells and is involved in the initial steps of numerous infectious diseases. Surface plasmon resonance has been used to study the affinity of a glycodendritic polymer with 32 mannoses, to DC-SIGN. This glycodendrimer binds to DC-SIGN surfaces in the submicromolar range. This binding depends on a clustered organization of DC-SIGN mimicking its natural organization as microdomain in the dendritic cells plasma membrane. Moreover, this compound inhibits DC-SIGN binding to the HIV glycoprotein gp120 with an IC50 in the micromolar range and therefore can be considered as a potential antiviral drug.