Angelo Chiarelli

Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Manhattan, New York, United States

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Publications (8)12.16 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Occupational exposure to oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) has been associated with obstructive lung disease. Previously, we studied an extract of oyster mushroom (OME) and determined that it causes dose-dependent contractions of nonsensitized guinea pig trachea (GPT). We extend these studies to the investigation of sensitized tissue. In the present study 24 animals were sensitized using ovalbumin (OA) and subsequently challenged with an aerosol of 2.5% OA. A control group of 12 nonsensitized GPs was also studied. Tracheas were removed and were divided into rings in which the epithelium was retained (EP+) or removed (EP-). Dose-related contractions of sensitized and nonsensitized GPTs were elicited with OME. In nonsensitized animals the EP+ GPTs demonstrated a significantly greater response to OME (100-1000 μl) than did the EP- GPTs (p < 0.01). By contrast, in sensitized GPTs with and without epithelium there was no difference to challenge with OME. Finally, sensitized GPTs with and without epithelium and nonsensitized GPTs with epithelium responded similarly to challenge with OME. These findings suggest that in nonsensitized animals there is an enhancement of contractile response to OME which is in part mediated by the GPT epithelium. In sensitized animals with or without epithelium, the level of bronchoconstrictor response is similar to that of the nonsensitized animals with epithelium, suggesting an enhanced constrictor response independent of epithelium in the sensitized animals.
    Beiträge zur Klinik der Tuberkulose 06/2011; 189(4):305-10. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gender related differences in respiratory disease have been documented. The aim of this study was to investigate gender related differences in respiratory findings by occupation. We analyzed data from 12 of our previously published studies. Three thousand and eleven (3011) workers employed in "organic dust" industries (1379 female and 1632 male) were studied. A control group of 806 workers not exposed to any kind of dust were also investigated (male = 419, female = 387). Acute and chronic respiratory symptoms and lung function were measured. The weighted average method and the Mantel-Haentszel method were used to calculate the odds ratios of symptoms. Hedge's unbiased estimations were used to measure lung function differences between men and women. There were high prevalences of acute and chronic respiratory symptoms in all the "dusty" studied groups compared to controls. Significantly less chronic cough, chronic phlegm as well as chronic bronchitis were found among women than among men after the adjustments for smoking, age and duration of employment. Upper respiratory tract symptoms by contrast were more frequent in women than in men in these groups. Significant gender related lung function differences occurred in the textile industry but not in the food processing industry or among farmers. The results of this study suggest that in industries processing organic compounds there are gender differences in respiratory symptoms and lung function in exposed workers. Whether these findings represent true physiologic gender differences, gender specific workplace exposures or other undefined gender variables not defined in this study cannot be determined. These data do not suggest that special limitations for women are warranted for respiratory health reasons in these industries, but the issue of upper respiratory irritation and disease warrants further study.
    Environmental Health 02/2009; 8:1. · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The playing of wind instruments has been associated with changes in respiratory function. To investigate the effect of playing wind instruments on lung function and respiratory symptoms. The present study included 99 wind instrument players and a group of 41 string instrument players as a control from 3 major orchestras in Zagreb, Croatia. Data on chronic respiratory symptoms were recorded in all studied subjects. Lung function was measured in wind instrument players by recording maximum expiratory flow-volume curves. Wind instrument players demonstrated significantly higher prevalences of sinusitis, nasal catarrh and hoarseness compared to control musicians. One wind instrument player developed asthma associated with his work. Odds ratios for wind instrument players were significant for chronic cough, chronic phlegm and chronic bronchitis by smoking habit (p<0.05 or p<0.01) but not for length of employment. Ventilatory capacity data indicate that wind instrument players had significantly greater FEV1 (smokers and nonsmokers) as well as FEF50 (nonsmokers) (p<0.05) compared to predicted values. Regression analysis of pulmonary function tests in wind instrument players demonstrate a significant link between FEV1 and FEF50 and length of employment. Those wind instrument players with longer employment had the greatest increases in lung function. Our data suggest that musicians playing wind instruments may be susceptible to chronic upper airway symptoms. Interestingly wind instrument playing may be associated with higher than expected lung function parameters.
    La Medicina del lavoro 01/2009; 100(2):133-41. · 0.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pesticide aerosols are frequently toxic irritants associated with respiratory symptoms and lung function impairment. A cross-sectional study examined the prevalence of acute and chronic respiratory symptoms and lung function abnormalities in 82 workers employed in processing pesticides and in 60 control workers not exposed to irritants and employed in a soft drink bottling plant. The prevalence of almost all chronic respiratory symptoms was greater among pesticide workers than among controls. A logistic regression analysis shows differences between men and women. There was a high prevalence of acute symptoms during the work shift in pesticide workers. The data on ventilatory capacity indicates significant reductions in all tests compared to predicted. Multivariate analysis of lung function showed differences in smoking and work exposure effects in men and women. Our data indicate that duration of work exposure in the pesticide processing industry may be associated with the development of acute and chronic respiratory symptoms and lung function changes. These effects appear to be aggravated by smoking.
    Journal of occupational and environmental medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 12/2008; 50(11):1299-305. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The grain weevil, an insect (pest) that infects grain, is a frequent contaminant of processed wheat, and its presence may contribute to respiratory abnormalities in grain workers. We studied the in vitro effects of an extract of grain weevil (GWE) on airway smooth muscle. Pharmacologic studies included in vitro challenge of guinea pig trachea with GWE, in parallel organ baths, pretreated with mediator-modifying agents or a control solution. Dose-related contractions of nonsensitized guinea pig trachea (GPT) were demonstrated using this extract. Pharmacologic studies were performed by pretreating guinea pig tracheal tissue with drugs known to modulate smooth muscle contraction: atropine, indomethacin, pyrilamine, acivicin, NDGA, BPB, TMB8, captopril, and capsaicin. Atropine, pyrilamine, BPB, and capsaicin significantly reduced the contractile effects of the extract at most of the challenge doses (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05). Inhibition of GWE-induced contraction by blocking of other mediators was less complete. We suggest that GWE causes dose-related airway smooth muscle constriction of the GPT by nonimmunologic mechanisms involving a variety of airway mediators and possibly cholinergic receptors.
    Beiträge zur Klinik der Tuberkulose 01/2008; 186(5):317-321. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Art students are exposed to many noxious agents during their training, in contrast to medical students, who are not exposed to known environmental pollutants. In order to investigate the potential effects of toxic agents in the art students' environment, we studied respiratory findings in a cohort of 117 art students and 128 medical students, matched for age, sex and smoking. Acute and chronic respiratory symptoms were evaluated by modifying the British Medical Research Council questionnaire. Lung function studies were performed with a spirometer (Jaeger, Germany) measuring maximum expiratory flow-volume (MEFV) curves. On these curves we calculated the forced vital capacity (FVC), one second forced expiratory volume (FEV1) and the maximal expiratory flow at 50% and the last 25% of the FVC (FEF50, FEF25). Significantly higher prevalences of most of the chronic respiratory symptoms were recorded in art students compared to medical students (p < 0.05). Art students who were smokers had significantly higher prevalences of many of the chronic respiratory symptoms than nonsmoking art students. Among medical students these differences were not statistically significant (NS). High prevalences of acute symptoms related to the study environment were recorded for art students. Odds ratios in male and female art students were significant for chronic cough, chronic phlegm and chronic bronchitis for the risk factor of smoking. Significantly decreased lung function values compared to predicted values were recorded mostly for FEF50 and FEF25 in male and female art students. Smoking and non-smoking art students had similar reductions of lung function. Lung function data in medical students were within predicted values. Our data indicate that art students may be at risk of developing chronic respiratory symptoms and lung function changes as a result of their environmental exposure and their smoking habits.
    La Medicina del lavoro 01/2006; 97(1):20-9. · 0.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mushroom farm workers suffer from respiratory symptoms during the farming of mushrooms. The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) extract (OME) on isolated guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle in vitro. Isolated guinea pig tracheal tissue from 27 nonsensitized guinea pigs were studied. The OME was obtained from indoor mushroom growing fields and prepared as a 1:10 w/v aqueous solution. Dose-related contractions of nonsensitized guinea pig trachea were demonstrated using these extracts. The OME contained significant quantities of bacterial components (eg., endotoxin: 43,072.92 EU/mg). Parallel, pharmacological studies were performed by pre-treating the tissues with mediator-modifying agents including atropine, indomethacin, pyrilamine, BPB, acivicin, NDGA, captopril, TMB8 and capsaicin. Atropine consistently and strikingly reduced the contractile effects of this extract. These observations suggest an interaction of the OME with parasympathetic nerves or more directly with muscarinic receptors. Pretreatment with TMB8 (inhibitor of intracellular calcium mobilization) also significantly blocked the constrictor effect of OME, indicating a role of calcium mobilization in the constricting effect of OME. Inhibition of contraction by blocking of other mediators was less effective and varied depending on the drug. We conclude that OME causes a dose-related airway smooth muscle constriction by nonimmunological mechanisms involving a variety of airway mediators and possibly cholinergic receptors. This effect is not dependent on pre-sensitization of the guinea pigs.
    Beiträge zur Klinik der Tuberkulose 01/2005; 183(1):63-71. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Art students are exposed to many noxious agents during their training. We studied respiratory findings in a cohort of the 117 art students in order to investigate the potential effects of these toxic agents in the art student's environment. A group of 88 medical students matched for age, sex and smoking, not exposed to known environmental pollutants were studied as controls for respiratory symptoms. Respiratory symptoms acute and chronic were evaluated by modifying the British Medical Research Council questionnaire. Lung function studies were performed with a spirometer (Jaeger, Germany) measuring maximum expiratory flow-volume (MEFV) curves. Significantly higher prevalences of most of the chronic respiratory symptoms were recorded in art compared to medical students (p < 0.05). Art students who were smokers had significantly higher prevalences of many of the chronic respiratory symptoms than nonsmoking art students. High prevalences of acute symptoms related to the study environment were recorded for art students. Odds ratios in male art students were significant for chronic cough, chronic phlegm and chronic bronchitis for the risk factors of exposure and smoking. Significantly decreased lung function was recorded for FVC, FEF50 and FEF25 in male and FVC, and FEF25 in female art students. Smokers and nonsmokers had similar reductions of lung function. Our data indicate that art students may be at risk of developing chronic respiratory symptoms and lung function changes as a result of their exposure and their smoking habits.
    Collegium antropologicum 01/2005; 28(2):717-25. · 0.61 Impact Factor