[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High-risk nature of gaming can be a function of typical/heavy alcohol use. • Overall, men who play are at risk for experiencing alcohol-related problems. • Black women who play are at risk for experiencing alcohol-related problems. Introduction: A drinking game (DG) is a high-risk, social drinking activity that consists of certain rules (i.e., when to drink and how much to consume) designed to promote inebriation and that requires each player to perform a cognitive and/or motor task (Zamboanga et al., 2013). Research suggests that non-White or female students who play DGs are at an increased risk of experiencing alcohol-related problems. Thus, this study examined whether the associations between DG participation and alcohol-related problems were similar for men and women and across ethnic groups. Method: College students (N = 7409; 73% women; 64% White, 8% Black, 14% Hispanic, 14% Asian) from 30 U.S. colleges/universities completed self-report questionnaires. Results: Controlling for age, site, Greek membership (i.e., membership in a fraternity or sorority), and typical alcohol consumption, results indicated that the associ-ation between DG participation and alcohol-related problems was stronger for men compared to women. With respect to ethnicity, the association between these variables was stronger among Black women than Black men. Conclusions: Findings from this large-scale study highlight the need to closely investigate how gender and ethnic-ity moderate the associations between DG participation and alcohol-related problems. College intervention ef-forts designed to address high-risk drinking behaviors such as DG participation might consider paying close attention to ethnic minority populations, perhaps particularly Black women.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Drinking games are high-risk, social drinking activities comprised of rules that promote participants’ intoxication and determine when and how much alcohol should be consumed. Despite the negative consequences associated with drinking games, this high-risk activity is common among college students, with participation rates reported at nearly 50% in some studies. Empirical research examining drinking games participation in college student populations has increased (i.e. over 40 peer-reviewed articles were published in the past decade) in response to the health risks associated with gaming and its prevalence among college students. This Special Issue of The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse seeks to advance the college drinking games literature even further by addressing understudied, innovative factors associated with the study of drinking games, including the negative consequences associated with drinking games participation; contextual, cultural, and psychological factors that may influence gaming; methodological concerns in drinking games research; and recommendations for intervention strategies. This Prologue introduces readers to each article topic-by-topic and underscores the importance of the continued study of drinking games participation among college students.
The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 09/2014; 40(5). · 1.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Drinking game participation has been associated with increased frequency and quantity of alcohol use, as well as alcohol-related problems, in college students. To date, the assessment of drinking games typically entails the use of self-developed measures of frequency of participation and amount of alcohol consumed while playing.
The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 09/2014; 40(5):395-402. · 1.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Drinking games are a high-risk social drinking activity consisting of rules and guidelines that determine when and how much to drink (Polizzotto et al., 2007). Borsari's (2004) seminal review paper on drinking games in the college environment succinctly captured the published literature as of February 2004. However, research on college drinking games has grown exponentially during the last decade, necessitating an updated review of the literature. This review provides an in-depth summary and synthesis of current drinking games research (e.g., characteristics of drinking games, and behavioral, demographic, social, and psychological influences on participation) and suggests several promising areas for future drinking games research. This review is intended to foster a better understanding of drinking game behaviors among college students and improve efforts to reduce the negative impact of this practice on college campuses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Psychology of addictive behaviors : journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors. 09/2014; 28(3):682-695.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: This cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate which components of acculturation relate to drinking games participation among Hispanic college students. We also sought to examine whether the relationships between acculturation and drinking games would differ from the associations between acculturation and other alcohol-related outcomes. Method: A sample of 1,397 Hispanic students aged 18–25 (75% women; 77% US-born) from 30 US colleges and universities completed a confidential online survey. Results: Associations among acculturative processes, drinking games participation, general alcohol consumption, and negative drinking consequences differed across gender. Most significant findings emerged in the domain of cultural practices. For women, US cultural practices were associated with greater general alcohol consumption, drinking games frequency, and amount of alcohol consumed while gaming, whereas for men, US cultural practices were associated with general alcohol consumption and negative drinking consequences. Conclusions: Hispanic and US cultural practices, values, and identifications were differentially associated with drinking games participation, and these associations differed by gender. It is therefore essential for college student alcohol research to examine US culture acquisition and Hispanic culture retention separately and within the domains of cultural practices, values, and identifications. Introduction Many college students participate in drinking games, which are high-risk, social drinking activities that are designed to facilitate inebriation, consist of rules that indicate when players drink and the quantity of alcohol that they must consume, and involve performing motor and/or mental tasks (1). Studies conducted with large, multisite samples of college students report prevalence rates of drinking games participa-tion ranging from 49% (2) to 70% (3). Studies also indicate that individuals who participate in drinking games are at risk for experiencing negative alcohol-related consequences (2,3). Although research examining the demographic, psycho-logical, and event-specific factors that can place students at risk for heavy consumption and negative drinking conse-quences are plentiful in the college alcohol literature (4), most have been conducted with predominantly White samples. A few studies (5) have examined the cultural correlates of high-risk drinking behaviors among Hispanic college stu-dents, but to our knowledge, no published studies have examined cultural correlates of drinking games specifically. Hispanics are an important population to examine both because of their rapidly growing numbers and because of their increasing presence on college campuses (6,7). As the proportion of Hispanics on college campuses continues to increase, identifying and understanding correlates of health risk behaviors in this population will become an increasingly important public health issue. In terms of alcohol use among Hispanic students, Venegas et al. (5) found that 48% of the Address correspondence to
The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 09/2014; 40(5):359-366. · 1.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ethnic group discrimination represents a notable risk factor that may contribute to mental health problems among ethnic minority college students. However, cultural resources (e.g., ethnic identity) may promote psychological adjustment in the context of group-based discriminatory experiences. In the current study, we examined the associations between perceptions of ethnic group discrimination and depressive symptoms, and explored dimensions of ethnic identity (i.e., exploration, resolution, and affirmation) as mediators of this process among 2,315 ethnic minority college students (age 18 to 30 years; 37% Black, 63% Latino). Results indicated that perceived ethnic group discrimination was associated positively with depressive symptoms among students from both ethnic groups. The relationship between perceived ethnic group discrimination and depressive symptoms was mediated by ethnic identity affirmation for Latino students, but not for Black students. Ethnic identity resolution was negatively and indirectly associated with depressive symptoms through ethnic identity affirmation for both Black and Latino students. Implications for promoting ethnic minority college students' mental health and directions for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology 08/2014; · 1.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During the past several years, a steadily growing body of literature examining acculturation and alcohol use among Hispanic college students has emerged. A review of this literature suggests that there have been (and continues to be) mixed findings regarding the association between acculturation and alcohol use in this population. Thus, the exact nature of this association is not clear. This paper provides an overview of this literature and outlines recommendations for future research that will help to elucidate the complexities inherent in this line of work.
Substance Use & Misuse 07/2014; 49(8):1074-1078. · 1.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this article, we evaluate the factor structure of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM; Phinney, 1992) and test whether the MEIM exhibits measurement invariance across ethnic groups taken from a diverse sample of students from 30 different colleges and universities across the United States (N = 9,625). Initial analyses suggested that a bifactor model was an adequate representation of the structure of the MEIM. This model was then used in subsequent invariance tests. Results suggested that the MEIM displayed configural and metric invariance across 5 diverse ethnic groups (i.e., White, Black, Hispanic, East Asian, and South Asian). There were indications that the MEIM displayed a similar factor structure with roughly equivalent factor loadings across diverse ethnic groups. However, there was little evidence of scalar invariance across these groups, suggesting that mean-level comparisons of MEIM scores across ethnic groups should be interpreted with caution. The implications of these findings for the interpretation and use of this popular measure of ethnic identity are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Journal of Counseling Psychology 03/2014; · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: This cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate which components of acculturation relate to drinking games participation among Hispanic college students. We also sought to examine whether the relationships between acculturation and drinking games would differ from the associations between acculturation and other alcohol-related outcomes. Method: A sample of 1,397 Hispanic students ages 18-25 (75% women; 77% U.S.-born) from 30 U.S. colleges and universities completed a confidential online survey. Results: Associations among acculturative processes, drinking games participation, general alcohol consumption, and negative drinking consequences differed across gender. Most significant findings emerged in the domain of cultural practices. For women, U.S. cultural practices were associated with greater general alcohol consumption, drinking games frequency, and amount of alcohol consumed while gaming, whereas for men, U.S. cultural practices were associated with general alcohol consumption and negative drinking consequences. Conclusions: Hispanic and U.S. cultural practices, values, and identifications were differentially associated with drinking games participation, and these associations differed by gender. It is therefore essential for college student alcohol research to examine U.S. culture acquisition and Hispanic culture retention separately and within the domains of cultural practices, values, and identifications.
The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 03/2014; · 1.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study used a randomized design, with fully bilingual Hispanic participants from the Miami area, to investigate 2 sets of research questions. First, we sought to ascertain the extent to which measures of acculturation (Hispanic and U.S. practices, values, and identifications) satisfied criteria for linguistic measurement equivalence. Second, we sought to examine whether cultural frame switching would emerge—that is, whether latent acculturation mean scores for U.S. acculturation would be higher among participants randomized to complete measures in English and whether latent acculturation mean scores for Hispanic acculturation would be higher among participants randomized to complete measures in Spanish. A sample of 722 Hispanic students from a Hispanic-serving university participated in the study. Participants were first asked to complete translation tasks to verify that they were fully bilingual. Based on ratings from 2 independent coders, 574 participants (79.5% of the sample) qualified as fully bilingual and were randomized to complete the acculturation measures in either English or Spanish. Theoretically relevant criterion measures—self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and personal identity—were also administered in the randomized language. Measurement equiva-lence analyses indicated that all of the acculturation measures—Hispanic and U.S. practices, values, and identifications—met criteria for configural, weak/metric, strong/scalar, and convergent validity equivalence. These findings indicate that data generated using acculturation measures can, at least under some conditions, be combined or compared across languages of administration. Few latent mean differences emerged. These results are discussed in terms of the measurement of acculturation in linguistically diverse populations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Early age of onset of alcohol use or prescription drug misuse (PDM) is associated with later alcohol or prescription drug-related substance use disorders. While the prevalence of PDM among youth continues to increase at an alarming rate, relatively little research attention has been given to the study of adolescent PDM. The present study examined differences in risky behaviors (hazardous drinking and externalizing symptoms) and impulsivity among adolescents (N = 111) who reported current PDM and underage alcohol use (i.e. PDM and alcohol use in past 30 days; n = 37), current underage alcohol use only (i.e. past-30-day alcohol use but no PDM in past 30 days; n = 37) and those who reported no alcohol or drug use in past 30 days (n = 37). Findings indicated that adolescents who reported current PDM also reported highest levels of hazardous alcohol use and impulsivity compared to adolescents in the current alcohol-only and current non-user groups. Adolescents who reported current PDM also reported higher levels of externalizing symptoms than did non-current using adolescents. Overall, the results of the present study suggest that adolescents who misuse prescription drugs could be at high risk for involvement in other types of problem behaviors.
Journal of Substance Use 02/2014; 19(1-2). · 0.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated naturally occurring profiles based on two dimensions of meaning in life: Presence of Meaning and Search for Meaning. Cluster analysis was used to examine meaning in life profiles and subsequent analyses identified different patterns in psychosocial functioning for each profile. METHOD: A sample of 8,492 American emerging adults (72.5% women) from 30 colleges and universities completed measures on meaning in life, and positive and negative psychosocial functioning. RESULTS: Results provided support for five meaningful yet distinguishable profiles. A strong generalizability of the cluster solution was found across age, and partial generalizability was found across gender and ethnicity. Furthermore, the five profiles showed specific patterns in relation to positive and negative psychosocial functioning. Specifically, respondents with profiles high on presence of meaning showed the most adaptive psychosocial functioning whereas respondents with profiles where meaning was largely absent showed maladaptive psychosocial functioning. CONCLUSION: The present study provided additional evidence for prior research concerning the complex relationship between Presence of Meaning and Search for Meaning, and their relation with psychosocial functioning. Our results offer a partial clarification of the nature of the Search for Meaning process by distinguishing between adaptive and maladaptive searching for meaning in life.
Journal of Personality 02/2014; 82(1):57-68. · 2.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prepartying (i.e. drinking before a social event/gathering) and participation in drinking games are two high-risk drinking behaviors practiced by adolescents. Engaging in both these drinking behaviors may contribute to a multiple risk paradigm, wherein the risk associated with one’s general drinking is combined with the additional risk of rapidly ingesting alcohol as a result of one or both these activities. The present study examines this paradigm among high school students who reported alcohol use (N = 240). Controlling for age and typical alcohol consumption, results indicated that participation in prepartying or drinking games was associated with more negative alcohol-related outcomes than non-participation. However, participation in both risky behaviors, as opposed to one, did not give rise to negative additive effects. Thus, students who participate in just one of these activities warrant the same attention from health professionals and school personnel as those who participate in both. Importantly, results also showed that students who reported drinking games participation and prepartying endorsed social and coping drinking motives just as frequently as students who only reported drinking games participation. However, students who engaged in multiple high-risk drinking behaviors were more inclined to drink to enhance the intensity of the “high” associated with alcohol use.
Journal of Substance Use 12/2013; · 0.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pregaming (a.k.a., "prepartying," "pre-funking," or "predrinking") consists of drinking before going to a social function or gathering where alcohol may or may not be served. Existing research suggests that pregaming in high school and pre-college (i.e., the period between high school graduation and the start of college) is widespread. Moreover, pregaming prevalence appears to rapidly increase after students graduate from high school and transition into college. Thus, the purpose of this brief review is threefold: (a) to summarize the existing (albeit limited) research on pregaming among high school students and incoming college freshmen, (b) to present an overview of the risk factors that have been identified for participation in pregaming, and (c) to discuss the implications for practice that may be particularly relevant for school-employed/affiliated nurses as well as health practitioners who work in college settings. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, xx(x), xx-xx.].
Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services 09/2013; · 0.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Drinking games are widespread on college campuses and pose health risks to their players. Although there has been considerable research progress in the college drinking games literature, there does not appear to be a standard definition of the term "drinking games." Researchers, however, have attempted to classify and categorize drinking games in a systematic manner. For example, one category of drinking games (e.g., chugging, keg stands) is often referred to as consumption or extreme consumption games. Questions remain as to whether or how these types of games align with researchers' definitions of drinking games or the categorization systems advanced by researchers in the field. Potential challenges regarding the definition and categorization of drinking games, particularly with respect to extreme consumption types of games, are discussed.
The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 09/2013; 39(5):275-9. · 1.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current study examined a conditional indirect effects model of the association between religiousness and adolescents' hazardous alcohol use. In doing so, we responded to the need to include both mediators and moderators, and the need for theoretically informed models when examining religiousness and adolescents' alcohol use. The sample consisted of 383 adolescents, aged 15-18, who completed an online questionnaire. Results of structural equation modeling supported the proposed model. Religiousness was indirectly associated with hazardous alcohol use through both positive alcohol expectancy outcomes and negative alcohol expectancy valuations. Significant moderating effects for alcohol expectancy valuations on the association between alcohol expectancies and alcohol use were also found. The effects for alcohol expectancy valuations confirm valuations as a distinct construct to that of alcohol expectancy outcomes, and offer support for the protective role of internalized religiousness on adolescents' hazardous alcohol use as a function of expectancy valuations.
Journal of Adolescence 08/2013; 36(4):747-758. · 2.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined longitudinal acculturation patterns, and their associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors, in Hispanic immigrant families. A sample of 266 Hispanic adolescents (Mage = 13.4) and their primary parents completed measures of acculturation, family functioning, and adolescent conduct problems, substance use, and sexual behavior at five timepoints. Mixture models yielded three trajectory classes apiece for adolescent and parent acculturation. Assimilated adolescents reported the poorest family functioning, but adolescent assimilation negatively predicted adolescent cigarette smoking, sexual activity, and unprotected sex indirectly through family functioning. Follow-up analyses indicated that discrepancies between adolescent and parent family functioning reports predicted these adolescent outcomes. Results are discussed regarding acculturation trajectories, adolescent risk behavior, and the mediating role of family functioning.
Child Development 07/2013; 84(4):1355-1372. · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present article presents a review of identity status-based theory and research with adolescents and emerging adults, with some coverage of related approaches such as narrative identity and identity style. In the first section, we review Erikson’s theory of identity and early identity status research examining differences in personality and cognitive variables across statuses. We then review two contemporary identity models that extend identity status theory and explicitly frame identity development as a dynamic and iterative process. We also review work that has focused on specific domains of identity. The second section of the article discusses mental and physical health correlates of identity processes and statuses. The article concludes with recommendations for future identity research with adolescent and emerging adult populations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the immigrant paradox by ascertaining the effects of multiple components of acculturation on substance use and sexual behavior among recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents primarily from Mexico (35%) and Cuba (31%). A sample of 302 adolescents (53% boys; mean age 14.51 years) from Miami (n = 152) and Los Angeles (n = 150) provided data on Hispanic and U.S. cultural practices, values, and identifications at baseline and provided reports of cigarette use, alcohol use, sexual activity, and unprotected sex approximately one year later. Results indicated strong gender differences, with the majority of significant findings emerging for boys. Supporting the immigrant paradox (i.e., that becoming oriented toward U.S. culture is predictive of increased health risks), individualist values predicted greater numbers of oral sex partners and unprotected sex occasions for boys. However, contrary to the immigrant paradox, for boys, both U.S. practices and U.S. identification predicted less heavy drinking, fewer oral and vaginal/anal sex partners, and less unprotected vaginal/anal sex. Ethnic identity (identification with one’s heritage culture) predicted greater numbers of sexual partners but negatively predicted unprotected sex. Results indicate a need for multidimensional, multi-domain models of acculturation and suggest that more work is needed to determine the most effective ways to culturally inform prevention programs.
Prevention Science 06/2013; In Press. · 2.63 Impact Factor