Byron L Zamboanga

Smith College, Northampton, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (114)198.78 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The transition from high school to college has been characterized as a vulnerable periodmarked by increased involvement in high-risk behaviors such as alcohol use (Fromme, Corbin, & Kruse, 2008) and heavy drinking (Sher & Rutledge, 2007). Drinking games (DGs) in particular can contribute to problematic alcohol use among college students. Although it has been suggested that DGs are a male-dominated drinking activity (Pedersen & LaBrie, 2008; Borsari, 2004), to our knowledge, there have been no published studies to date examining the role of gender-relevant factors and DGs participation. One gender-relevant factor is masculine norms, which describe the societal beliefs, values, and expectations about what it means to be a 3man ́(Mahalik et al., 2003). Masculine norms have been found to be associated with alcohol use not just among college men, but also among Asian American college men specifically. Whether or not there are similar associations between masculine norms and DGs participation is unknown. As such, the degree to which these relationships vary as a function of race/ethnicity warrants further inquiry. Pedersen and LaBrie (2006) found that White students reported more frequent DGs participation and drank more while gaming than non-White students. Controlling for typical alcohol consumption, the present study examined the associations between distinct masculine norms and frequency of DGs participation, and tested whether such relationships are similar between White and Asian American college freshmen men. Participants consisted of 475 college freshmen men (mean age=18.1; White, n=338; Asian American, n=137) attending a large public university in the Mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. Participants completed a web-based survey and reported how often they played DGs, their daily drinking behaviors, and completed the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory-29. Using structural equation modeling, we found that conformity to playboy masculine norms was positively associated with frequency of participation in DGs among the total sample. However, the associations between masculine norms and DGs participation differed between Whites and Asian Americans, such that conformity to the masculine norms of being a playboy and heterosexual presentation were significantly associated with more frequent DGs participation for White but not Asian American men. Heterosexual presentation was positively associated with frequent participation in DGs for White men, even while controlling for typical alcohol consumption. This is contrary to prior research, which found heterosexual presentation to be protective against increased alcohol use (Iwamoto et al., 2014). Perhaps DGs are a specific type of social drinking activity that is attractive to those seeking to showcase 3manly ́ways of consuming alcohol (i.e., heavy consumption and being able to hold one's liquor). College clinical practitioners and health providers could assess conformity to masculine norms, with careful attention given to White, male freshmen. Practitioners could in turn use such information in individual or group settings to facilitate discussion and encourage reflection on how these norms may place certain students at risk for DGs participation (Iwamoto et al., 2014). In closing, the present study contributes to our understanding of distinct masculine norms and their relevance to DGs participation for specific racial/ethnic groups.
    2015 APA Annual Convention, American Psychological Association, Toronto, Canada; 08/2015
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    ABSTRACT: Pregaming (i.e., drinking before going to a social event or gathering; Borsari et al., 2003) is not only highly prevalent on college campuses but is also associated with increased alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences (Foster & Fegusson, 2014). Indeed, results from a large, multisite college student sample indicate that approximately 52% of Hispanics reported current participation in pregaming (Paves et al., 2012). The bulk of the college alcohol literature investigating the correlates of problematic drinking behaviors have been conducted with White samples, which poses a challenge in light of the increasing ethnic diversity on college campuses. Given the rapid increase in the Hispanic college student population, the identification of factors associated with a high-risk drinking behavior like pregaming among Hispanic students is an important research inquiry. Research with Hispanic college students has found that acculturation is associated with drinking behaviors (for a recent review, see Zamboanga et al., 2013). Acculturation is the process of psychological, social, and cultural change and adaptation that occurs when cultural groups come in contact with each other (Schwartz et al., 2010). Schwartz et al. (2010) also outlined different domains of acculturation, including cultural practices (e.g., language use, traditions), values (e.g., individualism/collectivism), and identification (i.e., ethnic/U.S. identities). Moreover, the field has moved away from unidimensional models of acculturation (i.e., assumes that individuals abandon their heritage values, identity, and practices and automatically adopt those of their host society) to bidimensional models (i.e., assumes individuals can maintain their heritage culture while simultaneously identifying with their host culture's values, identifications, and practices). Thus, the present study employs a bidimensional/multidomain approach to investigate how acculturation is associated with pregaming among Hispanic college students. Since the literature on acculturation and alcohol use among Hispanic college students does not appear to paint a clear picture of the relationship between these two variables, either due to an overreliance on unidimensional models and/or a failure to examine multiple cultural domains of acculturation, this study is an important step towards strengthening our understanding of this association. Hispanic college students (n=1365; mean age=19.7) from 30 U.S. colleges/universitiescompleted self-report measures of acculturation practices, values, cultural identifications, and frequency of prepartying. Results from our structural equation models (controlling for age, gender, birthplace, and Greek membership) indicated that decreased involvement with heritage cultural practices and higher endorsement of individualistic values were associated with more frequent participation in pregaming. The association between acculturation and pregaming did not differ between men and women. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine acculturation and pregaming, a high-risk drinking behavior, among Hispanic college students. As evident in the present study, cultural practices and values (individualism), may be the most relevant predictors of pregaming for Hispanic college students. Since we utilized a bidimensional/multidomain approach to acculturation, we were able to ascertain which cultural domains of acculturation are associated with pregaming. Researchers should adopt a similar approach when conducting future research on acculturation and high-risk drinking behaviors in this population.
    2015 APA Annual Convention, American Psychological Association, Toronto, Canada; 08/2015
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to contribute to our understanding of young adult identity development by deriving latent profiles from intrapersonal and interpersonal indices of identity synthesis and confusion. A sample of 9737 college-attending young adults completed measures of identity, mental health, and health risk behaviors. Four latent profiles emerged: Synthesized (high synthesis, low confusion), Diffused (moderate synthesis, high confusion), Elevated (high synthesis and confusion), and Moderate (moderate synthesis and confusion). The Synthesized profile was associated with the highest well-being and the lowest levels of internalizing, externalizing, and health risks. The Diffused and Elevated profiles were both associated with low well-being and with high internalizing, externalizing, and risky behaviors — with the Elevated profile highest on all of the negative outcomes. The Moderate profile scored intermediately on well-being, internalizing, externalizing, and health risks. These results are discussed in terms of the role of identity within a successful transition to adulthood.
    Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 02/2015; 36. · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High-risk nature of gaming can be a function of typical/heavy alcohol use. • Overall, men who play are at risk for experiencing alcohol-related problems. • Black women who play are at risk for experiencing alcohol-related problems. Introduction: A drinking game (DG) is a high-risk, social drinking activity that consists of certain rules (i.e., when to drink and how much to consume) designed to promote inebriation and that requires each player to perform a cognitive and/or motor task (Zamboanga et al., 2013). Research suggests that non-White or female students who play DGs are at an increased risk of experiencing alcohol-related problems. Thus, this study examined whether the associations between DG participation and alcohol-related problems were similar for men and women and across ethnic groups. Method: College students (N = 7409; 73% women; 64% White, 8% Black, 14% Hispanic, 14% Asian) from 30 U.S. colleges/universities completed self-report questionnaires. Results: Controlling for age, site, Greek membership (i.e., membership in a fraternity or sorority), and typical alcohol consumption, results indicated that the associ-ation between DG participation and alcohol-related problems was stronger for men compared to women. With respect to ethnicity, the association between these variables was stronger among Black women than Black men. Conclusions: Findings from this large-scale study highlight the need to closely investigate how gender and ethnic-ity moderate the associations between DG participation and alcohol-related problems. College intervention ef-forts designed to address high-risk drinking behaviors such as DG participation might consider paying close attention to ethnic minority populations, perhaps particularly Black women.
    Addictive Behaviors 02/2015; 41:112-116. · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was designed to examine acculturative changes, and their effects on mental health and family functioning, in recent-immigrant Hispanic adolescents. A sample of 302 Hispanic adolescents was assessed five times over a 2½-year period. Participants completed measures of Hispanic and U.S. practices, collectivist and individualist values, and ethnic and U.S. identity at each time point. Baseline and Time 5 levels of mental health and family functioning were also assessed. Latent class growth analyses produced two-class solutions for practices, values, and identifications. Adolescents who increased over time in practices and values reported the most adaptive mental health and family functioning. Adolescents who did not change in any acculturation domain reported the least favorable mental health and family functioning. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
    Child development. 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was a random-effects model meta-analysis of 26 studies published between 1990 and 2010 (k = 32; n = 39,777) that (a) examined the association between acculturation and cigarette smoking in Hispanic women and (b) evaluated age, national origin, and measure and dimensionality (unidimensional vs. bidimensional) of acculturation as moderating variables. Results indicate a strong positive relationship and suggest larger effects of acculturation on cigarette smoking in women of Mexican descent as compared with women originating from other Latin American countries for current and lifetime smoking, as well as smoking overall. The effect of acculturation on cigarette smoking was larger in adults as compared with adolescents for current smoking and smoking overall. Few differences in effect size by measure or dimensionality of acculturation emerged. Results are discussed with regard to implications for future research and the measurement of acculturation.
    Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse 01/2015; In Press.
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: We sought to determine the extent to which initial levels and over-time trajectories of cultural stressors (discrimination, negative context of reception, and bicultural stress) predicted well-being, internalizing symptoms, conduct problems, and health risk behaviors among recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents. Addressing this research objective involved creating a latent factor for cultural stressors, establishing invariance for this factor over time, estimating a growth curve for this factor over time, and examining the effects of initial levels (intercepts) and trajectories (slopes) of cultural stressors on adolescent outcomes. Methods: A sample of 302 recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents in Miami (Mdn 1 year in the US at baseline) and Los Angeles (Mdn 3 years in the US at baseline) was recruited from public schools and assessed 6 times over a 3-year period. Results: Perceived discrimination, context of reception, and bicultural stress loaded onto a latent factor at each of the first five timepoints. A growth curve conducted on this factor over the first five timepoints significantly predicted lower self-esteem and optimism, more depressive symptoms, greater aggressive behavior and rule breaking, and increased likelihood of drunkenness and marijuana use. Conclusions: The present results may be important in designing interventions for Hispanic immigrant children and adolescents, including those within the current wave of unaccompanied child migrants. Results indicate targeting cultural stressors in interventions may have potential to improve well-being and decrease externalizing behaviors and substance use within this population.
    Journal of Adolescent Health 12/2014; In press. · 2.75 Impact Factor
  • Byron L. Zamboanga, Cara C. Tomaso
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    ABSTRACT: Drinking games are high-risk, social drinking activities comprised of rules that promote participants’ intoxication and determine when and how much alcohol should be consumed. Despite the negative consequences associated with drinking games, this high-risk activity is common among college students, with participation rates reported at nearly 50% in some studies. Empirical research examining drinking games participation in college student populations has increased (i.e. over 40 peer-reviewed articles were published in the past decade) in response to the health risks associated with gaming and its prevalence among college students. This Special Issue of The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse seeks to advance the college drinking games literature even further by addressing understudied, innovative factors associated with the study of drinking games, including the negative consequences associated with drinking games participation; contextual, cultural, and psychological factors that may influence gaming; methodological concerns in drinking games research; and recommendations for intervention strategies. This Prologue introduces readers to each article topic-by-topic and underscores the importance of the continued study of drinking games participation among college students.
    The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 09/2014; 40(5). · 1.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Drinking game participation has been associated with increased frequency and quantity of alcohol use, as well as alcohol-related problems, in college students. To date, the assessment of drinking games typically entails the use of self-developed measures of frequency of participation and amount of alcohol consumed while playing.
    The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 09/2014; 40(5):395-402. · 1.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Drinking games are a high-risk social drinking activity consisting of rules and guidelines that determine when and how much to drink (Polizzotto et al., 2007). Borsari's (2004) seminal review paper on drinking games in the college environment succinctly captured the published literature as of February 2004. However, research on college drinking games has grown exponentially during the last decade, necessitating an updated review of the literature. This review provides an in-depth summary and synthesis of current drinking games research (e.g., characteristics of drinking games, and behavioral, demographic, social, and psychological influences on participation) and suggests several promising areas for future drinking games research. This review is intended to foster a better understanding of drinking game behaviors among college students and improve efforts to reduce the negative impact of this practice on college campuses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 09/2014; 28(3):682-695. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate which components of acculturation relate to drinking games participation among Hispanic college students. We also sought to examine whether the relationships between acculturation and drinking games would differ from the associations between acculturation and other alcohol-related outcomes. Method: A sample of 1,397 Hispanic students aged 18–25 (75% women; 77% US-born) from 30 US colleges and universities completed a confidential online survey. Results: Associations among acculturative processes, drinking games participation, general alcohol consumption, and negative drinking consequences differed across gender. Most significant findings emerged in the domain of cultural practices. For women, US cultural practices were associated with greater general alcohol consumption, drinking games frequency, and amount of alcohol consumed while gaming, whereas for men, US cultural practices were associated with general alcohol consumption and negative drinking consequences. Conclusions: Hispanic and US cultural practices, values, and identifications were differentially associated with drinking games participation, and these associations differed by gender. It is therefore essential for college student alcohol research to examine US culture acquisition and Hispanic culture retention separately and within the domains of cultural practices, values, and identifications. Introduction Many college students participate in drinking games, which are high-risk, social drinking activities that are designed to facilitate inebriation, consist of rules that indicate when players drink and the quantity of alcohol that they must consume, and involve performing motor and/or mental tasks (1). Studies conducted with large, multisite samples of college students report prevalence rates of drinking games participa-tion ranging from 49% (2) to 70% (3). Studies also indicate that individuals who participate in drinking games are at risk for experiencing negative alcohol-related consequences (2,3). Although research examining the demographic, psycho-logical, and event-specific factors that can place students at risk for heavy consumption and negative drinking conse-quences are plentiful in the college alcohol literature (4), most have been conducted with predominantly White samples. A few studies (5) have examined the cultural correlates of high-risk drinking behaviors among Hispanic college stu-dents, but to our knowledge, no published studies have examined cultural correlates of drinking games specifically. Hispanics are an important population to examine both because of their rapidly growing numbers and because of their increasing presence on college campuses (6,7). As the proportion of Hispanics on college campuses continues to increase, identifying and understanding correlates of health risk behaviors in this population will become an increasingly important public health issue. In terms of alcohol use among Hispanic students, Venegas et al. (5) found that 48% of the Address correspondence to
    The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 09/2014; 40(5):359-366. · 1.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ethnic group discrimination represents a notable risk factor that may contribute to mental health problems among ethnic minority college students. However, cultural resources (e.g., ethnic identity) may promote psychological adjustment in the context of group-based discriminatory experiences. In the current study, we examined the associations between perceptions of ethnic group discrimination and depressive symptoms, and explored dimensions of ethnic identity (i.e., exploration, resolution, and affirmation) as mediators of this process among 2,315 ethnic minority college students (age 18 to 30 years; 37% Black, 63% Latino). Results indicated that perceived ethnic group discrimination was associated positively with depressive symptoms among students from both ethnic groups. The relationship between perceived ethnic group discrimination and depressive symptoms was mediated by ethnic identity affirmation for Latino students, but not for Black students. Ethnic identity resolution was negatively and indirectly associated with depressive symptoms through ethnic identity affirmation for both Black and Latino students. Implications for promoting ethnic minority college students' mental health and directions for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology 08/2014; · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During the past several years, a steadily growing body of literature examining acculturation and alcohol use among Hispanic college students has emerged. A review of this literature suggests that there have been (and continues to be) mixed findings regarding the association between acculturation and alcohol use in this population. Thus, the exact nature of this association is not clear. This paper provides an overview of this literature and outlines recommendations for future research that will help to elucidate the complexities inherent in this line of work.
    Substance Use &amp Misuse 07/2014; 49(8):1074-1078. · 1.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this article, we evaluate the factor structure of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM; Phinney, 1992) and test whether the MEIM exhibits measurement invariance across ethnic groups taken from a diverse sample of students from 30 different colleges and universities across the United States (N = 9,625). Initial analyses suggested that a bifactor model was an adequate representation of the structure of the MEIM. This model was then used in subsequent invariance tests. Results suggested that the MEIM displayed configural and metric invariance across 5 diverse ethnic groups (i.e., White, Black, Hispanic, East Asian, and South Asian). There were indications that the MEIM displayed a similar factor structure with roughly equivalent factor loadings across diverse ethnic groups. However, there was little evidence of scalar invariance across these groups, suggesting that mean-level comparisons of MEIM scores across ethnic groups should be interpreted with caution. The implications of these findings for the interpretation and use of this popular measure of ethnic identity are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    Journal of Counseling Psychology 03/2014; · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate which components of acculturation relate to drinking games participation among Hispanic college students. We also sought to examine whether the relationships between acculturation and drinking games would differ from the associations between acculturation and other alcohol-related outcomes. Method: A sample of 1,397 Hispanic students ages 18-25 (75% women; 77% U.S.-born) from 30 U.S. colleges and universities completed a confidential online survey. Results: Associations among acculturative processes, drinking games participation, general alcohol consumption, and negative drinking consequences differed across gender. Most significant findings emerged in the domain of cultural practices. For women, U.S. cultural practices were associated with greater general alcohol consumption, drinking games frequency, and amount of alcohol consumed while gaming, whereas for men, U.S. cultural practices were associated with general alcohol consumption and negative drinking consequences. Conclusions: Hispanic and U.S. cultural practices, values, and identifications were differentially associated with drinking games participation, and these associations differed by gender. It is therefore essential for college student alcohol research to examine U.S. culture acquisition and Hispanic culture retention separately and within the domains of cultural practices, values, and identifications.
    The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 03/2014; · 1.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study used a randomized design, with fully bilingual Hispanic participants from the Miami area, to investigate 2 sets of research questions. First, we sought to ascertain the extent to which measures of acculturation (Hispanic and U.S. practices, values, and identifications) satisfied criteria for linguistic measurement equivalence. Second, we sought to examine whether cultural frame switching would emerge—that is, whether latent acculturation mean scores for U.S. acculturation would be higher among participants randomized to complete measures in English and whether latent acculturation mean scores for Hispanic acculturation would be higher among participants randomized to complete measures in Spanish. A sample of 722 Hispanic students from a Hispanic-serving university participated in the study. Participants were first asked to complete translation tasks to verify that they were fully bilingual. Based on ratings from 2 independent coders, 574 participants (79.5% of the sample) qualified as fully bilingual and were randomized to complete the acculturation measures in either English or Spanish. Theoretically relevant criterion measures—self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and personal identity—were also administered in the randomized language. Measurement equiva-lence analyses indicated that all of the acculturation measures—Hispanic and U.S. practices, values, and identifications—met criteria for configural, weak/metric, strong/scalar, and convergent validity equivalence. These findings indicate that data generated using acculturation measures can, at least under some conditions, be combined or compared across languages of administration. Few latent mean differences emerged. These results are discussed in terms of the measurement of acculturation in linguistically diverse populations.
    Psychological Assessment 03/2014; 26(1):100-114. · 2.99 Impact Factor
  • Lauren A. Milner, Lindsay S. Ham, Byron L. Zamboanga
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    ABSTRACT: Early age of onset of alcohol use or prescription drug misuse (PDM) is associated with later alcohol or prescription drug-related substance use disorders. While the prevalence of PDM among youth continues to increase at an alarming rate, relatively little research attention has been given to the study of adolescent PDM. The present study examined differences in risky behaviors (hazardous drinking and externalizing symptoms) and impulsivity among adolescents (N = 111) who reported current PDM and underage alcohol use (i.e. PDM and alcohol use in past 30 days; n = 37), current underage alcohol use only (i.e. past-30-day alcohol use but no PDM in past 30 days; n = 37) and those who reported no alcohol or drug use in past 30 days (n = 37). Findings indicated that adolescents who reported current PDM also reported highest levels of hazardous alcohol use and impulsivity compared to adolescents in the current alcohol-only and current non-user groups. Adolescents who reported current PDM also reported higher levels of externalizing symptoms than did non-current using adolescents. Overall, the results of the present study suggest that adolescents who misuse prescription drugs could be at high risk for involvement in other types of problem behaviors.
    Journal of Substance Use 02/2014; 19(1-2). · 0.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated naturally occurring profiles based on two dimensions of meaning in life: Presence of Meaning and Search for Meaning. Cluster analysis was used to examine meaning in life profiles and subsequent analyses identified different patterns in psychosocial functioning for each profile. METHOD: A sample of 8,492 American emerging adults (72.5% women) from 30 colleges and universities completed measures on meaning in life, and positive and negative psychosocial functioning. RESULTS: Results provided support for five meaningful yet distinguishable profiles. A strong generalizability of the cluster solution was found across age, and partial generalizability was found across gender and ethnicity. Furthermore, the five profiles showed specific patterns in relation to positive and negative psychosocial functioning. Specifically, respondents with profiles high on presence of meaning showed the most adaptive psychosocial functioning whereas respondents with profiles where meaning was largely absent showed maladaptive psychosocial functioning. CONCLUSION: The present study provided additional evidence for prior research concerning the complex relationship between Presence of Meaning and Search for Meaning, and their relation with psychosocial functioning. Our results offer a partial clarification of the nature of the Search for Meaning process by distinguishing between adaptive and maladaptive searching for meaning in life.
    Journal of Personality 02/2014; 82(1):57-68. · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prepartying (i.e. drinking before a social event/gathering) and participation in drinking games are two high-risk drinking behaviors practiced by adolescents. Engaging in both these drinking behaviors may contribute to a multiple risk paradigm, wherein the risk associated with one’s general drinking is combined with the additional risk of rapidly ingesting alcohol as a result of one or both these activities. The present study examines this paradigm among high school students who reported alcohol use (N = 240). Controlling for age and typical alcohol consumption, results indicated that participation in prepartying or drinking games was associated with more negative alcohol-related outcomes than non-participation. However, participation in both risky behaviors, as opposed to one, did not give rise to negative additive effects. Thus, students who participate in just one of these activities warrant the same attention from health professionals and school personnel as those who participate in both. Importantly, results also showed that students who reported drinking games participation and prepartying endorsed social and coping drinking motives just as frequently as students who only reported drinking games participation. However, students who engaged in multiple high-risk drinking behaviors were more inclined to drink to enhance the intensity of the “high” associated with alcohol use.
    Journal of Substance Use 12/2013; · 0.48 Impact Factor
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    Addiction 10/2013; 108(10):1756-7. · 4.60 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
198.78 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004–2014
    • Smith College
      • Psychology
      Northampton, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2013
    • Bethel University (Minnesota)
      Saint Paul, Minnesota, United States
  • 2012
    • University of Arkansas
      • Department of Psychological Science
      Fayetteville, AR, United States
  • 2011
    • Dalhousie University
      • Department of Psychology and Neuroscience
      Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
  • 2010
    • University of Missouri
      • Department of Educational, School and Counseling Psychology (ESCP)
      Columbia, MO, United States
  • 2008–2009
    • University of Miami
      • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      Coral Gables, FL, United States
  • 2003
    • University of Nebraska at Lincoln
      • Department of Psychology
      Lincoln, Nebraska, United States
    • University of Nebraska at Omaha
      Omaha, Nebraska, United States