[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
To examine the extent to which smokers express negative statements about quitting and the extent to which these statements influence general practitioners’ (GPs’) and practice nurses’ (PNs’) (dis)continuation of guideline-recommended smoking cessation care.
Fifty-two video-consultations were observed (GP-consultations: 2007-2008; PN-consultations: 2010-2011). Dialogues were transcribed verbatim and professionals’ and patients’ speech units were coded and analysed using sequential analyses (n = 1424 speech units).
GPs focused on asking about smoking (GPs: 42.4% versus PNs: 26.2%, p = 0.011) and advising them to quit (GPs: 15.3% versus PNs: 3.5%, p < 0.001), whereas PNs focused on assisting them with quitting (GPs: 25.4% versus PNs: 55.2%, p < 0.001). Overall, patients expressed more negative statements about quitting than positive statements (negative: 25.3% versus positive: 11.9%, p < 0.001), especially when PNs assessed their willingness to quit (OR 3.61, 95% CI 1.44-9.01) or assisted them with quitting (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.43-3.48).
An alternative approach to smoking cessation care is proposed in which GPs’ tasks are limited to asking, advising, and arranging follow-up. This approach seems the least likely to evoke negative statements of patients about quitting during dialogues with GPs and is compatible with the tasks and skills of PNs who could, subsequently, assist smokers with quitting.
Patient Education and Counseling 12/2014; · 2.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Living with SLE is a major task for the patients and their social environment. In modern health care, quality of life is increasingly incorporated as an important outcome. Studying novels about illness is a new method of exploring quality of life in patients with an illness. In this paper, we use the novel A tribe of women by Hervé Bazin as data to explore how a patient with SLE gives meaning to her illness and how her social environment reacts toward the illness and its treatment. We find that the novel-probably the only one where SLE is a major subject-offers a rich set of data on "living with SLE". Our findings may be instrumental in encouraging health care providers to explore quality of life in patients with SLE, incorporating self-management in order to improve their quality of life, and in teaching medical students about "medical humanities".
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Despite evidence that the blood-saving measures (BSMs) erythropoietin (EPO) and intra- and postoperative blood salvage are not (cost-)effective in primary elective total hip and knee arthroplasties, they are used frequently in Dutch hospitals. This study aims to assess the impact of barriers associated with the intention of physicians to stop BSMs.Study Design and MethodsA survey among 400 orthopedic surgeons and 400 anesthesiologists within the Netherlands was performed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify barriers associated with intention to stop BSMs.ResultsA total of 153 (40%) orthopedic surgeons and 100 (27%) anesthesiologists responded. Of all responders 67% used EPO, perioperative blood salvage, or a combination. After reading the evidence on non–cost-effective BSMs, 50% of respondents intended to stop EPO and 53% to stop perioperative blood salvage. In general, barriers perceived most frequently were lack of attention for blood management (90% of respondents), department priority to prevent transfusions (88%), and patient characteristics such as comorbidity (81%). Barriers significantly associated with intention to stop EPO were lack of interest to save money and the impact of other involved parties. Barriers significantly associated with intention to stop perioperative blood salvage were concerns about patient safety, lack of alternatives, losing experience with the technique, and lack of interest to save money.Conclusion
Physicians experience barriers to stop using BSMs, related to their own technical skills, patient safety, current blood management policy, and lack of interest to save money. These barriers should be targeted in strategies to make BSM use cost-effective.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A high prevalence of psychological morbidity and maladaptive personality as well as impaired quality of life (QoL) is observed in patients with and without hydrocortisone dependency following (cured) Cushing's syndrome. However, it is currently unclear whether a similar pattern is present in patients with chronic glucocorticoid replacement for primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI).
To evaluate psychological functioning, personality traits, and QoL in patients with PAI.
A cross-sectional study including 54 patients with stable treatment for PAI and 54 healthy matched controls. Both patients and controls completed questionnaires on psychological functioning (Apathy Scale, Irritability Scale, Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire short-form, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), personality traits (Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology short-form), and QoL (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, Short-Form 36, EuroQoL-5D, Nottingham Health Profile, and Physical Symptom Checklist).
Patients with PAI suffered from more psychological morbidity (i.e. irritability and somatic arousal) and QoL impairments compared with controls (all P<0.01). There were no differences regarding maladaptive personality traits between patients and controls. However, there was a strong and consistent positive association between the daily hydrocortisone dose and prevalence of maladaptive personality traits (i.e. identity problems, cognitive distortion, compulsivity, restricted expression, callousness, oppositionality, rejection, conduct problems, social avoidance, narcissism, and insecure attachment, all P<0.05). There was also a strong relation between the mean daily hydrocortisone dose and both psychological morbidity (i.e. depression, P<0.05) and QoL impairments (i.e. general health perception, several measures of physical functioning, and vitality, all P<0.05).
Patients with stable glucocorticoid replacement therapy for PAI report psychological morbidity and impaired QoL. Psychological morbidity, impaired QoL, and maladaptive personality traits were all associated with higher hydrocortisone dosages.
European Journal of Endocrinology 05/2014; · 3.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT The intercorrelations among the 15 scales of the EORTC QLQ-C30 quality of life questionnaire suggest that one may combine (a) the physical functioning and role functioning scales, (b) the emotional functioning and cognitive functioning scales, and (c) the nine symptom scales. Together with the global health/quality of life scale and the social functioning scale, five measures remain. Principal component analysis of those five measures, using data from Japanese and Dutch breast and lung cancer patients, yielded two dimensions: 1. generalized health related quality of life, and 2. health-independent psychological well-being. The correlations of these dimensions with the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire and Karnofsky performance substantiated this interpretation.
Journal of Psychosocial Oncology 05/2014; · 1.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite evidence that erythropoietin and intra- and postoperative blood salvage are expensive techniques considered to be non-cost-effective in primary elective total hip and knee arthroplasties in the Netherlands, Dutch medical professionals use them frequently to prevent the need for allogeneic transfusion. To actually change physicians' practice, a tailored strategy aimed at barriers that hinder physicians in abandoning the use of erythropoietin and perioperative blood salvage was systematically developed. The study aims to examine the effectiveness, feasibility and costs of this tailored de-implementation strategy compared to a control strategy.
A cluster randomized controlled trial including an effect, process and economic evaluation will be conducted in a minimum of 20 Dutch hospitals. Randomisation takes place at hospital level. The hospitals in the intervention group will receive a tailored de-implementation strategy that consists of four components: interactive education, feedback in educational outreach visits, electronically sent reports on hospital performance (all aimed at orthopedic surgeons), and information letters or emails aimed at other involved professionals within the intervention hospital (transfusion committee, OR-personnel, pharmacists). The hospitals in the control group will receive a control strategy (i.e., passive dissemination of available evidence). Outcomes will be measured at patient level, using retrospective medical record review. This will be done in all hospitals at baseline and after completion of the intervention period. The primary outcome of the effect evaluation is the percentage of patients undergoing primary elective total hip or knee arthroplasty in which erythropoietin or perioperative blood salvage is applied. The actual exposure to the tailored strategy and users' experiences will be assessed in the process evaluation. In the economic evaluation, the costs of the tailored strategy and the control strategy in relation to the difference in their effectiveness will be compared.
This study will show whether a systematically developed tailored strategy is more effective for de-implementation of non-cost-effective blood saving measures than the control strategy. This knowledge can be used in national and international initiatives to make healthcare more efficient. It also provides more generalized knowledge regarding de-implementation strategies.Trial registration: This trial is registered at the Dutch Trial Register NTR4044.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients treated for pituitary adenomas generally report a reduced quality of life (QoL). At present, the patient's perspective of QoL has not been fully addressed and this, and further insight in potential determinants of QoL in pituitary diseases is required to design strategies to improve QoL. We aimed to define patients' perceived QoL and to identify potential factors they perceive to contribute to QoL.
We conducted four independent focus groups of six patients each, per specific pituitary disease (Cushing's disease, Non-functioning pituitary macroadenoma, acromegaly, prolactinoma). In two sessions these focus groups discussed aspects of QoL. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach.
The issues raised by the patient groups were compatible with statements and items of available QoL questionnaires. In addition, other QoL aspects emerged, such as visual limitations (physical problems); issues with a desire to have children/family planning, fear of collapsing, fear of recurrence, panic, persisting thoughts, problems with an altered personality, anger, jealousy, sadness, frustration (psychological problems); and difficulties communicating about the disease, lack of sympathy and understanding by others, and a reduced social network (social problems). Next, this study uncovered factors which might contribute to a decreased QoL (e.g. less effective coping strategies, negative illness perceptions, negative beliefs about medicines, unmet needs regarding care).
This focus group study demonstrated that important disease-specific aspects of QoL are neglected in current pituitary disease-specific questionnaires and elucidated potential factors that contribute to a decreased QoL. Information provided in this study can (and will) be used for developing additional items for disease-specific QoL questionnaires and for the development of a self-management intervention aiming to improve QoL in patients treated for pituitary diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this narrative review, we put self-management in the context of a 50-year history of research about how patients with COPD respond to their illness. We review a definition of self-management, and emphasize that self-management should be combined with disease management and the chronic care model in order to be effective. Reviewing the empirical status of self-management in COPD, we conclude that self-management is part and parcel of modern, patient-oriented biopsychosocial care. In pulmonary rehabilitation programs, self-management is instrumental in improving patients' functional status and quality of life. We conclude by emphasizing how studying the way persons with COPD make sense of their illness helps in refining self-management, and thereby patient-reported outcomes in COPD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Targeted therapies such as epidermal growth factor
receptor inhibitors, multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors
and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors
have, to a greater or lesser extent, mucocutaneous adverse
events (mcAEs) in common. Papulopustular rash,
hand-foot skin reaction, and stomatitis are the most
serious adverse events. At present, evidence of the
effectiveness of the management options for mcAEs is
lacking, and the effect of the mcAEs on health related
quality of life (HRQoL) and adherence remains poorly
understood. The aesthetic discomfort, which is frequently
associated with itching or painful skin or nails,
can lead to a decreased HRQoL and to dose reduction
or discontinuation of anticancer treatment. As up till now
the number of controlled studies from which evidence
based advice for these mcAEs can be formulated, is very limited, we established 2 clinical studies. The first
clinical trial is the BeCet trial. This is a phase III randomized
double-blind trial of dexpanthenol (Bepanthen®)
cream versus cetomacrogol cream in the prevention of
papulopustular eruption in patients receiving EGFRIs
(NCT01136005). The second clinical trial is the COMTT
trial, a phase III randomized double-blind cross-over trial
of supersaturated calcium-phosphate rinse (Caphosol®)
versus NaCl 0.9% in the relief of oral complaints in patients
receiving targeted therapy (NCT01265810).
Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Oncologie. 12/2013; 10(8):343-347.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although quality of life (QoL) is recognized as an important indicator of the course of a disease, it has rarely been addressed in studies evaluating the outcome of care for patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). This study primarily aimed to evaluate the QoL of patients with acute PE in comparison to population norms and to patients with other cardiopulmonary diseases, using a generic QoL questionnaire. Secondary, the impact of time period from diagnosis and clinical patient characteristics on QoL was assessed, using a disease-specific questionnaire.
QoL was assessed in 109 consecutive out-patients with a history of objectively confirmed acute PE (mean age 60.4±15.0years, 56 females), using the generic Short Form-36 (SF-36) and the disease specific Pulmonary Embolism Quality of Life questionnaire (PEmb-QoL). The score of the SF-36 were compared with scores of the general Dutch population and reference populations with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), congestive heart failure (CHF), a history of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), derived from the literature. Scores on the SF-35 and PEmb-QoL were used to evaluate QoL in the short-term and long-term clinical course of patients with acute PE. In addition, we examined correlations between PEmb-QoL scores and clinical patient characteristics.
Compared to scores of the general Dutch population, scores of PE patients were worse on several subscales of the SF-36 (social functioning, role emotional, general health (P<0.001), role physical and vitality (P<0.05)). Compared to patients with COPD and CHF, patients with PE scored higher (=better) on all subscales of the SF-36 (P≤0.004) and had scores comparable with patients with AMI the previous year. Comparing intermediately assessed QoL with QoL assessed in long-term follow-up, PE patients scored worse on SF-36 subscales: physical functioning, social functioning, vitality (P<0.05), and on the PEmb-QoL subscales: emotional complaints and limitations in ADL (P≤0.03). Clinical characteristics did not correlate with QoL as measured by PEmb-QoL.
Our study demonstrated an impaired QoL in patients after treatment of PE. The results of this study provided more knowledge about QoL in patients treated for PE.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) mutation carriers are predisposed for developing paragangliomas. This study aimed to explore illness perceptions, risk perception and disease-related worry in these individuals. All consecutive SDHB and SDHD mutation carriers followed at the Department of Endocrinology of the Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC), a tertiary referral center, were eligible for inclusion. Illness perceptions were assessed using the validated Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised and compared to reference populations. Risk perception and worry were measured by two items each and associations with illness perceptions explored. Twenty SDHB and 118 SDHD mutation carriers responded. Compared with various reference groups, SDH mutation carriers perceived less controllability of their condition. SDHB mutation carriers considered their condition to be less chronic in nature (p = 0.005) and perceived more personal (p = 0.018) and treatment control (p = 0.001) than SDHD mutation carriers. Mutation carriers with manifest disease reported more negative illness perceptions and a higher risk perception of developing subsequent tumors than asymptomatic mutation carriers. Illness perceptions, risk perception and disease-related worry were strongly correlated. Risk perception and disease-related worry may be assessed through illness perceptions. The development of interventions targeting illness perceptions may provide tools for genetic counseling.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Context:Paraganglioma (PGL) patients and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) gene mutation carriers at risk for PGLs have a decreased quality of life (QoL). QoL may be affected by the strategy an individual uses when dealing with a stressful situation, ie, specific coping styles. Understanding the various approaches to coping may allow the development of targeted interventions to improve patient QoL.Objective:The objective of the study was to assess coping styles in PGL patients and SDH mutation carriers.Design:This was a cross-sectional study.Setting:The study was conducted at a tertiary referral center.Patients and Methods:Coping styles were assessed using the Utrecht Coping List. The results from the study cohort were compared with a control group and data derived from the literature. Potential differences in coping styles between the various SDH mutation carriers and PGL patients without an SDH mutation were explored.Results:Of the 174 patients who responded, 122 were SDHD, 25 SDHB, and 2 SDHC mutation carriers. An additional 25 patients lacked an SDH mutation. They recruited 100 peers as controls. Compared with the general population, the study cohort was more avoidant of problems (P < .001) and reported less expression of emotion (P < .01). Compared with patients with other conditions, they sought more social support (P < .001). There were no significant differences in coping styles between the various categories of mutation carriers or PGL patients lacking a mutation.Conclusions:Coping styles of PGL patients and SDH mutation carriers differ from those of control and reference groups and include an avoidant coping style and a lack of emotional expression.
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 08/2013; · 6.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined the effectiveness of low-intensity, practice-tailored training for general practitioners (GPs) aimed at personal and organizational barriers that arise when routinely asking patients' smoking status, advising to quit, and arranging follow-up.
A cluster-randomized controlled trial with 49 GPs and 3,401 patients (677 smokers). Two patient groups participated: 2,068 patients (433 smokers) at baseline and 1,333 patients (244 smokers) postintervention. At follow-up, 225 smokers of both groups participated. The primary outcome was GP smoking cessation counseling (asking about smoking status, advising to quit, prescribing pharmacotherapy, and referring for behavioral support). Secondary outcomes were GPs' attitudes toward smoking cessation care, patients' intention to quit, and long-term quit rates. Outcomes were measured with GP self-report and patient report.
Patients of trained GPs reported more often being asked about smoking behavior compared to patients of untrained GPs (OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.45-2.60). According to GP self-report, the training increased the provision of quit-smoking advices (difference 0.56 advice per day; 95% CI = 0.13-0.98) and the ability and intention of providing smoking cessation care. We found no effect on GPs' arrangement of follow-up, smokers' intention to quit, and long-term quit rates.
After 1 hour of training, we found significant differences between trained and untrained GPs on the frequency in which they asked about smoking (patient reported) and advised smokers to quit (GP self-reported). The training did not increase prescriptions of pharmacotherapy, referrals to behavioral support, or quit rates. Future training methods should focus on the GPs' ability, tools, and skills to arrange follow-up to ensure intensive smoking cessation support.
Nicotine & Tobacco Research 07/2013; · 2.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fifty years ago, doctors did not tell their patients they had cancer. Improved patient-physician communication, feminization of the medical profession and increased patient empowerment may have improved matters. However, death is still a subject many doctors find difficult to deal with. We explore this issue in the context of medical humanities. In order to examine the different strategies in coping with illness and death, we compared illness perceptions in a literary text, W;t by Margaret Edson, about a woman who dies of ovarian cancer, with a personal narrative of a patient with ovarian cancer. Although there are many differences between the two patients in historical and cultural background, similarities were found in the way they cope with illness and death anxiety. Insight into illness perceptions and coping strategies of patients with cancer is important for raising awareness in clinicians, leading to improved understanding and better treatment of patients.
Journal of Cancer Education 07/2013; · 0.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Understanding the determinants of Crohn's disease (CD) patients' health-related quality of life (HRQOL) may facilitate interventions that improve HRQOL. Therefore, we systematically assessed determinants of HRQOL in adult CD patients. METHODS: The databases PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, PsycINFO and CINAHL were searched for English abstracts, related to socio-demographic, psychological, clinical and treatment-related determinants of HRQOL in CD disease. Two independent reviewers extracted study characteristics and assessed the methodological quality according the criteria of Hayden et al. The main outcome was the number of studies showing a statistically significant association between the above-mentioned determinants and HRQOL. A meta-analysis was performed to quantify the relationship between disease activity and HRQOL. RESULTS: Of the 2060 articles identified, 29 eligible studies were included. The majority of studies were cross-sectional and had a moderate to high quality. Data on psychological determinants were scarce. Work disability, increased disease activity, number of relapses, corticosteroid treatment and hospitalization rate were significantly associated with a lower HRQOL in the majority of included studies. Biological treatment positively influenced HRQOL. The pooled data on the association between disease activity and HRQOL resulted in a weighed mean correlation coefficient of -0.61 (CI -0.65 to -0.57). CONCLUSIONS: HRQOL of adult CD patients is consistently determined by markers of active disease, including work disability, increased disease activity, number of relapses, biological treatment and hospitalization rate. As disease activity contributed to only 37% of HRQOL, there remains a need for additional, possibly modifiable, determinants. These determinants may refine possibilities to improve HRQOL.
Journal of Crohn s and Colitis 06/2013; · 3.56 Impact Factor