[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an immune-mediated disorder that can cause fatal arterial or venous thrombosis/thromboembolism. Immune complexes consisting of platelet factor 4 (PF4), heparin and PF4/heparin-reactive antibodies are central to the pathogenesis of HIT. However, the B-cell origin of HIT antibody production is not known. Here we show that anti-PF4/heparin antibodies are readily generated in wild-type mice upon challenge with PF4/heparin complexes, and that antibody production is severely impaired in B cell-specific Notch2-deficient mice that lack marginal zone (MZ) B cells. As expected, Notch2-deficient mice responded normally to challenge with T cell-dependent antigen NP-CGG but not T cell-independent antigen TNP-Ficoll. In addition, wild-type but not Notch2-deficient B cells plus B cell-depleted wild-type splenocytes adoptively transferred into B cell-deficient μMT mice responded to PF4/heparin complex challenge. PF4/heparin-specific antibodies produced by wild-type mice were IgG2b and IgG3 isotypes. An in vitro class-switching assay showed that MZ B cells were capable of producing antibodies of IgG2b and IgG3 isotypes. Lastly, MZ, but not follicular (FO), B cells adoptively transferred into B cell-deficient μMT mice responded to PF4/heparin complex challenge by producing PF4/heparin-specific antibodies of IgG2b and IgG3 isotypes. Taken together, these data demonstrate that MZ B cells are critical for PF4/heparin-specific antibody production.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anergy is a key physiological mechanism for restraining self-reactive B cells. A marked portion of peripheral B cells are anergic B cells that largely depend on BAFF for survival. BAFF activates the canonical and noncanonical NF-κB pathways, both of which are required for B cell survival. In this study we report that deficiency of the adaptor protein B cell lymphoma 10 (Bcl10) impaired the ability of BAFF to support B cell survival in vitro, and it specifically increased apoptosis in anergic B cells in vivo, dramatically reducing anergic B cells in mice. Bcl10-dependent survival of self-reactive anergic B cells was confirmed in the Ig hen egg lysozyme/soluble hen egg lysozyme double-transgenic mouse model of B cell anergy. Furthermore, we found that BAFF stimulation induced Bcl10 association with IκB kinase β, a key component of the canonical NF-κB pathway. Consistently, Bcl10-deficient B cells were impaired in BAFF-induced IκBα phosphorylation and formation of nuclear p50/c-Rel complexes. Bcl10-deficient B cells also displayed reduced expression of NF-κB2/p100, severely reducing BAFF-induced nuclear accumulation of noncanonical p52/RelB complexes. Consequently, Bcl10-deficient B cells failed to express Bcl-x(L), a BAFF-induced NF-κB target gene. Taken together, these data demonstrate that Bcl10 controls BAFF-induced canonical NF-κB activation directly and noncanonical NF-κB activation indirectly. The BAFF-R/Bcl10/NF-κB signaling axis plays a critical role in peripheral B cell tolerance by regulating the survival of self-reactive anergic B cells.
The Journal of Immunology 10/2012; · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One of the important signaling events following TCR engagement is activation of phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ). PLCγ has two isoforms, PLCγ1 and PLCγ2. It is known that PLCγ1 is important for TCR signaling and TCR-mediated T cell selection and functions, whereas PLCγ2 is critical for BCR signal transduction and BCR-mediated B cell maturation and functions. In this study, we report that PLCγ2 was expressed in primary T cells, and became associated with linker for activated T cells and Src homology 2-domain containing leukocyte protein of 76 kDa and activated upon TCR stimulation. PLCγ1/PLCγ2 double-deficient T cells displayed further block from CD4 and CD8 double-positive to single-positive transition compared with PLCγ1 single-deficient T cells. TCR-mediated proliferation was further impaired in PLCγ1/PLCγ2 double-deficient T cells compared with PLCγ1 single-deficient T cells. TCR-mediated signal transduction, including Ca²⁺ mobilization and Erk activation, was further impaired in PLCγ1/PLCγ2 double-deficient relative to PLCγ1 single-deficient T cells. In addition, in HY TCR transgenic mouse model, thymic positive and negative selections were reduced in PLCγ1 heterozygous- and PLCγ2 homozygous-deficient (PLCγ1⁺/⁻PLCγ2⁻/⁻) relative to wild-type, PLCγ2 single-deficient (PLCγ2⁻/⁻), or PLCγ1 heterozygous-deficient (PLCγ1⁺/⁻) mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate that PLCγ2 participates in TCR signal transduction and plays a role in T cell selection.
The Journal of Immunology 07/2012; 189(5):2326-32. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent work has identified a new subset of CD4(+) T cells named as Tfh cells that are localized in germinal centers and critical in germinal center formation. Tfh cell differentiation is regulated by IL-6 and IL-21, possibly via STAT3 factor, and B cell lymphoma 6 (Bcl6) is specifically expressed in Tfh cells and required for their lineage specification. In the current study, we characterized the role of STAT5 in Tfh cell development. We found that a constitutively active form of STAT5 effectively inhibited Tfh differentiation by suppressing the expression of Tfh-associated factors (CXC motif) receptor 5 (CXCR5), musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma (c-Maf), Bcl6, basic leucine zipper transcription factor ATF-like (Batf), and IL-21, and STAT5 deficiency greatly enhanced Tfh gene expression. Importantly, STAT5 regulated the expression of Tfh cell suppressor factor B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp-1); STAT5 deficiency impaired Blimp-1 expression and resulted in elevated expression of Tfh-specific genes. Similarly, inhibition of IL-2 potentiated Tfh generation, associated with dampened Blimp-1 expression; Blimp-1 overexpression inhibited Tfh gene expression in Stat5-deficient T cells, suggesting that the IL-2/STAT5 axis functions to regulate Blimp-1 expression. In vivo, deletion of STAT5 in CD4(+) T cells resulted in enhanced development of Tfh cells and germinal center B cells and led to an impairment of B cell tolerance in a well defined mouse tolerance model. Taken together, this study demonstrates that STAT5 controls Tfh differentiation.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2012; 287(14):11234-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mice and rats lacking the guanosine nucleotide-binding protein Gimap5 exhibit peripheral T cell lymphopenia, and Gimap5 can bind to Bcl-2. We show that Gimap5-deficient mice showed progressive multilineage failure of bone marrow and hematopoiesis. Compared with wild-type counterparts, Gimap5-deficient mice contained more hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) but fewer lineage-committed hematopoietic progenitors. The reduction of progenitors and differentiated cells in Gimap5-deficient mice resulted in a loss of HSC quiescence. Gimap5-deficient HSCs and progenitors underwent more apoptosis and exhibited defective long-term repopulation capacity. Absence of Gimap5 disrupted interaction between Mcl-1-which is essential for HSC survival-and HSC70, enhanced Mcl-1 degradation, and compromised mitochondrial integrity in progenitor cells. Thus, Gimap5 is an important stabilizer of mouse hematopoietic progenitor cell survival.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 05/2011; 208(5):923-35. · 13.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The N-terminal nuclear export sequence (NES) of inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) alpha (IκBα) promotes NF-κB export from the cell nucleus to the cytoplasm, but the physiological role of this export regulation remains unknown. Here we report the derivation and analysis of genetically targeted mice harboring a germline mutation in IκBα NES. Mature B cells in the mutant mice displayed nuclear accumulation of inactive IκBα complexes containing a NF-κB family member, cRel, causing their spatial separation from the cytoplasmic IκB kinase. This resulted in severe reductions in constitutive and canonical NF-κB activities, synthesis of p100 and RelB NF-κB members, noncanonical NF-κB activity, NF-κB target gene induction, and proliferation and survival responses in B cells. Consequently, mice displayed defective B cell maturation, antibody production, and formation of secondary lymphoid organs and tissues. Thus, IκBα nuclear export is essential to maintain constitutive, canonical, and noncanonical NF-κB activation potentials in mature B cells in vivo.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phospholipase Cgamma1 (PLCgamma1) is an important signaling effector of T cell receptor (TCR). To investigate the role of PLCgamma1 in T cell biology, we generated and examined mice with T cell-specific deletion of PLCgamma1. We demonstrate that PLCgamma1 deficiency affects positive and negative selection, significantly reduces single-positive thymocytes and peripheral T cells, and impairs TCR-induced proliferation and cytokine production, and the activation of ERK, JNK, AP-1, NFAT, and NF-kappaB. Importantly, PLCgamma1 deficiency impairs the development and function of FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells, causing inflammatory/autoimmune symptoms. Therefore, PLCgamma1 is essential for T cell development, activation, and tolerance.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 02/2010; 207(2):309-18. · 13.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transcription factor Foxp3 is essential for the development of functional, natural Treg (nTreg), which plays a prominent role in self-tolerance. Suppressive Foxp3(+) Treg cells can be generated from naïve T cells ex vivo, following TCR and TGF-beta1 stimulations. However, the molecular contributions from the different arms of these pathways leading to Foxp3 expression are not fully understood. TGF-beta1-activated Smad3 plays a major role in the expression of Foxp3, since TGF-beta1-induced-Treg generation from Smad3(-/-) mice is markedly reduced and abolished by inactivating Smad2. In the TCR pathway, deletion of Bcl10, which activates NF-kappaB, markedly reduces both IL-2 and Foxp3 production. However, partial rescue of Foxp3 expression occurs on addition of exogenous IL-2. TGF-beta1 significantly attenuates NF-kappaB binding to the Foxp3 promoter, while inducing Foxp3 expression. Furthermore, deletion of p50, a NF-kappaB subunit, results in increased Foxp3 expression despite a decline in the IL-2 production. We posit several TCR-NF-kappaB pathways, some increasing (Bcl10-IL-2-Foxp3) while others decreasing (p50-Foxp3) Foxp3 expression, with the former predominating. A better understanding of Foxp3 regulation could be useful in dissecting the cause of Treg dysfunction in several autoimmune diseases and for generating more potent TGF-beta1-induced-Treg cells for therapeutic purposes.
European Journal of Immunology 09/2009; 39(9):2571-83. · 4.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The kinase TAK1 is essential for T-cell receptor (TCR)-mediated nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation and T-cell development. However, the role of TAK1 in B-cell receptor (BCR)-mediated NF-kappaB activation and B-cell development is not clear. Here we show that B-cell-specific deletion of TAK1 impaired the transition from transitional type 2 to mature follicular (FO) B cells and caused a marked decrease of marginal zone (MZ) B cells. TAK1-deficient B cells exhibited an increase of BCR-induced apoptosis and impaired proliferation in response to BCR ligation. Importantly, TAK1-deficient B cells failed to activate NF-kappaB after BCR stimulation. Thus, TAK1 is critical for B-cell maturation and BCR-induced NF-kappaB activation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phospholipase Cγ2 (PLCγ2) is an important signaling effector of multiple receptors in the immune system. Here we show that
PLCγ2-deficient mice displayed impaired lymph node organogenesis but normal splenic structure and Peyer's patches. Receptor
activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) is a tumor necrosis factor family cytokine and is essential for lymph node organogenesis.
Importantly, PLCγ2 deficiency severely impaired RANKL signaling, resulting in marked reduction of RANKL-induced activation
of MAPKs, p38 and JNK, but not ERK. The lack of PLCγ2 markedly diminished RANKL-induced activation of NF-κB, AP-1, and NFATc1.
Moreover, PLCγ2 deficiency impaired RANKL-mediated biological function, leading to failure of the PLCγ2-deficient bone marrow
macrophage precursors to differentiate into osteoclasts after RANKL stimulation. Re-introduction of PLCγ2 but not PLCγ1 restores
RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation of PLCγ2-deficient bone marrow-derived monocyte/macrophage. Taken together, PLCγ2
is essential for RANK signaling, and its deficiency leads to defective lymph node organogenesis and osteoclast differentiation.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2008; 283(43):29593-29601. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phospholipase Cgamma2 (PLCgamma2) is an important signaling effector of multiple receptors in the immune system. Here we show that PLCgamma2-deficient mice displayed impaired lymph node organogenesis but normal splenic structure and Peyer's patches. Receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) is a tumor necrosis factor family cytokine and is essential for lymph node organogenesis. Importantly, PLCgamma2 deficiency severely impaired RANKL signaling, resulting in marked reduction of RANKL-induced activation of MAPKs, p38 and JNK, but not ERK. The lack of PLCgamma2 markedly diminished RANKL-induced activation of NF-kappaB, AP-1, and NFATc1. Moreover, PLCgamma2 deficiency impaired RANKL-mediated biological function, leading to failure of the PLCgamma2-deficient bone marrow macrophage precursors to differentiate into osteoclasts after RANKL stimulation. Re-introduction of PLCgamma2 but not PLCgamma1 restores RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation of PLCgamma2-deficient bone marrow-derived monocyte/macrophage. Taken together, PLCgamma2 is essential for RANK signaling, and its deficiency leads to defective lymph node organogenesis and osteoclast differentiation.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2008; 283(43):29593-601. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have demonstrated that Bcl10 (B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 10) is essential for T cell receptor-mediated NF-kappaB activation and subsequent proliferation and interleukin 2 (IL2) production. However, here we demonstrate that, contrary to expectations, Bcl10 is differentially required for T cell activation, including for both proliferation and cytokine production. When CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were divided based on expression levels of CD44, which distinguishes naïve cells (CD44lo) versus those that are antigen-experienced (CD44hi), IL2 production by and proliferation of CD4+CD44lo naïve cells and both subpopulations of CD8+ T cells were clearly Bcl10-dependent, whereas these same functional properties of CD4+CD44hi T cells occurred largely independent of Bcl10. As with the other subpopulations of T cells, CD4+CD44hi T cells did not activate the NF-kappaB pathway in the absence of Bcl10; nevertheless, these CD4+CD44hi antigen-experienced T cells efficiently secreted IL2 after T cell receptor stimulation. Strikingly, therefore, T cell receptor-mediated IL2 production in these cells is NF-kappaB-independent. Our studies suggest that antigen-experienced CD4+ T cells differ from their naïve counterparts and from CD8+ T cells in their ability to achieve activation independent of the Bcl10/NF-kappaB pathway.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2008; 283(36):24392-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Class IA phosphotidylinositol-3-kinases (PI3Ks) are a family of p85/p110 heterodimeric lipid kinases that are important in regulating signaling events in B and T cells. However, their role in natural killer (NK) cells is not understood. Here, using mice that lack the regulatory p85alpha subunit and its alternatively spliced variants p55alpha/p50alpha (collectively termed as p85alpha(-/-)), we defined the role of PI3K in NK cell development and function. p85alpha(-/-) mice had impaired lineage commitment leading to reduced NK cellularity in the bone marrow and liver. p85alpha(-/-) NK cells showed a defective Ly49 subset specification and a decreased expression of CD43. Lack of p85alpha severely reduced the NK-mediated cytotoxicity against tumor cells representing 'induced-self' and 'missing-self'. More importantly, NKG2D and NK1.1 receptor-mediated cytokine and chemokine generation was significantly compromised in p85alpha(-/-) NK cells. These results reveal a previously unrecognized role of p85alpha in the development, terminal maturation, cytokine/chemokine generation and tumor clearance of NK cells.
Genes and immunity 07/2008; 9(6):522-35. · 4.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: B-cell development is orchestrated by complex signaling networks. Rap1 is a member of the Ras superfamily of small GTP-binding proteins and has 2 isoforms, Rap1a and Rap1b. Although Rap1 has been suggested to have an important role in a variety of cellular processes, no direct evidence demonstrates a role for Rap1 in B-cell biology. In this study, we found that Rap1b was the dominant isoform of Rap1 in B cells. We discovered that Rap1b deficiency in mice barely affected early development of B cells but markedly reduced marginal zone (MZ) B cells in the spleen and mature B cells in peripheral and mucosal lymph nodes. Rap1b-deficient B cells displayed normal survival and proliferation in vivo and in vitro. However, Rap1b-deficient B cells had impaired adhesion and reduced chemotaxis in vitro, and lessened homing to lymph nodes in vivo. Furthermore, we found that Rap1b deficiency had no marked effect on LPS-, BCR-, or SDF-1-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and AKT but clearly impaired SDF-1-mediated activation of Pyk-2, a key regulator of SDF-1-mediated B-cell migration. Thus, we have discovered a critical and distinct role of Rap1b in mature B-cell trafficking and development of MZ B cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Class IA phosphotidylinositol-3-kinases (PI3Ks) are a family of p85/p110 heterodimeric lipid kinases that are important in regulating signaling events in B and T cells. However, their role in natural killer (NK) cells is not understood. Here, using mice that lack the regulatory p85α subunit and its alternatively spliced variants p55α/p50α (collectively termed as p85α−/−), we defined the role of PI3K in NK cell development and function. p85α−/− mice had impaired lineage commitment leading to reduced NK cellularity in the bone marrow and liver. p85α−/− NK cells showed a defective Ly49 subset specification and a decreased expression of CD43. Lack of p85α severely reduced the NK-mediated cytotoxicity against tumor cells representing ‘induced-self’ and ‘missing-self’. More importantly, NKG2D and NK1.1 receptor-mediated cytokine and chemokine generation was significantly compromised in p85α−/− NK cells. These results reveal a previously unrecognized role of p85α in the development, terminal maturation, cytokine/chemokine generation and tumor clearance of NK cells.
Genes and Immunity - GENES IMMUN. 01/2008; 9(6):522-535.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phospholipase Cgamma2 (PLCgamma2) is critical for pre-B-cell receptor (pre-BCR) and BCR signaling. Current studies discovered that PLCgamma2-deficient mice had reduced immunoglobulin lambda (Iglambda) light-chain usage throughout B-cell maturation stages, including transitional type 1 (T1), transitional type 2 (T2), and mature follicular B cells. The reduction of Iglambda rearrangement by PLCgamma2 deficiency was not due to specifically increased apoptosis or decreased proliferation of mutant Iglambda+ B cells, as lack of PLCgamma2 exerted a similar effect on apoptosis and proliferation of both Iglambda+ and Igkappa+ B cells. Moreover, PLCgamma2-deficient IgHEL transgenic B cells exhibited an impairment of antigen-induced receptor editing among both the endogenous lambda and kappa loci in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, PLCgamma2 deficiency impaired BCR-induced expression of IRF-4 and IRF-8, the two transcription factors critical for lambda and kappa light-chain rearrangements. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the PLCgamma2 signaling pathway plays a role in activation of light-chain loci and contributes to receptor editing.
Molecular and Cellular Biology 10/2007; 27(17):5957-67. · 5.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activating receptors such as NKG2D and Ly49D mediate a multitude of effector functions including cytotoxicity and cytokine generation in NK cells. However, specific signaling events that are responsible for the divergence of distinct effector functions have yet to be determined. In this study, we show that lack of caspase recruitment domain-containing protein Bcl10 significantly affected receptor-mediated cytokine and chemokine generation, but not cytotoxicity against tumor cells representing "missing-self" or "induced-self." Lack of Bcl10 completely abrogated the generation of GM-CSF and chemokines and it significantly reduced the generation of IFN-gamma (>75%) in NK cells. Commitment, development, and terminal maturation of NK cells were largely unaffected in the absence of Bcl10. Although IL-2-activated NK cells could mediate cytotoxicity to the full extent, the ability of the freshly isolated NK cells to mediate cytotoxicity was somewhat reduced. Therefore, we conclude that the Carma1-Bcl10-Malt1 signaling axis is critical for cytokine and chemokine generation, although it is dispensable for cytotoxic granule release depending on the activation state of NK cells. These results indicate that Bcl10 represents an exclusive "molecular switch" that links the upstream receptor-mediated signaling to cytokine and chemokine generations.
The Journal of Immunology 09/2007; 179(6):3752-62. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The two closely related Stat5 (Stat5A and Stat5B) proteins are activated by a broad spectrum of cytokines. However, with the complication of the involvement of Stat5A/5B in stem cell function, the role of Stat5A/5B in the development and function of lymphocytes, especially B cells, is not fully understood. In this study, we demonstrated that Stat5A/5B(-/-) fetal liver cells had severe diminution of B cell progenitors but clearly had myeloid progenitors. Consistently, the mutant fetal liver cells could give rise to hemopoietic progenitors and myeloid cells but not B cells beyond pro-B cell progenitors in lethally irradiated wild-type or Jak3(-/-) mice. Deletion of Stat5A/5B in vitro directly impaired IL-7-mediated B cell expansion. Of note, reintroduction of Stat5A back into Stat5A/5B(-/-) fetal liver cells restored their abilities to develop B cells. Importantly, CD19-Cre-mediated deletion of Stat5A/5B in the B cell compartment specifically impaired early B cell development but not late B cell maturation. Moreover, the B cell-specific deletion of Stat5A/5B did not impair splenic B cell survival, proliferation, and Ig production. Taken together, these data demonstrate that Stat5A/5B directly control IL-7-mediated early B cell development but are not required for B cell maturation and Ig production.
The Journal of Immunology 08/2007; 179(2):1068-79. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bcl10 (B-cell lymphoma 10) is an adaptor protein comprised of an N-terminal caspase recruitment domain and a C-terminal serine/threonine-rich domain. Bcl10 plays a critical role in antigen receptor-mediated NF-kappaB activation and lymphocyte development and functions. Our current study has discovered that T-cell activation induced monophosphorylation and biphosphorylation of Bcl10 and has identified S138 within Bcl10 as one of the T-cell receptor-induced phosphorylation sites. Alteration of S138 to an alanine residue impaired T-cell activation-induced ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of Bcl10, ultimately resulting in prolongation of TCR-mediated NF-kappaB activation and enhancement of interleukin-2 production. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that phosphorylation of Bcl10 at S138 down-regulates Bcl10 protein levels and thus negatively regulates T-cell receptor-mediated NF-kappaB activation.
Molecular and Cellular Biology 08/2007; 27(14):5235-45. · 5.37 Impact Factor