Maurilio Marcacci

Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bolonia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy

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Publications (401)912.6 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The purpose of this study was to perform a mid-long-term clinical and radiographic evaluation of the results obtained in patients older than 75 years treated with minimally invasive unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). The hypothesis was that UKA is a viable solution for the definitive treatment of localized disease in this age group, with good results and a low failure rate. Methods: An all-poly tibial component UKA was applied with a minimally invasive technique. Sixty-seven knees in patients with a minimum age of 75 years were evaluated at mean 9 years' follow-up. The Oxford knee score, Knee Society Score, WOMAC score, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain self-assessment and range of motion (ROM) were determined, as well as weight-bearing antero-posterior and laterolateral radiographs. Results: All clinical scores, as well as VAS and ROM, improved significantly at 9-year follow-up, and the outcome was considered good or excellent in 92.6 % of the patients. Radiographic results showed that both tibial plateau angle and posterior tibial slope angles were maintained, whereas femoro-tibial angle was significantly changed at follow-up. Further analysis showed no significant correlation between clinical scores and body mass index, whereas the clinical outcome was correlated with the ROM obtained. Only two failures and one major post-operative complication were observed. Conclusions: UKA is a viable option for treating unicompartmental knee osteoarthritis. With the proper indications and an accurate technique UKA may be indicated also in very elderly patients with reduced complications and morbidity, and excellent survivorship.
    Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00402-015-2323-6 · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Among the current therapeutic approaches for the regeneration of damaged articular cartilage, none has yet proven to offer results comparable to those of native hyaline cartilage. Recently, it has been claimed that the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) provides greater regenerative potential than differentiated cells, such as chondrocytes. Among the different kinds of MSCs available, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) are emerging due to their abundancy and easiness to harvest. However, their mechanism of action and potential for cartilage regeneration are still under investigation, and many other aspects still need to be clarified. The aim of this systematic review is to give an overview of in vivo studies dealing with ADSCs, by summarizing the main evidence for the treatment of cartilage disease of the knee.
    Stem cell International 08/2015; 2015(9859):1-13. DOI:10.1155/2015/597652 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The science and surgery of the meniscus have evolved significantly over time. Surgeons and scientists always enjoy looking forward to novel therapies. However, as part of the ongoing effort at optimizing interventions and outcomes, it may also be useful to reflect on important milestones from the past. The aim of the present manuscript was to explore the history of meniscal surgery across the ages, from ancient times to the twenty-first century. Herein, some of the investigations of the pioneers in orthopaedics are described, to underline how their work has influenced the management of the injured meniscus in modern times. Level of evidence V.
    Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00167-015-3717-2 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human platelets are a rich reservoir of molecules that promote regenerative processes and microbicidal activity. This activity might be increased by concentration in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) products and modulated by the presence of leukocytes. Despite extensive use in clinical procedures, only few studies have investigated PRP's real microbicidal potential. Therefore, this study aimed at comparing the in vitro microbicidal activity of platelets and leukocyte-enriched PRP (L-PRP) to pure platelet-rich plasma (P-PRP) and the contribution of leukocytes to microbicidal properties. Antimicrobial effects of P- and L-PRP were tested against Escherichia Coli, Staphylococcus Aureus, Klebsiella Pneumoniae, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa and Enterococcus Faecalis. Furthermore, L-PRP was frozen (L-PRP cryo) to assess whether the preparation maintained in vitro characteristics. Microbicidal proteins released by the three preparations were also evaluated. L-PRP, L-PRP cryo and P-PRP generally induced comparable bacterial growth inhibition for up to 4 h' incubation, range 1-4 log. MIP-1α, RANTES, GRO-α, IL-8, NAP-2, SDF-1α and IL-6 showed strong microbicidal potential. We found in vitro antibacterial activity of L-PRP and P-PRP and the possibility to cryopreserve L-PRP, without important changes to its effectiveness; similar microbicidal activity between preparations containing or not leukocytes; and the contribution of three new molecules (NAP-2, SDF-1α and IL-6).
    BMC Microbiology 07/2015; 15(1):149. DOI:10.1186/s12866-015-0482-9 · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Estimating the main axis of rotation (AoR) of a human joint represents an important issue in biomechanics. This study compared three formal methods used to estimate functional AoR, namely a cylindrical fitting method, a mean helical axis transformation, and a symmetrical axis approach. These methods were tested on 106 subjects undergoing navigated total knee arthroplasty. AoR orientation in 3D and in the frontal and coronal planes provided by each method was compared to the transepicondylar axis direction. Although all the methods resulted effective, significant differences were identified among them, relatively to the orientation in 3D and in the frontal plane projection. This was probably due to the presence of secondary rotations during the first degrees of knee flexion.
    Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering 07/2015; DOI:10.1080/10255842.2015.1042464 · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An increasing number of patients undergo revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, with the intention of returning to sport being a major indication. The aim of this study is to assess the available evidence for clinical improvement and return to sport, to understand the real potential of this procedure in regaining functional activity, and to facilitate improved counselling of patients regarding the expected outcome after revision ACL reconstruction. The search was conducted on the PubMed database. Articles reporting clinical results for revision ACL reconstruction were included. A meta-analysis was performed on return to sport, and results were compared to the literature on primary ACL reconstruction. Other specific clinical outcomes (Lysholm, Tegner, IKDC Objective scores) were also included in the meta-analysis. Of the 503 identified records, a total of 59 studies involving 5365 patients were included in the qualitative data synthesis. Only 31 articles reported the rate of return to sport. Whereas 73 % of good objective results and satisfactory subjective results were documented, 57 % of patients did not return to the same level of sport activity, significantly inferior to that of a primary procedure. The real potential of revision ACL reconstruction should not be overestimated due to the low number of patients able to return to their previous activity level, significantly inferior with respect to that reported for primary ACL reconstruction. This finding will help physicians in the clinical practice providing realistic expectations to the patients. Future studies should focus on participation-based outcome measures such as return to sport and in strategies to improve the results in terms of return to previous activities after revision ACL reconstruction. Systematic review and meta-analysis including Level IV studies, Level IV.
    Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00167-015-3702-9 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Posterolateral corner structures functionally interact with the ACL. The aim of this study was to investigate the capability of an isolated ACL reconstruction control laxity parameters in a knee with combined ACL and PLC and the increase in terms of laxity produced by the resection of the PC in an ACL-deficient knee. An in vitro cadaveric study was performed on seven knees. The joints were analysed in the following conditions: intact, after ACL resection, after popliteus complex resection, after ACL reconstruction and after LCL. Testing laxity parameters were recorded with an intra-operative navigation system and defined as: AP displacement at 30° and 90° of flexion (AP30 and AP90) applying a 130 N load and IE at 30° and 90° of knee flexion with a 5 N load. Sectioning the ACL significantly increased the AP30 at 30° and 90° of knee flexion (p < 0.05). At 90° of knee flexion, the resection of the LCL determined a significant increase in terms of AP laxity (p < 0.05). At 90° has been found a significant difference for the IE laxity (p < 0.05) after PC resection. Sectioning the LCL produced a significant increase in IE laxity at 30° and 90° of knee flexion (p < 0.05). Isolated ACL reconstruction is able to control the AP laxity with a combined complete lesion of the PLC at 30° of knee flexion, but not at higher angle of knee flexion. Considering the IE rotations, the reconstruction was not sufficient not even to control a partial lesion of the PLC. These findings suggest that additional surgical procedures should be considerate even when facing combined PLC lesion.
    Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00167-015-3696-3 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Allowing a patient to return to sport and unrestricted physical activity after ACL injury and reconstruction is one of the most challenging and difficult decisions an orthopaedic surgeon has to make. Indeed, many factors have to be taken into account before it can be considered safe for a patients to load a reconstructed knee. The current literature contains plenty of studies aimed at evaluating return to sport, and the factors that may affect or predict this outcome, e.g. intrinsic factors like genetics, biology, type of lesion, anatomical features, motivation and psychology, and extrinsic factors such as graft type, surgical technique, rehabilitation protocols, and biological support. It is possible that awareness of these issues could help the clinician to optimise outcomes, and possibly avoid failures too, although as yet no universal criteria for resuming sport have been produced.
    07/2015; 3(1):25-30.
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    ABSTRACT: In the past few years, researchers have focused on the design and development of three-dimensional (3D) advanced scaffolds, which offer significant advantages in terms of cell performance. The introduction of magnetic features into scaffold technology could offer innovative opportunities to control cell populations within 3D microenvironments, with the potential to enhance their use in tissue regeneration or in cell-based analysis. In the present study, 3D fully biodegradable and magnetic nanocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering, consisting of a poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) matrix reinforced with iron-doped hydroxyapatite (FeHA) nanoparticles, were designed and manufactured using a rapid prototyping technique. The performances of these novel 3D PCL/FeHA scaffolds were assessed through a combination of theoretical evaluation, experimental in vitro analyses and in vivo testing in a rabbit animal model. The results from mechanical compression tests were consistent with FEM simulations. The in vitro results showed that the cell growth in the magnetized scaffolds was 2.2-fold greater than that in non-magnetized ones. In vivo experiments further suggested that, after only 4 weeks, the PCL/FeHA scaffolds were completely filled with newly formed bone, proving a good level of histocompatibility. All of the results suggest that the introduction of magnetic features into biocompatible materials may confer significant advantages in terms of 3D cell assembly.
    Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology 07/2015; 11(7):1236-1246. DOI:10.1166/jbn.2015.2065 · 5.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A deficiency of posterolateral structures significantly increases the varus load on the ACL, while a chronic ACL lesion, the increased tibial rotation and the repetitive non-physiological knee motion, could affect and damage the integrity of the popliteus tendon. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to report the very long clinical outcomes of a combined single-bundle BPTB ACL reconstruction and popliteus plasty according to Bousquets technique, for the treatment of combined chronic anterior and posterolateral laxities. Fifteen patients that underwent combined ACL reconstruction and popliteal plasty according to Bousquets technique were available at mean 26.8 ± 1.0 years (range 25.4-28.0 years). All the patients were evaluated clinically and 13 by means of KT-1000 Arthrometer as well. Subjective evaluation was performed with the subjective IKDC, WOMAC and a 0-10 VAS for pain scales. At clinical evaluation, 10 patients (67 %) presented a negative anterior drawer test; Lachman test was negative in nine patients (60 %); the varus stress test was negative in eight (53 %); and the dial test was negative in all but one patient (93 %). Only two patients (15 %) presented a side-to-side difference >5 mm at the instrumented laxity evaluation. The combined single-bundle BPTB ACL reconstruction and popliteal plasty according to Bousquets technique were able to produce very good long-term results, in terms of knee stability, subjective outcomes, functional results and return to sport activity, in case of chronic anterior and posterolateral laxities. Retrospective case series, Level IV.
    Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 06/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00167-015-3673-x · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Current research is investigating new methods to enhance tissue healing to speed up recovery time and decrease the risk of failure in Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) reconstructive surgery. Biological augmentation is one of the most exploited strategies, in particular the application of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP). Aim of the present paper is to systematically review all the preclinical and clinical papers dealing with the application of PRP as a biological enhancer during ACL reconstructive surgery. Thirty-two studies were included in the present review. The analysis of the preclinical evidence revealed that PRP was able to improve the healing potential of the tendinous graft both in terms of histological and biomechanical performance. Looking at the available clinical evidence, results were not univocal. PRP administration proved to be a safe procedure and there were some evidences that it could favor the donor site healing in case of ACL reconstruction with patellar tendon graft and positively contribute to graft maturation over time, whereas the majority of the papers did not show beneficial effects in terms of bony tunnels/graft area integration. Furthermore, PRP augmentation did not provide superior functional results at short term evaluation.
    06/2015; 2015:1-15. DOI:10.1155/2015/371746
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    ABSTRACT: Return to sport and to pre-injury level represents an important outcome after both primary and revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to determine the return to sport rate after revision ACL reconstruction. A systematic search was performed of the MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials Databases. All the studies that reported return to sport, return to pre-injury sport level and return to high level/competitive sport was considered for the meta-analysis. The overall pooled mean of post-operative knee laxity and pooled rate of positive pivot-shift and objective International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) categories was calculated as well. Overall, 472 abstracts were identified and screened for inclusion and only 16 studies reported the rate of return to any level of sport activity at the final follow-up of 4.7 years (range 1.0-13.2 years), showing a pooled rate of 85.3% (CI 79.7 to 90.2). The return to pre-injury sport level was achieved in 53.4% (CI 37.8 to 68.7) of cases. Normal or quasi-normal objective IKDC, less than 5 mm of side-to-side difference at arthrometric evaluations and grade I-II pivot-shift test were reported in 84%, 88% and 93% patients, respectively. In spite of almost 8 patients out of 10 returning to sport after revision ACL reconstruction and showing good stability, only half of the patients returned to the same pre-injury sport level. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to
    British Journal of Sports Medicine 06/2015; DOI:10.1136/bjsports-2014-094089 · 5.03 Impact Factor
  • Maurilio Marcacci · Luca Andriolo · Elizaveta Kon · Giuseppe Filardo
    06/2015; 3(10):132. DOI:10.3978/j.issn.2305-5839.2015.05.06
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    ABSTRACT: Arthroscopic meniscal treatment is the most common procedure performed in the orthopedic practice. Current management of meniscal pathology relies on different therapeutic options, ranging from selective meniscectomy, suturing, and to meniscal replacement by using either allografts or scaffolds. The progresses made in the field of regenerative medicine and biomaterials allowed to develop several meniscal substitutes, some of those currently used in the clinical practice. Before reaching the clinical application, these devices necessarily undergo accurate testing in the animal model: the aim of the present manuscript is to systematically review the scientific evidence derived by animal model results for the use of meniscal scaffolds, in order to understand the current state of research in this particular field and to identify the trends at preclinical level that may influence in the near future the clinical practice. Thirty-four papers were included in the present analysis. In 12 cases the meniscal scaffolds were used with cells to further stimulate tissue regeneration. With the exception of some negative reports regarding dacron-based scaffolds, the majority of the trials highlighted that biomaterials and bio-engineered scaffolds are safe and could play a beneficial role in stimulating meniscal healing and in chondral protection. With regard to the benefits of cell augmentation, the evidence is limited to a small number of studies and no conclusive evidence is available. However, preclinical evidence seems to suggest that cells could enhance tissue regeneration with respect to the use of biomaterials alone, and further research should confirm the translational potential of cell-based approach.
    The Open Orthopaedics Journal 05/2015; 9(1):143-156. DOI:10.2174/1874325001509010129
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    ABSTRACT: Several eminent surgeons made breakthroughs in knee surgery throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Before that, knee injuries were only treated conservatively and it was thanks to the progress made in the field of biomechanics and biology that new surgical treatments were proposed. The history of medicine recalls some illustrious surgeons such as Thomas Annandale and Mayo Robson who were the first to perform and describe their revolutionary experience regarding meniscal and anterior cruciate ligament surgery. Less famous are the forefathers of multi-ligament reconstructive surgery: the purpose of this paper was to shed some light on the pioneers of this particular field of orthopaedic practice, which is gaining increasing interest in current clinical practice. Level of evidence V.
    Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00167-015-3615-7 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common disease that will affect almost half the population at some point in their lives through pain and decreased functional capacity. New nonoperative options are being proposed to treat earlier stages of joint degeneration to provide symptomatic relief and delay surgical intervention. To evaluate the benefit provided by platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections to treat knee joint degeneration in comparison with hyaluronic acid (HA), the most common injective treatment currently adopted for this condition. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. A total of 443 patients were screened, and 192 of them were enrolled in the study according to the following inclusion criteria: (1) unilateral symptomatic knee with history of chronic pain (at least 4 months) or swelling and (2) imaging findings of degenerative changes (Kellgren-Lawrence score of 0-3 at radiographs or MRI evidence of degenerative chondropathy). Patients underwent 3 weekly intra-articular injections of either PRP or HA. Patients were prospectively evaluated at baseline and then at 2, 6, and 12 months of follow-up using the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective score (main outcome), Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, EuroQol visual analog scale, and Tegner score. Range of motion, transpatellar circumference, patient satisfaction, and adverse events were also recorded. Two patients reported severe pain and swelling after HA injections, while no major adverse events were noted in the PRP group. However, PRP presented overall significantly more postinjection swelling and pain. Both treatments proved to be effective in improving knee functional status and reducing symptoms: the IKDC score in the PRP group rose from 52.4 ± 14.1 to 66.2 ± 16.7 at 12 months (P < .0005), and in the HA group it rose from 49.6 ± 13.0 to 64.2 ± 18.0 at 12 months (P < .0005). A similar trend was observed for all the clinical scores used. The comparative analysis of the 2 treatments showed no significant intergroup difference at any follow-up evaluation in any of the clinical scores adopted. PRP does not provide a superior clinical improvement with respect to HA, and therefore it should not be preferred to viscosupplementation as injective treatment of patients affected by knee cartilage degeneration and OA. © 2015 The Author(s).
    The American Journal of Sports Medicine 05/2015; 43(7). DOI:10.1177/0363546515582027 · 4.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To present the 2-year results of the use of the lateral Collagen Meniscus Implant (CMI) for the treatment of irreparable lateral meniscal lesions or partial lateral meniscal defects, to investigate the potential predictors of clinical results, and to monitor device safety. Forty-three patients with a mean age of 30.1 ± 12.0 years were clinically evaluated 24 months after treatment of partial lateral meniscal defects with the CMI (Ivy Sports Medicine, Gräfelfing, Germany). We used the Lysholm score, the Tegner Activity Scale, a visual analog scale for pain (during strenuous activity, during routine activity, and at rest), a functional questionnaire, and a satisfaction questionnaire for the evaluation. All demographic and surgical parameters were used for multiple regression analysis to find outcome predictors. Serious adverse events and reoperations were monitored. All clinical scores significantly improved from preoperatively to final evaluation at 24.2 ± 1.9 months' follow-up. The Lysholm score improved significantly from 64.3 ± 18.4 preoperatively to 93.2 ± 7.2 at final follow-up (P = .0001). Functional improvement was detected from 6 months after surgery, whereas strenuous activities and knee swelling reached optimal results after 12 months. The highest pain ratings experienced during strenuous activity, during routine activity, and at rest significantly improved from 59 ± 29, 29 ± 25, and 20 ± 25, respectively, preoperatively to 14 ± 18, 3 ± 5, and 2 ± 6, respectively, at 2 years' follow-up (P = .0001). At final follow-up, 58% of patients reported activity levels similar to their preinjury values whereas 95% of patients reported that they were satisfied with the procedure. A higher body mass index, the presence of concomitant procedures, and a chronic injury pattern seemed to negatively affect the final outcomes. Serious adverse events with a known or unknown relation to the scaffold, such as pain, swelling, and scaffold resorption, were reported in 6% of patients, leading to CMI explantation, debridement, or synovectomy. The lateral CMI scaffold could be considered a potentially effective and safe procedure to treat both irreparable lateral meniscal tears and post-meniscectomy syndrome in appropriately selected patients. Chronic injury, high body mass index, and concomitant procedures have been shown to negatively affect the short-term results; however, the results appeared to slowly improve through the 24-month follow-up period. Thus patience is needed when evaluating the expectations for and results of the described procedure. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery 04/2015; 31(7). DOI:10.1016/j.arthro.2015.01.025 · 3.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A Note from the Column Editor,Di Matteo and colleagues from the Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute in Bologna, Italy share with us another extraordinary example of how medicine evolved in partnership with art. The University of Bologna is considered the oldest academic institution in the Western world, so it is no surprise that many of the finest examples of the evolution of scientific investigation and teaching originated in the expansive beauty of the Archiginnasio of Bologna. As Di Matteo and colleagues explain, this was the ancient stage upon which students observed the performances of teaching anatomy. It is serendipitous that this beautiful description of the 16thcentury anatomy theatre follows our discussion of The Gross Clinic by American artist Thomas Eakins in the 19thcentury [4], an example of the surgical theatre. This is an opportunity to compare the high drama carried out on these two stages, theatres set 300 years apart, both venues designed to be practical places for transmi ...
    Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 04/2015; 473(6). DOI:10.1007/s11999-015-4288-8 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An effective acetabular labrum is able to create a seal between the peripheral and central compartment of the hip joint. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of labral tears, repair and labrectromy on labrum function by using a navigation system and a load cell. The hip joint center displacement (mm) and the distraction load (N) was measured in 8 cadaveric hips during distraction maneuvers. These measurements were repeated after creating an anterolateral tear, cercalge repair, vertical mattress repair and labrectomy, respectively. Compared to the intact condition, 3% and 15% higher displacement was provoked during distraction test after labral-chondral separation and labrectomy. Moreover, significantly less force was required to distract the femur after cercalge repair (25%), vertical mattress repair (22%) and labrectomy (40%). A breach of the integrity of labral function was shown to lead to decreased femoral stability relative to the acetabulum during extreme ranges of motion.
    Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology 04/2015; 15(02):1540036. DOI:10.1142/S0219519415400369 · 0.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Joint prosthesis are usually subjected to several failing mechanisms, including wear of the ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) insert. The main goal of this study was to assess the possibility to improve the tribological properties of titanium component by depositing zirconia thin films on its surface by pulsed plasma deposition (PPD) method. Zirconia-coated titanium spheres were tested against UHMWPE disks, both in dry and wet conditions. Zirconia films exhibited a homogenous sub-micrometric grain size distribution and low roughness. Interestingly, zirconia-coated titanium spheres showed lower wear rate of the UHMWPE component, compared to uncoated titanium spheres, supporting the feasibility of the proposed approach.
    Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology 04/2015; 15(02):1540002. DOI:10.1142/S0219519415400023 · 0.73 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

8k Citations
912.60 Total Impact Points


  • 1993–2015
    • Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli
      • • Laboratory of Biomechanics and Technology Innovation
      • • Movement Analysis Laboratory
      Bolonia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • 1991–2014
    • University of Bologna
      • Department of Biomedical Science and Neuromotor Sciences DIBINEM
      Bolonia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
    • Bologna Center
      Bolonia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • 2012
    • Università degli Studi di Messina
      Messina, Sicily, Italy
  • 2005
    • University of Naples Federico II
      Napoli, Campania, Italy
  • 1997
    • Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna
      Pisa, Tuscany, Italy