Maurilio Marcacci

Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bolonia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy

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Publications (405)920.96 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Realizing hard ceramic coatings on the plastic component of a joint prosthesis can be strategic for the mechanical preservation of the whole implant and to extend its lifetime. Recently, thanks to the Plasma Pulsed Deposition (PPD) method, zirconia coatings on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) substrates resulted in a feasible outcome. Focusing on both the highly specific requirements defined by the biomedical application and the effective possibilities given by the deposition method in the perspectives of technological transfer, it is mandatory to optimize the coating in terms of load bearing capacity. The main goal of this study was to identify through Finite Element Analysis (FEA) the optimal coating thickness that would be able to minimize UHMWPE strain, possible insurgence of cracks within the coating and stresses at coating-substrate interface. Simulations of nanoindentation and microindentation tests were specifically carried out. FEA findings demonstrated that, in general, thickening the zirconia coating strongly reduced the strains in the UHMWPE substrate, although the 1 μm thickness value was identified as critical for the presence of high stresses within the coating and at the interface with the substrate. Therefore, the optimal thickness resulted to be highly dependent on the specific loading condition and final applications.
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    ABSTRACT: At the current state of the art in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, multiple techniques have been presented but none has given clearly defined and improved results. One of the main issues concerns the choice of graft. The concept of using xenograft tissue, defined as a graft tissue from one species and destined for implantation in an unlike species, was introduced in order to try to overcome the mechanical and biological concerns associated with synthetic materials and the safety and quality concerns and availability problems of allograft tissue. Xenograft tissue carries the risk of producing an immunological reaction. In order to try to overcome or attenuate the immune response against porcine xenograft tissue, the Z-Process® (Aperion Biologics Inc, San Antonio, Texas, USA) has been developed and used to produce the Z-Lig® family of devices for ACL reconstruction procedures. Z-Lig® is a tendon graft with or without bone blocks, sourced from animal tissue in a manner consistent with what has normally been sourced from human tissue, and processed to overcome anti-Gal-mediated rejection and to attenuate other immunological recognition in humans. All this while ensuring sterility, viral inactivation and preservation of mechanical proprieties appropriate for an ACL reconstruction device. The Z-Lig® device has been tested in skeletally mature monkeys and given interesting and promising results from the preclinical performance and safety profile point of view. On this basis, it was possible to proceed with the first clinical trial involving humans, which gave similar encouraging results. The Z-Lig® device has also been implanted in Italy at the Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute in Bologna, as a part of international multicenter prospective randomized blinded controlled study aimed at comparing xenograft with allograft tissue.
    11/2015; 3(2):85-90. DOI:10.11138/jts/2015.3.2.085
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To quantitatively evaluate the biomechanical sealing function of an intact labrum and the effect of labral-chondral separation, cerclage suture labral repair, vertical mattress suture repair and partial labrectomy on distraction load and hip joint centre (HJC) displacement. Methods: Eight fresh-frozen cadaveric hips were tested using a navigation system for intra-operative kinematic analysis. A six-axis load cell was used to measure the manually applied force when performing the tests: hip pivoting movement and distraction. The HJC displacement that occurred during the distraction test has been evaluated in correspondence of seven different values of applied force. During the pivoting motion, the maximum value of HJC displacement was evaluated. Five different conditions were tested: labrum intact, labral-chondral separation, vertical mattress suture repair, cerclage suture repair, and partial labrectomy. Results: With regard to HJC displacement using at fixed value of force, the paired sample t test underscored the statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) for each of the five tested conditions among themselves. Only the comparison of intact versus labral-chondral separation was not significantly different. During pivoting motion, a statistically significantly greater displacement was identified after labrectomy when compared with the cerclage suture repair (p = 0.03) and vertical mattress repair (p < 0.01) in medial-lateral direction. Along proximal-distal direction, a significant lower displacement after labrectomy was identified when compared to the cerclage suture repair (p = 0.03). Performing the pivoting motion at the extreme ranges of motion demonstrated a higher value of displacement after labrectomy when compared with all the previously tested conditions. Conclusions: These results suggest that labral repair is important in the function of the hip and that the vertical mattress suture technique may be better than the cerclage suture repair.
    Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 11/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00167-015-3851-x · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Recently, the functional flexion axis has been considered to provide a proper rotational alignment of the femoral component in total knee arthroplasty. Several factors could influence the identification of the functional flexion axis. The purpose of this study was to analyse the estimation of the functional flexion axis by separately focusing on passive flexion and extension movements and specifically assessing its orientation compared to the transepicondylar axis, in both the axial plane and the frontal plane. Methods: Anatomical and kinematic acquisitions were performed using a commercial navigation system on 79 patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty with cruciate substituting prosthesis design. The functional flexion axis was estimated from passive movements, between 0° and 120° of flexion and back. Intra-observer agreement and reliability, internal-external rotation and the angle with the surgical transepicondylar axis, in axial and frontal planes, were separately analysed for flexion and extension, in pre- and post-implant conditions. Results: The analysis of reliability and agreement showed good results. The identification of the functional flexion axis showed statistically significant differences both in relation to flexion and extension and to pre- and post-implant conditions, both in frontal plane and in axial plane. The analysis of internal-external rotation confirmed these differences in kinematics (p < 0.05, between 25° and 35° of flexion). Conclusions: The identification of the functional flexion axis changed in relation to passive flexion and extension movements, above all in frontal plane, while it resulted more stable and reliable in axial plane. These findings supported the possible clinical application of the functional flexion axis in the surgical practice by implementing navigated procedures. However, further analyses are required to better understand the factors affecting the identification of the functional flexion axis. Level of evidence: IV.
    Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 10/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00167-015-3816-0 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The purpose of this study was to perform a mid-long-term clinical and radiographic evaluation of the results obtained in patients older than 75 years treated with minimally invasive unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). The hypothesis was that UKA is a viable solution for the definitive treatment of localized disease in this age group, with good results and a low failure rate. Methods: An all-poly tibial component UKA was applied with a minimally invasive technique. Sixty-seven knees in patients with a minimum age of 75 years were evaluated at mean 9 years' follow-up. The Oxford knee score, Knee Society Score, WOMAC score, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain self-assessment and range of motion (ROM) were determined, as well as weight-bearing antero-posterior and laterolateral radiographs. Results: All clinical scores, as well as VAS and ROM, improved significantly at 9-year follow-up, and the outcome was considered good or excellent in 92.6 % of the patients. Radiographic results showed that both tibial plateau angle and posterior tibial slope angles were maintained, whereas femoro-tibial angle was significantly changed at follow-up. Further analysis showed no significant correlation between clinical scores and body mass index, whereas the clinical outcome was correlated with the ROM obtained. Only two failures and one major post-operative complication were observed. Conclusions: UKA is a viable option for treating unicompartmental knee osteoarthritis. With the proper indications and an accurate technique UKA may be indicated also in very elderly patients with reduced complications and morbidity, and excellent survivorship.
    Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00402-015-2323-6 · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings are commonly employed to improve the bioactivity of bone and dental metal implants, due to the chemical–physical similarity with the mineral phase of bone, envisaged to enhance the integration with the surrounding bone tissue. However, growing concerns about the use of commercial thick CaP coatings, mainly related to their weak mechanical properties, poor interface strength and micro-structural inhomogeneity, are leading the investigation of new and alternative CaP deposition techniques. In this study the feasibility to deposit tough and well adherent CaP thin films by a novel Pulsed Plasma Deposition (PPD) method on Ti alloy was investigated. Microstructural, chemical and morphological properties of the coatings as well as the nano-mechanical properties and their adhesion to the Ti-alloy substrate were extensively characterized. In vitro biocompatibility was also preliminary assessed evaluating the adhesion and proliferation of primary mouse osteoblasts. As-deposited CaP films were amorphous and exhibited dense and uniform surface composed of sub-micrometric aggregated globular particles. Noteworthy, mechanical properties of as-deposited films were comparable to the ones of commercial plasma-sprayed coatings despite the significant difference of thickness (a few hundred nanometers vs. tens of micrometers). After the thermal annealing of the as deposited films at 600 °C for 1 h in air, a transformation from amorphous calcium phosphate to crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) phase occurred. The mechanical properties as well as the adhesion to substrate of the annealed films strongly improved respect to those of the as deposited films, displaying interesting high hardness, elastic strain to failure and plastic deformation resistance values. Finally, biological in vitro tests indicated good biocompatibility of both as-deposited and annealed films, with this latter showing better cells adhesion and proliferation compared to the former.
    RSC Advances 09/2015; 5(96). DOI:10.1039/C5RA11034C · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Among the current therapeutic approaches for the regeneration of damaged articular cartilage, none has yet proven to offer results comparable to those of native hyaline cartilage. Recently, it has been claimed that the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) provides greater regenerative potential than differentiated cells, such as chondrocytes. Among the different kinds of MSCs available, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) are emerging due to their abundancy and easiness to harvest. However, their mechanism of action and potential for cartilage regeneration are still under investigation, and many other aspects still need to be clarified. The aim of this systematic review is to give an overview of in vivo studies dealing with ADSCs, by summarizing the main evidence for the treatment of cartilage disease of the knee.
    Stem cell International 08/2015; 2015(9859):1-13. DOI:10.1155/2015/597652 · 2.81 Impact Factor
  • B Di Matteo · C J Moran · V Tarabella · A Viganò · P Tomba · M Marcacci · R Verdonk ·
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    ABSTRACT: The science and surgery of the meniscus have evolved significantly over time. Surgeons and scientists always enjoy looking forward to novel therapies. However, as part of the ongoing effort at optimizing interventions and outcomes, it may also be useful to reflect on important milestones from the past. The aim of the present manuscript was to explore the history of meniscal surgery across the ages, from ancient times to the twenty-first century. Herein, some of the investigations of the pioneers in orthopaedics are described, to underline how their work has influenced the management of the injured meniscus in modern times. Level of evidence V.
    Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00167-015-3717-2 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human platelets are a rich reservoir of molecules that promote regenerative processes and microbicidal activity. This activity might be increased by concentration in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) products and modulated by the presence of leukocytes. Despite extensive use in clinical procedures, only few studies have investigated PRP's real microbicidal potential. Therefore, this study aimed at comparing the in vitro microbicidal activity of platelets and leukocyte-enriched PRP (L-PRP) to pure platelet-rich plasma (P-PRP) and the contribution of leukocytes to microbicidal properties. Antimicrobial effects of P- and L-PRP were tested against Escherichia Coli, Staphylococcus Aureus, Klebsiella Pneumoniae, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa and Enterococcus Faecalis. Furthermore, L-PRP was frozen (L-PRP cryo) to assess whether the preparation maintained in vitro characteristics. Microbicidal proteins released by the three preparations were also evaluated. L-PRP, L-PRP cryo and P-PRP generally induced comparable bacterial growth inhibition for up to 4 h' incubation, range 1-4 log. MIP-1α, RANTES, GRO-α, IL-8, NAP-2, SDF-1α and IL-6 showed strong microbicidal potential. We found in vitro antibacterial activity of L-PRP and P-PRP and the possibility to cryopreserve L-PRP, without important changes to its effectiveness; similar microbicidal activity between preparations containing or not leukocytes; and the contribution of three new molecules (NAP-2, SDF-1α and IL-6).
    BMC Microbiology 07/2015; 15(1):149. DOI:10.1186/s12866-015-0482-9 · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Estimating the main axis of rotation (AoR) of a human joint represents an important issue in biomechanics. This study compared three formal methods used to estimate functional AoR, namely a cylindrical fitting method, a mean helical axis transformation, and a symmetrical axis approach. These methods were tested on 106 subjects undergoing navigated total knee arthroplasty. AoR orientation in 3D and in the frontal and coronal planes provided by each method was compared to the transepicondylar axis direction. Although all the methods resulted effective, significant differences were identified among them, relatively to the orientation in 3D and in the frontal plane projection. This was probably due to the presence of secondary rotations during the first degrees of knee flexion.
    Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering 07/2015; DOI:10.1080/10255842.2015.1042464 · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An increasing number of patients undergo revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, with the intention of returning to sport being a major indication. The aim of this study is to assess the available evidence for clinical improvement and return to sport, to understand the real potential of this procedure in regaining functional activity, and to facilitate improved counselling of patients regarding the expected outcome after revision ACL reconstruction. The search was conducted on the PubMed database. Articles reporting clinical results for revision ACL reconstruction were included. A meta-analysis was performed on return to sport, and results were compared to the literature on primary ACL reconstruction. Other specific clinical outcomes (Lysholm, Tegner, IKDC Objective scores) were also included in the meta-analysis. Of the 503 identified records, a total of 59 studies involving 5365 patients were included in the qualitative data synthesis. Only 31 articles reported the rate of return to sport. Whereas 73 % of good objective results and satisfactory subjective results were documented, 57 % of patients did not return to the same level of sport activity, significantly inferior to that of a primary procedure. The real potential of revision ACL reconstruction should not be overestimated due to the low number of patients able to return to their previous activity level, significantly inferior with respect to that reported for primary ACL reconstruction. This finding will help physicians in the clinical practice providing realistic expectations to the patients. Future studies should focus on participation-based outcome measures such as return to sport and in strategies to improve the results in terms of return to previous activities after revision ACL reconstruction. Systematic review and meta-analysis including Level IV studies, Level IV.
    Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 07/2015; 23(10). DOI:10.1007/s00167-015-3702-9 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Posterolateral corner structures functionally interact with the ACL. The aim of this study was to investigate the capability of an isolated ACL reconstruction control laxity parameters in a knee with combined ACL and PLC and the increase in terms of laxity produced by the resection of the PC in an ACL-deficient knee. An in vitro cadaveric study was performed on seven knees. The joints were analysed in the following conditions: intact, after ACL resection, after popliteus complex resection, after ACL reconstruction and after LCL. Testing laxity parameters were recorded with an intra-operative navigation system and defined as: AP displacement at 30° and 90° of flexion (AP30 and AP90) applying a 130 N load and IE at 30° and 90° of knee flexion with a 5 N load. Sectioning the ACL significantly increased the AP30 at 30° and 90° of knee flexion (p < 0.05). At 90° of knee flexion, the resection of the LCL determined a significant increase in terms of AP laxity (p < 0.05). At 90° has been found a significant difference for the IE laxity (p < 0.05) after PC resection. Sectioning the LCL produced a significant increase in IE laxity at 30° and 90° of knee flexion (p < 0.05). Isolated ACL reconstruction is able to control the AP laxity with a combined complete lesion of the PLC at 30° of knee flexion, but not at higher angle of knee flexion. Considering the IE rotations, the reconstruction was not sufficient not even to control a partial lesion of the PLC. These findings suggest that additional surgical procedures should be considerate even when facing combined PLC lesion.
    Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 07/2015; 23(10). DOI:10.1007/s00167-015-3696-3 · 3.05 Impact Factor
  • Stefano Zaffagnini · Alberto Grassi · Margherita Serra · Maurilio Marcacci ·
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    ABSTRACT: Allowing a patient to return to sport and unrestricted physical activity after ACL injury and reconstruction is one of the most challenging and difficult decisions an orthopaedic surgeon has to make. Indeed, many factors have to be taken into account before it can be considered safe for a patients to load a reconstructed knee. The current literature contains plenty of studies aimed at evaluating return to sport, and the factors that may affect or predict this outcome, e.g. intrinsic factors like genetics, biology, type of lesion, anatomical features, motivation and psychology, and extrinsic factors such as graft type, surgical technique, rehabilitation protocols, and biological support. It is possible that awareness of these issues could help the clinician to optimise outcomes, and possibly avoid failures too, although as yet no universal criteria for resuming sport have been produced.
    07/2015; 3(1):25-30.
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    ABSTRACT: In the past few years, researchers have focused on the design and development of three-dimensional (3D) advanced scaffolds, which offer significant advantages in terms of cell performance. The introduction of magnetic features into scaffold technology could offer innovative opportunities to control cell populations within 3D microenvironments, with the potential to enhance their use in tissue regeneration or in cell-based analysis. In the present study, 3D fully biodegradable and magnetic nanocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering, consisting of a poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) matrix reinforced with iron-doped hydroxyapatite (FeHA) nanoparticles, were designed and manufactured using a rapid prototyping technique. The performances of these novel 3D PCL/FeHA scaffolds were assessed through a combination of theoretical evaluation, experimental in vitro analyses and in vivo testing in a rabbit animal model. The results from mechanical compression tests were consistent with FEM simulations. The in vitro results showed that the cell growth in the magnetized scaffolds was 2.2-fold greater than that in non-magnetized ones. In vivo experiments further suggested that, after only 4 weeks, the PCL/FeHA scaffolds were completely filled with newly formed bone, proving a good level of histocompatibility. All of the results suggest that the introduction of magnetic features into biocompatible materials may confer significant advantages in terms of 3D cell assembly.
    Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology 07/2015; 11(7):1236-1246. DOI:10.1166/jbn.2015.2065 · 5.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A deficiency of posterolateral structures significantly increases the varus load on the ACL, while a chronic ACL lesion, the increased tibial rotation and the repetitive non-physiological knee motion, could affect and damage the integrity of the popliteus tendon. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to report the very long clinical outcomes of a combined single-bundle BPTB ACL reconstruction and popliteus plasty according to Bousquets technique, for the treatment of combined chronic anterior and posterolateral laxities. Fifteen patients that underwent combined ACL reconstruction and popliteal plasty according to Bousquets technique were available at mean 26.8 ± 1.0 years (range 25.4-28.0 years). All the patients were evaluated clinically and 13 by means of KT-1000 Arthrometer as well. Subjective evaluation was performed with the subjective IKDC, WOMAC and a 0-10 VAS for pain scales. At clinical evaluation, 10 patients (67 %) presented a negative anterior drawer test; Lachman test was negative in nine patients (60 %); the varus stress test was negative in eight (53 %); and the dial test was negative in all but one patient (93 %). Only two patients (15 %) presented a side-to-side difference >5 mm at the instrumented laxity evaluation. The combined single-bundle BPTB ACL reconstruction and popliteal plasty according to Bousquets technique were able to produce very good long-term results, in terms of knee stability, subjective outcomes, functional results and return to sport activity, in case of chronic anterior and posterolateral laxities. Retrospective case series, Level IV.
    Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 06/2015; 23(10). DOI:10.1007/s00167-015-3673-x · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Current research is investigating new methods to enhance tissue healing to speed up recovery time and decrease the risk of failure in Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) reconstructive surgery. Biological augmentation is one of the most exploited strategies, in particular the application of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP). Aim of the present paper is to systematically review all the preclinical and clinical papers dealing with the application of PRP as a biological enhancer during ACL reconstructive surgery. Thirty-two studies were included in the present review. The analysis of the preclinical evidence revealed that PRP was able to improve the healing potential of the tendinous graft both in terms of histological and biomechanical performance. Looking at the available clinical evidence, results were not univocal. PRP administration proved to be a safe procedure and there were some evidences that it could favor the donor site healing in case of ACL reconstruction with patellar tendon graft and positively contribute to graft maturation over time, whereas the majority of the papers did not show beneficial effects in terms of bony tunnels/graft area integration. Furthermore, PRP augmentation did not provide superior functional results at short term evaluation.
    06/2015; 2015:1-15. DOI:10.1155/2015/371746
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    ABSTRACT: Return to sport and to pre-injury level represents an important outcome after both primary and revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to determine the return to sport rate after revision ACL reconstruction. A systematic search was performed of the MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials Databases. All the studies that reported return to sport, return to pre-injury sport level and return to high level/competitive sport was considered for the meta-analysis. The overall pooled mean of post-operative knee laxity and pooled rate of positive pivot-shift and objective International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) categories was calculated as well. Overall, 472 abstracts were identified and screened for inclusion and only 16 studies reported the rate of return to any level of sport activity at the final follow-up of 4.7 years (range 1.0-13.2 years), showing a pooled rate of 85.3% (CI 79.7 to 90.2). The return to pre-injury sport level was achieved in 53.4% (CI 37.8 to 68.7) of cases. Normal or quasi-normal objective IKDC, less than 5 mm of side-to-side difference at arthrometric evaluations and grade I-II pivot-shift test were reported in 84%, 88% and 93% patients, respectively. In spite of almost 8 patients out of 10 returning to sport after revision ACL reconstruction and showing good stability, only half of the patients returned to the same pre-injury sport level. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to
    British Journal of Sports Medicine 06/2015; 49(20). DOI:10.1136/bjsports-2014-094089 · 5.03 Impact Factor
  • Maurilio Marcacci · Luca Andriolo · Elizaveta Kon · Giuseppe Filardo ·

    06/2015; 3(10):132. DOI:10.3978/j.issn.2305-5839.2015.05.06
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    ABSTRACT: Arthroscopic meniscal treatment is the most common procedure performed in the orthopedic practice. Current management of meniscal pathology relies on different therapeutic options, ranging from selective meniscectomy, suturing, and to meniscal replacement by using either allografts or scaffolds. The progresses made in the field of regenerative medicine and biomaterials allowed to develop several meniscal substitutes, some of those currently used in the clinical practice. Before reaching the clinical application, these devices necessarily undergo accurate testing in the animal model: the aim of the present manuscript is to systematically review the scientific evidence derived by animal model results for the use of meniscal scaffolds, in order to understand the current state of research in this particular field and to identify the trends at preclinical level that may influence in the near future the clinical practice. Thirty-four papers were included in the present analysis. In 12 cases the meniscal scaffolds were used with cells to further stimulate tissue regeneration. With the exception of some negative reports regarding dacron-based scaffolds, the majority of the trials highlighted that biomaterials and bio-engineered scaffolds are safe and could play a beneficial role in stimulating meniscal healing and in chondral protection. With regard to the benefits of cell augmentation, the evidence is limited to a small number of studies and no conclusive evidence is available. However, preclinical evidence seems to suggest that cells could enhance tissue regeneration with respect to the use of biomaterials alone, and further research should confirm the translational potential of cell-based approach.
    The Open Orthopaedics Journal 05/2015; 9(1):143-156. DOI:10.2174/1874325001509010129
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    ABSTRACT: Several eminent surgeons made breakthroughs in knee surgery throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Before that, knee injuries were only treated conservatively and it was thanks to the progress made in the field of biomechanics and biology that new surgical treatments were proposed. The history of medicine recalls some illustrious surgeons such as Thomas Annandale and Mayo Robson who were the first to perform and describe their revolutionary experience regarding meniscal and anterior cruciate ligament surgery. Less famous are the forefathers of multi-ligament reconstructive surgery: the purpose of this paper was to shed some light on the pioneers of this particular field of orthopaedic practice, which is gaining increasing interest in current clinical practice. Level of evidence V.
    Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 05/2015; 23(10). DOI:10.1007/s00167-015-3615-7 · 3.05 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

8k Citations
920.96 Total Impact Points


  • 1993-2015
    • Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli
      • • Laboratory of Biomechanics and Technology Innovation
      • • Movement Analysis Laboratory
      Bolonia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • 1991-2014
    • University of Bologna
      • Department of Biomedical Science and Neuromotor Sciences DIBINEM
      Bolonia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
    • Bologna Center
      Bolonia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • 2012
    • Università degli Studi di Messina
      Messina, Sicily, Italy
  • 2005
    • University of Naples Federico II
      Napoli, Campania, Italy
  • 1997
    • Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna
      Pisa, Tuscany, Italy