A A Nanji

The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, Hong Kong

Are you A A Nanji?

Claim your profile

Publications (180)830.11 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Our previous work showed that binge drinking in the rat induced hepatic steatosis which correlated with reduced expression of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In this study, we used the rat model to investigate the role of adiponectin (Adip), sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), AMPK, and lipin 1 (LIP 1) signaling, a central controlling pathway of lipid metabolism in hepatic steatosis.Methods The serum Adip and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) as well as liver Adip receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) SIRT1, AMPK, phosphorylated AMPK (p-AMPK), sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), LIP 1, lipocalin-2 (LCN2), and serum amyloid A1 were assessed in the rat model where 16 weeks of gavaged alcohol were administered.ResultsIn this model of ethanol (EtOH) administration, hepatic steatosis, necrosis, as well as inflammation were increased over the 16-week period. The level of TNF-α in the serum was increased while the Adip content decreased significantly, and there was an inverse relationship between the content of TNF-α and Adip. The mRNA and protein expression of AdipoR2, SIRT1, and AMPK was suppressed by EtOH in the rats' hepatic tissue. Additionally, EtOH significantly decreased p-AMPK by 90% over the 16-week period. In parallel, there was a 2.53- and 1.82-fold increase of lipogenic genes SREBP1c and ACC, and a 3.22- and 4.12-fold increase of LIP 1 and LIP 1 β mRNA expression, respectively, in the hepatic tissue of the rats.Conclusions Our present observations demonstrate that the impaired Adip-SIRT1-AMPK signaling pathway contributes, at least in part, to the development of alcoholic fatty liver disease in EtOH binge rats.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 02/2015; 39(3). DOI:10.1111/acer.12641 · 3.31 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) is the constitutive form of the COX enzyme family, which produces bioactive lipids called prostanoids. Although the role of COX-2 in liver diseases has been studied, little is known about the function of COX-1 in liver injury. We aimed to investigate the role and mechanism of COX-1 in acute liver injury. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was administered to induce acute liver injury in wild-type or COX-1-deficient mice. Both genetic (partially or completely) deletion of COX-1 expression and pharmacological inhibition of COX-1 activity in mice exacerbated acute liver injury induced by CCl4, revealing the (1) histopathological changes and increased serum levels of aminotransferases; (2) oxidative stress in the liver partly through the action of cytochrome P450 2E1-dependent pathway; (3) enhanced inflammatory and chemoattractive responses with increased number of activated macrophages; and (4) increased apoptosis through both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. These pathological changes were partly through the modulation of transcription factor-dependent pathways (eg, NF-κB and C/EBP-α). Pre-treatment with prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) or 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) inhibitor in homozygous COX-1 knockout mice significantly ameliorated CCl4-induced hepatic injury. In addition, level of hepato-protective molecules (eg, OSM and OSMR) and associated liver regeneration pathway were significantly inhibited by the deficiency of COX-1 but restored by the addition of PGE2 or the inhibition of 5-LO. Furthermore, the alternative arachidonic acid metabolism pathway of 5-LO, which induced additional inflammation in the liver, was activated in response to the deficiency of COX-1. In conclusion, basal expression of COX-1 is essential for the protection of liver against chemical-induced hepatotoxicity and required for hepatic homeostatic maintenance. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Toxicological Sciences 11/2014; DOI:10.1093/toxsci/kfu244 · 4.48 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) continues to be a major cause of morbidity worldwide. The exact mechanisms for ALD pathogenesis are not fully understood. There is currently no known available drug for ALD. Previous studies have suggested that ethanol (EtOH)-induced hepatic insulin resistance, through the inhibition of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the expression of adiponectin as well as downstream enzymes, contribute to the development of ALD. This study was to determine the effects of EtOH on AMPK activity as well as the protective effect of metformin.Methods Forty male Wistar rats weighing 200 ± 20 g were randomized into 4 groups (n = 10) as follows: A = control group—rats received rodent chow; B = control + metformin group—rats received metformin (200 mg/kg/d intragastrically [IG]) at 21:00; C = EtOH group—rats were gavaged with alcohol of gradually increasing concentrations (30 to 60%, 5 to 9 g/kg/d) twice a day (9:00 and 16:00); D = EtOH + metformin group—rats received the same amount of EtOH as the rats in group C, and in addition received metformin (200 mg/kg/d IG) at 21:00. After 16 weeks, blood and liver samples were collected for further study.ResultsChronic EtOH consumption led to liver injury both histologically and biochemically accompanied by insulin resistance, reduced AMPK activity, and dysregulation of downstream enzymes. Decreased levels of circulating adiponectin and decreased expression of proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-α (PPAR-α) in the hepatic tissue were observed. Treatment with metformin attenuated the severity of liver injury, restored AMPK activity and normalized the expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase. In addition, metformin also increased the circulating adiponectin and liver adiponectin receptor 2 expression. Furthermore, PGC-1α and PPAR-α activities were also restored.Conclusions EtOH exposure induces hepatic insulin resistance. Metformin improved insulin resistance and reversed liver injury through the activation of AMPK and normalized adiponectin signaling making metformin a promising drug for the treatment of ALD.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 05/2014; 38(6). DOI:10.1111/acer.12418 · 3.31 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To investigate the protective mechanisms of an 85 % pure extract of (-) epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in the development of fibrosis, oxidative stress and inflammation in a recently developed dietary-induced animal model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with either normal rat diet or high-fat diet for 8 weeks to develop NAFLD. For both treatments, rats were treated with or without EGCG (50 mg/kg, i.p. injection, 3 times per week). At the end, blood and liver tissue samples were obtained for histology, molecular, and biochemical analyses. RESULTS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) rats showed significant amount of fatty infiltration, necrosis, fibrosis, and inflammation. This was accompanied by a significant expressional increase in markers for fibrosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. TGF/SMAD, PI3 K/Akt/FoxO1, and NF-κB pathways were also activated. Treatment with EGCG improved hepatic histology (decreased number of fatty score, necrosis, and inflammatory foci), reduced liver injury (from ~0.5 to ~0.3 of ALT/AST ratio), attenuated hepatic changes including fibrosis (reduction in Sirius Red and synaptophysin-positive stain) with down-regulation in the expressions of key pathological oxidative (e.g. nitrotyrosine formation) and pro-inflammatory markers (e.g. iNOS, COX-2, and TNF-α). EGCG treatment also counteracted the activity of TGF/SMAD, PI3 K/Akt/FoxO1, and NF-κB pathways. Treatment with EGCG did not affect the healthy rats. CONCLUSIONS: Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) reduced the severity of liver injury in an experimental model of NAFLD associated with lower concentration of pro-fibrogenic, oxidative stress, and pro-inflammatory mediators partly through modulating the activities of TGF/SMAD, PI3 K/Akt/FoxO1, and NF-κB pathways. Therefore, green tea polyphenols and EGCG are useful supplements in the prevention of NAFLD.
    European Journal of Nutrition 03/2013; DOI:10.1007/s00394-013-0516-8 · 3.84 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chronic liver diseases are commonly associated with tissue hypoxia that may cause inflammation, oxidative stress, liver cell injury and increased nuclear transcriptional regulation. The hepatic response to chronic hypoxia at the molecular level has not yet been clearly understood until now. The aim of this study is to investigate whether nuclear transcription factors [hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1α), activator protein-1 (AP-1), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)] exhibit activity changes during hepatic response to chronic hypoxia. Blood and liver samples were collected from adult Sprague-Dawley rats living in atmospheric air or 10% oxygen for four weeks. Levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), 8-isoprostane and nitrotyrosine were measured. The activities of nuclear transcription factors and the expression of downstream genes (iNOS, eNOS, ET-1 and VEGF) were measured using RT-PCR, Western blotting and Gel shift analysis. Results showed that serum ALT level, 8-isoprostane level and formation of nitrotyrosine were within normal range at all time-points. In the hypoxic liver, DNA-binding activities of HIF-1α, NF-κB and AP-1 increased significantly. Expression levels of iNOS, VEGF and ET-1 progressively increased from day 7 to day 28. eNOS was also elevated in the hypoxic liver. In conclusion, our study suggests that increased activity of HIF-1α, AP-1 and NF-κB may partly play a significant role in the hepatic response to oxidative stress and liver injury under chronic hypoxia. The increased expression of VEGF, ET-1, iNOS and eNOS may be partly due to the compensatory mechanism in the vascular beds of the liver in response to chronic hypoxia.
    Histology and histopathology 01/2013; · 2.24 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To investigate whether "binge" and escalating alcohol exposure in the rat influences the development of pathological liver injury. METHODS: Time courses for the formation of eicosanoids by cyclooxygenase (COX), oxidative stress and nitrosative stress production, expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), cytokines, hepatic tissue necroinflammation, and fibrosis were assessed in rats during 16 weeks of daily alcohol gavage. RESULTS: In this model of binge and escalating levels of alcohol, hepatic steatosis, necrosis, and inflammation as well as fibrosis were increased over the 16-week period. The levels of COX-2, oxidative stress, nitrosative stress, HIF-1, proinflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin 1(β) [IL-1(β) ], IL-6), and procollagen-I were increased over the 16-week period. The content of IL-10 in rat serum increased at the end of 4 and 8 weeks but decreased thereafter and was significantly decreased at 12 and 16 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: A rat model of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) with long-term binge and escalating ethanol exposure was developed. Our data support the hypothesis that enhanced eicosanoid production by COX, oxidative stress and nitrosative stress, HIF-1, and the imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ALD.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 09/2012; 37(2). DOI:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2012.01936.x · 3.31 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Thromboxane levels are increased in rats fed ethanol (EtOH), whereas thromboxane inhibitors reduce alcoholic liver injury. The aim of this study is to determine whether thromboxane inhibitors could attenuate the already established alcoholic liver injury. METHODS: Rats were fed EtOH and liquid diet for 6 weeks by intragastric infusion to induce liver injury after which EtOH was continued for 2 more weeks, and the rats were treated with either a thromboxane synthase inhibitor (TXSI) or a thromboxane receptor antagonist (TXRA). Liver pathology, lipid peroxidation, nuclear factor-kappa-B (NF-κB) activity, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β(1) ) were evaluated. RESULTS: Administration of fish oil and EtOH caused fatty liver, necrosis, inflammation and fibrosis accompanied by increased in lipid peroxidation, NF-κB activity, and expression of TNF-α, COX-2, and TGF-β(1) . Treatment with the thromboxane inhibitors ameliorated a certain level of the pathological and biochemical abnormalities. In particular, TXSI in addition to reducing necrosis, inflammation and fibrosis also decrease the severity of fatty liver. CONCLUSIONS: Thromboxane inhibitors attenuated the alcoholic liver injury, inflammation and fibrotic changes despite continued EtOH administration. Inhibition of the production of thromboxane by thromboxane inhibitor and receptor antagonists may be a useful treatment strategy in clinical alcoholic liver disease.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 06/2012; 37(1). DOI:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2012.01838.x · 3.31 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To investigate the hepato-protective properties and underlying mechanisms of SAMC in a non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) rat model. METHODS: Female rats were fed with a diet comprising highly unsaturated fat diet (30% fish oil) for 8 weeks to develop NAFLD with or without an intraperitoneal injection of 200 mg/kg SAMC three times per week. After euthanasia, blood and liver samples of rats were collected for histological and biochemical analyses. RESULTS: Co-treatment of SAMC attenuated NAFLD-induced liver injury, fat accumulation, collagen formation and free fatty acids (FFAs). At the molecular level, SAMC decreased the lipogenesis marker and restored the lipolysis marker. SAMC also reduced the expression levels of pro-fibrogenic factors and diminished liver oxidative stress partly through the inhibition in the activity of cytochrome P450 2E1-dependent pathway. NAFLD-induced inflammation was also partially mitigated by SAMC treatment via reduction in the pro-inflammatory mediators, chemokines and suppressor of cytokine signaling. The protective effect of SAMC is also shown partly through the restoration of altered phosphorylation status of FFAs-dependent MAP kinase pathways and diminished in the nuclear transcription factors (NF-κB and AP-1) activity during NAFLD development. CONCLUSIONS: SAMC is a novel hepato-protective agent against NAFLD caused by abnormal liver functions. Garlic or garlic derivatives could be considered as a potent food supplement in the prevention of fatty liver disease.
    European Journal of Nutrition 01/2012; 52(1). DOI:10.1007/s00394-012-0301-0 · 3.84 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We investigated the protective effects of two non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, indomethacin (COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors) and nimesulide (specific COX-2 inhibitor) on the hepatic injury induced by lipopolysaccharide in d-galactosamine sensitized (Gal/LPS) mice. ICR male mice were injected with a single dose of Gal/LPS with or without pre-treatment of 3mg/kg indomethacin or 30 mg/kg nimesulide (single i.p. injection). Sixteen hours later, blood and liver tissues of mice were collected for histological, molecular, and biochemical analyses. Our results showed marked reduction of hepatic necrosis, serum ALT, and tissue TBARS levels in both indomethacin- and nimesulide-pre-treated mice when compared with Gal/LPS-treated mice. Western blot and RT-PCR analysis showed decreased levels of iNOS mRNA, iNOS protein, and nitrotyrosine formation in both COX inhibitor pre-treated groups when compared with Gal/LPS-treated group. There was an inverse relationship between COX-1 and COX-2 expressions, as well as between COX-2 and C/EBP-α expressions in COX inhibitors groups, Gal/LPS and control groups. COX inhibitors reduced the expression of TNF-α mRNA and the activity of NF-κB which were elevated by Gal/LPS treatment. We conclude that COX inhibitors protected the liver from Gal/LPS-induced hepatotoxicity. COX inhibitors could be considered as potential agents in the prevention of acute liver failure and sepsis.
    Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 11/2011; 50(3-4):861-6. DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2011.11.009 · 2.61 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previously, we have shown that an increased expression level of iNOS but a reduction in the expression of eNOS is associated with increased oxidative stress markers in CCl₄-induced experimental liver fibrosis. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of L-arginine and 5-methylisothiourea hemisulfate (SMT) in the expression of profibrogenic factors in chronic liver injury. ICR mice were treated with CCl₄ with or without treatment of L-arginine, an NO donor, or SMT, an iNOS inhibitor. The expression of matrix metalloptroteinases (MMPs), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were investigated by RT-PCR. The activity of the MMP-2 and MMP-9 were measured by zymography. Our results showed that CCl₄-treated mice showed significant up-regulation of expression of pro-fibrogenic factors, TNF-α and COX-2. Treatment with L-arginine or SMT showed a significant reduction in CCl₄-induced expression of these pro-fibrogenic factors, TNF-α and COX-2. In conclusion, both SMT and L-arginine effectively attenuated the progression of CCl₄-induced liver fibrosis. SMT suppresses iNOS mediated NO production. However, L-arginine augments NO production. The similar effect of the two drugs on liver fibrosis indicates that there may be two distinct pathways of NOS mediated fibrogenesis in chronic liver injury by iNOS and eNOS. Our results suggest that eNOS-mediated liver fibrogenesis may play a more important role than that of iNOS in chronic liver injury. Taken together, these results support the contention that NO plays an active role in the progression of liver fibrosis and hepatocellular damage.
    Histology and histopathology 02/2011; 26(2):201-11. · 2.24 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) are considered important forces in attenuate liver injury and fibrosis. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of EGCG on the expression of fibrogenic factors and whether EGCG attenuates the severity of oxidative stress and inflammatory response in chronic liver injury. Mice were administered with CCl(4) together with or without EGCG for 8 weeks (n=6-8 per group). Histopathological and biochemical analyses were carried out. The mRNA expression levels of TNF-alpha, COX-2, iNOS, alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), transforming growth factor (TGF-beta(1)), pro-collagen-I, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, -9) and their inhibitors (TIMP-1, -2) were determined by RT-PCR. The collagen deposited in the liver was detected by Sirius Red staining. The formation of nitrotyrosine was measured as a marker of oxidative stress. The activity level of NF-kappaB and the expression level of C/EBP were also assessed. Chronic CCl(4) treatment caused liver injury, oxidative stress and nitrosative stress, and collagen accumulation in the liver. The expression levels of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic mediators and the activity of NF-kappaB were increased. Treatment with EGCG significantly reduced liver injury, oxidative stress and the inflammatory response. EGCG also significantly reduced the formation of collagen in the liver, the expression of alpha-SMA and all of the assayed pro-fibrogenic markers except TIMP-2 and MMP-9. EGCG significantly attenuated the severity of CCl(4)-induced liver injury and the progression of liver fibrosis. The protective effect of EGCG may in part be a consequence of the reduction in oxidative stress and the pro-inflammatory response.
    Toxicology 06/2010; 273(1-3):45-52. DOI:10.1016/j.tox.2010.04.014 · 3.75 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Ethanol metabolism increases production of reactive oxygen species, including superoxide (O2(.-)) in the liver, resulting in significant oxidative stress, which causes cellular damage. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an antioxidant enzyme that converts superoxide to less toxic intermediates, preventing accumulation. Because the absence of SOD would confer less resistance to oxidative stress, we determined whether damage to hepatic proteolytic systems was greater in SOD(-/-) than in SOD(+/+) mice after chronic ethanol feeding. METHODS: Female wild-type (SOD(+/+)) and Cu/Zn-SOD knockout (SOD(-/-)) mice were pair-fed ethanol and control liquid diets for 24 days, after which liver injury was assessed. Results: Ethanol-fed SOD(-/-) mice had 4-fold higher blood ethanol, 2.8-fold higher alanine aminotransferase levels, 20% higher liver weight, a 1.4-fold rise in hepatic protein levels, and 35 to 70% higher levels of lipid peroxides than corresponding wild-type mice. While wild-type mice exhibited fatty liver after ethanol administration, SOD(-/-) mice showed no evidence of ethanol-induced steatosis, although triglyceride levels were elevated in both groups of knockout mice. Ethanol administration caused no significant change in proteasome activity, but caused lysosomal leakage in livers of SOD(-/-) mice but not in wild-type mice. Alcohol dehydrogenase activity was reduced by 50 to 60% in ethanol-fed SOD(-/-) mice compared with all other groups. Additionally, while ethanol administration induced cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) activity in wild-type mice, it caused no such induction in SOD(-/-) mice. Unexpectedly, ethanol feeding significantly elevated total and mitochondrial levels of glutathione in SOD knockout mice compared with wild-type mice. Conclusion: Ethanol-fed SOD(-/-) mice exhibited lower alcohol dehydrogenase activity and lack of CYP2E1 inducibility, thereby causing decreased ethanol metabolism compared with wild-type mice. These and other atypical responses to ethanol, including the absence of ethanol-induced steatosis and enhanced glutathione levels, appear to be linked to enhanced oxidative stress due to lack of antioxidant enzyme capacity.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 11/2009; 34(2):251-61. DOI:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2009.01088.x · 3.31 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Animal models used to study the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are, in general, either genetically altered, or fed with a diet that is extremely high in fat or carbohydrates. Recent findings support the role of oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and inflammation as probable causative factors. We hypothesize that not only the amount of dietary fat, but the quality of fat is also important in inducing NAFLD. Based on previous observations that female rats fed a diet comprising unsaturated fatty acids are susceptible to liver injury, we proposed that female rats fed with a diet containing fish oil and dextrose would develop pathological and biochemical features of NAFLD. We fed a highly unsaturated fat diet (30% fish oil) to female Sprague-Dawley rats (180-200g), consumed ad libitum for 8 weeks (NAFLD; n=6-8 ). Control animals (CF; n=6-8) were fed with an isocaloric regular rat chow. At killing, blood and liver samples were collected for serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), histology and molecular analysis. Each histological sample was evaluated for fatty liver (graded from 0 to 4+ according to the amount of fatty change), necrosis (number of necrotic foci (no./mm2) and inflammation (cells per mm2). The amount of collagen formation was estimated based on the amount of Sirius Red staining. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was carried out for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), adiponectin, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) and catalase (CAT). Western Blot analysis was done for cyclooxygenases-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitrotyrosine. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay was performed for nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) activity. NAFLD rats had a significantly higher serum ALT level, amount of collagen formation, fatty liver, necrosis and inflammation when compared with the chow-fed control rats. mRNA and protein levels of NF-kB regulated genes, which included TNF-alpha, COX-2 and iNOS were also significantly (p<0.01; p<0.01; p<0.05 respectively) upregulated in the NAFLD group when compared with the chow-fed control rats. mRNA levels of antioxidants CAT and GPX were reduced by 35% and 50% respectively in the NAFLD group. However, Cu/Zn SOD mRNA was similar in both groups. The mRNA level of adiponectin was also reduced in NAFLD group. NF-kB activity was markedly increased in the NAFLD rats (p<0.01). The level of oxidative stress, represented by the formation of nitrotyrosine, was significantly elevated in the NAFLD rats (p<0.01). We conclude that NAFLD rats demonstrated several features of NAFLD, which included fatty liver, inflammation, necrosis, increased oxidative stress, an imbalance between pro and antioxidant enzymes mRNAs, reduced adiponectin levels and upregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators. We propose that female rats fed with a diet containing highly unsaturated fatty acids are an extremely useful model for the study of NAFLD.
    Histology and histopathology 09/2009; 24(9):1161-9. · 2.24 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The asialoglycoprotein (ASGP) receptor is an abundant hepatocyte-specific receptor involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis. This receptor's abundance and function is decreased by chronic ethanol administration prior to the appearance of pathology such as necrosis or inflammation. Hence, this study aimed to determine if ASGP receptor function is required to protect against liver injury by utilizing a knockout mouse model lacking functional ASGP receptor in the setting of carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) hepatotoxicity. Briefly, ASGP receptor-deficient (RD) mice and wild-type (WT) mice were injected with 1ml/kg body weight of CCl(4). In the subsequent week, mice were monitored for liver damage and pathology (aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and light microscopy). The consequences of CCl(4) injection were examined by measuring alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) deposition, contents of malondialdehyde and the percentage of apoptotic hepatocytes. After CCl(4) injection, RD mice showed increased liver pathology together with significantly increased activities of AST and ALT compared to that in WT mice. There were also significantly more apoptotic bodies, lipid peroxidation and deposition of alpha-SMA in RD mice versus WT mice following CCl(4) injection. Since these two mouse strains only differ in whether or not they have the ASGP receptor, it can be concluded that proper ASGP receptor function exerted a protective effect against CCl(4) toxicity. Thus, receptor-mediated endocytosis by the ASGP receptor could represent a novel molecular mechanism that is responsible for subsequent liver health or injury.
    Biochemical pharmacology 02/2009; 77(7):1283-90. DOI:10.1016/j.bcp.2008.12.023 · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Reduced expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in chronic liver disease can reduce hepatic perfusion and accelerate fibrosis. The relationship between eNOS expression and liver fibrogenesis remains unclear. We investigated whether L-arginine attenuated chronic liver fibrosis through eNOS expression. Chronic liver injury was induced by administration of carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) to mice for 8 weeks. 5-Methylisothiourea hemisulphate (SMT), an iNOS inhibitor, or L-arginine, a NOS substrate were injected subcutaneously. CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity, oxidative stress and accumulation of collagen were detected in the liver. The expression levels of inducible NOS (iNOS) and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-kappaB) activity in the liver after CCl(4) treatment were increased but eNOS expression and activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity were decreased. Both SMT and L-arginine effectively reduced CCl(4) induced oxidative stress and collagen formation, but L-arginine showed a significantly greater suppression of collagen formation, iNOS expression and NF-kappaB activity. L-arginine also restored the level of eNOS and AP-1 activity. L-arginine was more effective than SMT in suppressing liver fibrosis. L-arginine might improve NO production which facilitates hepatic blood flow and thus retards liver fibrogenesis. Our results showed that the reduced eNOS expression in CCl(4)-treated mice was reversed by L-arginine. Furthermore, L-arginine also reversed the reduced AP-1 activity, an eNOS promoter.
    International Journal of Experimental Pathology 05/2008; 89(4):241-50. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2613.2008.00590.x · 2.05 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The intragastric (IG) ethanol infusion model results in fatty liver, necrosis, inflammation and fibrosis. This model was utilized to study the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Disadvantages of the IG model include maintenance of the animals and equipment expense. To develop a voluntary feeding model for ALD, we took advantage of two important observations in the IG model: (i) female rats demonstrate greater severity of alcohol-induced liver injury than males and (ii) rats fed fish oil as a source of fatty acids develop more severe alcoholic liver injury than rats fed other fatty acids with ethanol. Female Wistar rats (205 to 220 g) were fed for 8 weeks a diet containing 8% ethanol, fish oil (30% of calories), protein, and dextrose. Pair-fed controls (FD) received dextrose in amounts isocaloric to ethanol. The following measurements were made: liver pathology [fatty liver (0 to 4), necrosis, inflammation and fibrosis by Sirius Red], endotoxin and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in plasma, urine ethanol, lipid peroxidation, nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-kappaB) and mRNA levels for tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Protein levels for iNOS and nitrotyrosine were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Western Blot analysis. Liver proteasome and cytochrome P450 2E1 activity and protein levels of asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) were also evaluated. In addition, mRNA levels of fibrogenic markers were assessed. All animals lost weight for the initial 2 to 3 weeks but then gained weight until killing at 8 weeks. There was, however, a significant difference (p < 0.05) in weight between the ethanol-fed (Etoh) and (FD) groups at the end of the experiment. The mean urine ethanol levels ranged between 190 and 240 mg/dl. The severity of pathological changes was greater (p < 0.01) in Etoh vs. FD: fatty liver, 3.0 +/- 1.2 vs. 1.2 +/- 0.4; necrosis (foci/mm(2)), 3.9 +/- 2.3 vs. 0.4 +/- 0.3; inflammation (cells/mm(2)), 19.0 +/- 6.3 vs. 1.8 +/- 0.6. Centrilobular collagen deposition (% area), assessed by Sirius Red staining, was greater in Etoh vs. FD. Levels of endotoxin, ALT, CYP2E1 and lipid peroxidation markers were also higher (p < 0.01) in Etoh vs. FD. Levels of NF-kappaB and mRNA of pro-inflammatory mediators (TNF-alpha, COX-2, iNOS) and procollagen-I were increased (p < 0.05) in ethanol-fed rats. Immunohistochemical analysis showed more intense staining for both iNOS and nitrotyrosine in the centrilobular areas in the Etoh vs. FD groups. The greater area of positive staining for iNOS and nitrotyrosine in Etoh vs. FD was confirmed by Western Blot analysis. An increase in the expression of mRNA for profibrogenic genes (p < 0.05) was seen in ethanol-fed rats. A voluntary feeding regimen consisting of fish oil and ethanol in female rats is technically less demanding yet produces pathological and biochemical changes similar to those observed with the IG model. Pathological changes include fatty liver, necrosis and inflammation. Increased NF-kappaB and mRNA and protein levels of the pro-inflammatory mediators TNF-alpha, COX-2 and iNOS, coincided with the presence of necroinflammatory changes. The voluntary feeding regimen is proposed as an alternative to the IG model in the study of alcoholic liver injury.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 04/2008; 32(4):669-82. DOI:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2008.00623.x · 3.31 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is an increasingly recognized condition that may progress to end-stage liver disease. In addition to alcohol consumption, genetic factors, dietary fatty acids, gender and viral infection potentiate the severity of alcoholic liver injury. In humans, significant gender differences in susceptibility to ALD are observed. In the intragastric infusion rat model of ALD, female rats developed more severe liver injury than males. To understand the effect of gender on the development of more severe ALD in female rats, we performed a microarray based expression profiling of genes in rats fed with fish oil and ethanol diet. A large number of genes showed significant changes in female livers compared to males. The upregulated genes in female liver were involved in proteosome endopeptidase activity, catalytic activity, lipid metabolism, alcohol metabolism, mitochondrial and oxidoreductase activity. The downregulated genes were involved in oxidoreductase activity, chaperone activity, and electron transport activity in the female liver as demonstrated by biological theme analysis. Ingenuity computational pathway analysis tools were used to identify specific regulatory networks of genes operative in promoting liver injury. These networks allowed us to identify a large cluster of genes involved in lipid metabolism, development, cellular growth and proliferation, apoptosis, carcinogenesis and various signaling pathways. Genes listed in this article that were significantly increased or decreased (expression two fold or more) were assigned to pathological functional groups and reviewed for relevance to establish hypotheses of potential mechanisms involved in ALD in female liver injury.
    Experimental and Molecular Pathology 03/2008; 84(1):46-58. DOI:10.1016/j.yexmp.2007.10.001 · 2.88 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The variety of animal models used in the study of alcoholic liver disease reflects the formidable task of developing a model that replicates the human disease. We show that oral feeding of fatty acids derived from fish oil and ethanol induces fatty liver, necrosis, inflammation, and fibrosis. Together with the study of oxidative and nitrosative stress markers, cytokines, proteasome function, and protein studies, this model has provided an inexpensive and technically simple method of establishing pathological alcoholic liver injury.
    Methods in Molecular Biology 02/2008; 447:11-31. DOI:10.1007/978-1-59745-242-7_2 · 1.29 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Women exhibit greater liver damage than men after chronic alcohol consumption. Similar findings are reported in animal models. Here, we determined whether differential liver injury occurred in male and female rats after feeding these animals liquid diets containing either ethanol or isocaloric dextrose with fish oil as the sole source of lipid. Control and ethanol liquid diets containing fish oil were pair-fed to male and female rats for 8 weeks. Liver damage was evaluated by triglyceride accumulation, lipid peroxide formation, serum transaminases, histological evaluation, and the activities of selected lysosomal and hepatoprotective enzymes. Fatty liver was detected after ethanol feeding in both genders, but in female rats, triglyceride levels were 60% higher, lipid peroxides were 2-fold higher, and inflammatory cells were more evident than in males. A 2-fold elevation of cathepsin B in hepatic cytosol fractions, indicating lysosomal leakage, was detected in ethanol-fed female rats but no such elevation was observed in males. The basal activity of the hepatoprotective enzyme, betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase was 4-fold higher in livers of control male rats than females, and the enzyme activity was further elevated in ethanol-fed male rats but not in females. Thus, female rats given ethanol in a diet containing fish oil exhibited more severe liver damage than males. We propose that this difference results, in part, from a greater tendency by females to accumulate hepatic fat, thereby enhancing the potential for oxidative stress, which in turn leads to hepatic inflammation. In addition, our findings indicate that female rats have a higher susceptibility to liver damage because of a reduced capacity for hepatoprotection.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 12/2007; 31(11):1944-52. DOI:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2007.00512.x · 3.31 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: L-Buthionine (S,R) sulfoximine (BSO) is an inhibitor of glutathione biosynthesis and has been used as an effective means of depleting glutathione from cells and tissues. Here we investigated whether treatment with BSO enhanced ethanol-induced liver injury in mice. Female C57Bl/6 mice were pair fed with control and ethanol-containing liquid diets in which ethanol was 29.2% of total calories. During the final 7 days of pair feeding, groups of control-fed and ethanol-fed mice were given 0, 5 or 7.6 mM BSO in the liquid diets. Compared with controls, ethanol given alone decreased total liver glutathione. This effect was exacerbated in mice given ethanol with 7.6 mM BSO, causing a 72% decline in hepatic glutathione. While ethanol alone caused no decrease in mitochondrial glutathione, inclusion of 7.6 mM BSO caused a 2-fold decline compared with untreated controls. L-Buthionine (S,R) sulfoximine did not affect ethanol consumption, but serum ethanol levels in BSO-treated mice were nearly 6-fold lower than in mice given ethanol alone. The latter decline in serum ethanol was associated with a significant elevation in the specific activities of cytochrome P450 2E1 and alcohol dehydrogenase in livers of BSO-treated animals. Ethanol consumption caused a 3.5-fold elevation in serum alanine aminotransferase levels but the enzyme fell to control levels when BSO was included in the diet. L-Buthionine (S,R) sulfoximine administration also attenuated ethanol-induced steatosis, prevented the leakage of lysosomal cathepsins into the cytosol, and prevented the ethanol-elicited decline in proteasome activity. L-Buthionine (S,R) sulfoximine, administered with ethanol, significantly depleted hepatic glutathione, compared with controls. However, despite the decrease in hepatic antioxidant levels, liver injury by ethanol was alleviated, due, in part, to a BSO-elicited acceleration of ethanol metabolism.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 06/2007; 31(6):1053-60. DOI:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2007.00393.x · 3.31 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
830.11 Total Impact Points


  • 2013
    • The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
      • Department of Health Technology and Informatics
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • 2007–2013
    • Dalhousie University
      • Faculty of Medicine
      Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
  • 2001–2009
    • The University of Hong Kong
      • Department of Anatomy
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • 2003–2008
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • • Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
      • • Department of Pathology
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
    • Keio University
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
    • University of Helsinki
      • Research Unit of Alcohol Diseases
      Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland
    • Mount Sinai Medical Center
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 1997–2006
    • Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
      • Department of Pathology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis
      • Department of Medicine
      Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
  • 1988–2006
    • Harvard Medical School
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Pathology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • The Ottawa Hospital
      • Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
      Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  • 2005
    • Imperial College London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2004
    • Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
    • Lerner Research Institute
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States
  • 2002
    • Queen Mary Hospital
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • 2000
    • University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center
      • Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Oklahoma City, OK, United States
  • 1999
    • National Public Health Institute
      Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland
  • 1998
    • Concordia University–Ann Arbor
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
    • The University of Arizona
      • Department of Pathology
      Tucson, AZ, United States
  • 1993–1997
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1995
    • University of Massachusetts Boston
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1994
    • Beverly Hospital, Boston MA
      Beverly, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1992
    • National Hospital Organization Kurihama Medical and Addiction Center
      Йокосука, Kanagawa, Japan
  • 1985–1989
    • University of Ottawa
      • Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
      Ottawa, Ontario, Canada