[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Even though Plasmodium vivax has the widest worldwide distribution of the human malaria species and imposes a serious impact on global public health, the investigation of genetic diversity in this species has been limited in comparison to Plasmodium falciparum. Markers of genetic diversity are vital to the evaluation of drug and vaccine efficacy, tracking of P. vivax outbreaks, and assessing geographical differentiation between parasite populations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of random blood glucose (RBG) on good glycaemic control among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) in a rural African setting.Methods
Cross-sectional study at St. Francis' Hospital in eastern Zambia. RBG and HbA1c were measured during one clinical review only. Other information obtained was age, sex, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, urine albumin–creatinine ratio, duration since diagnosis and medication.ResultsOne hundred and one patients with DM (type 1 DM = 23, type 2 DM = 78) were included. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient revealed a significant correlation between RBG and HbA1c among the patients with type 2 DM (r = 0.73, P < 0.001) but not patients with type 1 DM (r = 0.17, P = 0.44). Furthermore, in a multivariate linear regression model (R2 = 0.71) RBG (per mmol/l increment) (B = 0.28, 95% CI:0.24–0.32, P < 0.001) was significantly associated with HbA1c among the patients with type 2 DM. Based on ROC analysis (AUC = 0.80, SE = 0.05), RBG ≤7.5 mmol/l was determined as the optimal cut-off value for good glycaemic control (HbA1c <7.0% [53 mmol/mol]) among patients with type 2 DM (sensitivity = 76.7%; specificity = 70.8%; positive predictive value = 62.2%; negative predictive value = 82.9%).Conclusions
Random blood glucose could possibly be used to assess glycaemic control among patients with type 2 DM in rural settings of sub-Saharan Africa.
Tropical Medicine & International Health 10/2014; · 2.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate whether there is an association between diameter of bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) scars and effect of purified protein derivative (PPD) reaction and to determine whether vitamin A (VA) combined vitamin D (VD) supplementation influences the immune response to BCG revaccinated in Chinese infants.
A cross-section and 3-month community-randomised trial was conducted. A total of 5 629 infants at 3, 6 and 12 months of age in Junan County of China were examined for BCG scar formation. Then, 597 revaccinated infants were randomly assigned to supplementation (n=307) and control (n=290) groups. The supplementation group were daily assigned to 1 500 IU VA and 500 IU VD for 3 months. Then all infants were subjected to skin test with PPD.
The diameter of BCG scars was positively correlated with diameter of skin indurations of PPD (r=0.17, P<0.05) in the 5 629 infants. The rate of positive response to PPD was higher in the supplementation group than in the control group (96.1% versus 89.7%, P<0.05, prevalence ratio 1.07, 95% CI 1.02-1.12). The prevalence ratio of PPD response for the supplementation group compared with that for the control group was 1.07 (95% CI 1.01-1.13) for the males and 1.08 (95% CI 1.00-1.17) for the females. For the supplementation group, the males got larger tuberculin induration than the females [(0.73±0.21) cm versus (0.67±0.20) cm, P<0.05) after intervention.
The diameter of BCG scars was effectively correlated with PPD response, which indicates BCG scar formation may be an useful tool to evaluate the effect of tuberculosis prevention. VA combined VD supplementation may play an immuno-regulatory role in BCG revaccination. This may contribute to the prevention of childhood tuberculosis.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine 02/2014; 7(2):130-5. · 0.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) - a transitory form of diabetes first recognised during pregnancy complicates between < 1% and 28% of all pregnancies. GDM has important short and long-term health consequences for both the mother and her offspring. To prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes and to prevent or delay, future onset of type 2 diabetes in mother and offspring, timely detection, optimum treatment, and preventive postpartum care and follow-up is necessary. However the area remains grossly under prioritised.
To investigate determinants and barriers to GDM care from initial screening and diagnosis, to prenatal treatment and postpartum follow-up, a PubMed database search to identify quantitative and qualitative studies on the subject was done in September 2012. Fifty-eight relevant studies were reviewed.
Adherence to prevailing GDM screening guidelines and compliance to screening tests seems sub-optimal at best and arbitrary at worst, with no clear or consistent correlation to health provider, health system or client characteristics. Studies indicate that most women express commitment and motivation for behaviour change to protect the health of their unborn baby, but compliance to recommended treatment and advice is fraught with challenges, and precious little is known about health system or societal factors that hinder compliance and what can be done to improve it. A number of barriers related to health care provider/system and client characteristics have been identified by qualitative studies. Immediately following a GDM pregnancy many women, when properly informed desire and intend to maintain healthy lifestyles to prevent future diabetes, but find the effort challenging. Adherence to recommended postpartum screening and continued lifestyle modifications seems even lower. Here too, health care provider, health system and client related determinants and barriers were identified. Studies reveal that sense of self-efficacy and social support are key determinants.
The paper identifies and discusses determinants and barriers for GDM care, fully recognising that these are highly dependent on the context.
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 01/2014; 14(1):41. · 2.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A study of health facility (HF) data on women receiving sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy (IPTp) was carried out at antenatal care (ANC) clinics in Mkuranga and Mufindi districts.
A review of health management information system (HMIS) registers, interviews with health-care workers (HWs) and district and national level malaria control program managers corroborated by inter-temporal assessment through observations at HF levels. Statistical data were analyzed in Excel and interpreted in triangulation with qualitative data from interviews and observations.
Data indicated that IPTp doses administered to women were inadequate and partly inconsistent. HMIS registers lacked space for IPT records, forcing HWs to manipulate their record-keeping. The proportion/number of IPTp recipients in related to the supply of SP for free delivery, to women's attendance behaviours, showed showed variation by quarter and year of reporting.
It is impossible to achieve rational health service planning when the HMIS is weak. Whilst it is acknowledged that the HMIS is already overloaded, concerted measures are urgently needed to accommodate data on new interventions and other vertical programs if malaria programs are to achieve their goals.
Reproductive Health 01/2014; 11(1):6. · 1.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Community case management of malaria (CCMm) and seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) are anti-malarial interventions that can lead to substantial reduction in malaria burden acting in synergy. However, little is known about the social acceptability of these interventions. A study was undertaken to assess whether combining the interventions would be an acceptable approach to malaria control for community health workers (CHWs).
Sixty-one interviews and six focus group discussions were conducted nested in a cluster-randomized trial assessing the impact of combining HMM and SMC in a rural area of Senegal. Participants consisted of: (i) members of village associations, (ii) members of families who had access to the interventions as well as members of families who did not access the interventions, (iii) CHWs, and (iv) community leaders, e g, religious guides and village chiefs.
The interventions were acceptable to the local population and perceived as good strategy to make health care services available to community members and thus, to reduce the delays in access to anti-malarial treatment as well as expenses related to patients' transfer to the health post. The use of malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) contributed to improving CHWs diagnostic capacity as well as malaria treatment practices. Study participants notified RDT and drugs stock-out as the major risk for sustainability of the intervention at community level.
Combining CCMm and SMC is a well accepted, community-based approach that can contribute to control malaria in areas where malaria transmission is seasonal.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasmodium vivax malaria was common in Greece until the 1950s with epidemics involving thousands of cases every year. Greece was declared free of malaria by the World Health Organization in 1974. From 1974 to 2010, an average of 39 cases per year were reported, which were mainly imported. However, in 2009 and 2010 six and one autochthonous cases were reported culminating with a total of 40 autochthonous cases reported in 2011, of which 34 originated from a single region: Laconia of Southern Peloponnese. In this study the genotypic complexity of the P. vivax infections from the outbreak in Greece during 2011 is described, to elucidate the possible origin and spread of the disease.
Three polymorphic markers of P. vivax were used; Pvmsp-3alpha and the microsatellites m1501 and m3502 on P. vivax isolates sampled from individuals diagnosed in Greece. Thirty-nine isolates were available for this study (20 autochthonous and 19 imported), mostly from Evrotas municipality in Laconia region, in southern Greece, (n = 29), with the remaining representing sporadic cases originating from other areas of Greece.
Genotyping the Evrotas samples revealed seven different haplotypes where the majority of the P. vivax infections expressed two particular Pvmsp-3alpha-m1501-m3502 haplotypes, A10-128-151 (n = 14) and A10-121-142 (n = 7). These haplotypes appeared throughout the period in autochthonous and imported cases, indicating continuous transmission. In contrast, the P. vivax autochthonous cases from other parts of Greece were largely comprised of unique haplotypes, indicating limited transmission in these other areas.
The results indicate that several P. vivax strains were imported into various areas of Greece in 2011, thereby increasing the risk of re-introduction of malaria. In the region of Evrotas ongoing transmission occurred exemplifying that further control measures are urgently needed in this region of southern Europe. In circumstances where medical or travel history is scarce, methods of molecular epidemiology may prove highly useful for the correct classification of the cases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Worldwide, rotavirus infections cause approximately 453 000 child deaths annually. Two licensed vaccines could be life- and cost-saving in low-income countries where the disease burden is highest. The aim of our study was to estimate the total cost of implementing the rotavirus vaccine in the national immunisation programme of a low-income country. Furthermore, the aim was to examine the relative contribution of different components to the total cost.
Following the World Health Organization guidelines, we estimated the resource use and costs associated with rotavirus vaccine implementation, using Malawi as a case. The cost analysis was undertaken from a governmental perspective. All costs were calculated for a 5-years period (2012-2016) and discounted at 5%. The value of key input parameters was varied in a sensitivity analysis.
The total cost of rotavirus vaccine implementation in Malawi amounted to US$ 18.5 million over a 5-years period. This translated into US$ 5.8 per child in the birth cohort. With GAVI Alliance financial support, the total cost was reduced to US$ 1.4 per child in the birth cohort. Approximately 83% of the total cost was attributed to vaccine purchase, while 17% was attributed to system costs, with personnel, transportation and cold chain as the main cost components.
The total cost of rotavirus vaccine implementation in Malawi is high compared with the governmental health budget of US$ 26 per capita per year. This highlights the need for new financing opportunities for low-income countries to facilitate vaccine implementation and ensure sustainable financing.
Tropical Medicine & International Health 12/2013; · 2.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Home-based management of malaria (HMM) may improve access to diagnostic testing and treatment with artemisinin combination therapy (ACT). In the Sahel region, seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) is now recommended for the prevention of malaria in children. It is likely that combinations of antimalarial interventions can reduce the malaria burden. This study assessed the feasibility, effectiveness and safety of combining SMC and HMM delivered by community health workers (CHWs).
A cluster-randomised trial was carried out during two transmission seasons in eight villages located in the south-eastern part of Senegal. Intervention communities received HMM+SMC while control communities received HMM. Primary end point was the incidence of malaria attacks during the follow up period. Secondary end points included: malaria diagnostic accuracy; access to ACT treatment; SMC coverage; safety and drug tolerability.
The adjusted rate ratio for incidence of malaria attacks in intervention and control communities was 0.15, indicating a protective effect of HMM+SMC of 85% (95% CI: 39.9-96.3%, p=0.01). Access to ACT treatment was 96.4% while SMC coverage represented 97.3% (95% CI: 91.3-100%) in 2010, and 88.8% (95% CI: 84.2-93.6%) in 2011. No serious adverse events were recorded.
It seems feasible and safe to combine SMC with HMM intervention, while achieving high coverage and effectiveness of both SMC and HMM.
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 12/2013; · 1.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The complex interactions between the human host and the Plasmodium falciparum parasite and the factors influencing severity of disease are still not fully understood. Human single nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs associated with Knops blood group system; carried by complement receptor 1 may be associated with the pathology of P. falciparum malaria, and susceptibility to disease.
The objective of this study was to determine the genotype and haplotype frequencies of the SNPs defining the Knops blood group antigens; Kna/b, McCoya/b, Swain-Langley1/2 and KCAM+/- in Ghanaian patients with malaria and determine possible associations between these polymorphisms and the severity of the disease. Study participants were patients (n = 267) admitted to the emergency room at the Department of Child Health, Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana during the malaria season from June to August in 1995, 1996 and 1997, classified as uncomplicated malaria (n = 89), severe anaemia (n = 57) and cerebral malaria (n = 121) and controls who did not have a detectable Plasmodium infection or were symptomless carriers of the parasite (n = 275). The frequencies were determined using a post-PCR ligation detection reaction-fluorescent microsphere assay, developed to detect the SNPs defining the antigens. Chi-square/Fisher's exact test and logistic regression models were used to analyse the data.
As expected, high frequencies of the alleles Kna, McCb, Sl2 and KCAM- were found in the Ghanaian population. Apart from small significant differences between the groups at the Sl locus, no significant allelic or genotypic differences were found between the controls and the disease groups or between the disease groups. The polymorphisms define eight different haplotypes H1(2.4 %), H2(9.4 %), H3(59.8 %), H4(0 %), H5(25.2 %), H6(0.33 %), H7(2.8 %) and H8(0 %). Investigating these haplotypes, no significant differences between any of the groups were found.
The results confirm earlier findings of high frequencies of certain CR1 alleles in Africa; and shed more light on earlier conflicting findings; the alleles McCb, Sl2, Knb and KCAM- or combined haplotypes do not seem to confer any protective advantage against malaria infection or resulting disease severity. Based on these findings, in a very well-characterized population, malaria does not seem to be the selective force on these alleles.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: By the end of 2009 an estimated 2.5 million children worldwide were living with HIV-1, mostly as a consequence of vertical transmission, and more than 90% of these children live in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2008 the World Health Organization (WHO), recommended early initiation of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) to all HIV infected infants diagnosed within the first year of life, and since 2010, within the first two years of life, irrespective of CD4 count or WHO clinical stage. The study aims were to describe implementation of EID programs in three Tanzanian regions with differences in HIV prevalences and logistical set-up with regard to HIV DNA testing.
Data were obtained by review of the prevention from mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) registers from 2009--2011 at the Reproductive and Child Health Clinics (RCH) and from the databases from the Care and Treatment Clinics (CTC) in all the three regions; Kilimanjaro, Mbeya and Tanga. Statistical tests used were Poisson regression model and rank sum test.
During the period of 2009 -- 2011 a total of 4,860 exposed infants were registered from the reviewed sites, of whom 4,292 (88.3%) were screened for HIV infection. Overall proportion of tested infants in the three regions increased from 77.2% in 2009 to 97.8% in 2011. A total of 452 (10.5%) were found to be HIV infected (judged by the result of the first test). The prevalence of HIV infection among infants was higher in Mbeya when compared to Kilimanjaro region RR = 1.872 (95% CI = 1.408 -- 2.543) p < 0.001. However sample turnaround time was significantly shorter in both Mbeya (2.7 weeks) and Tanga (5.0 weeks) as compared to Kilimanjaro (7.0 weeks), p < 0,001. A substantial of loss to follow-up (LTFU) was evident at all stages of EID services in the period of 2009 to 2011. Among the infants who were receiving treatment, 61% were found to be LFTU during the review period.
The study showed an increase in testing of HIV exposed infants within the three years, there is large variations of HIV prevalence among the regions. Challenges like; sample turnaround time and LTFU must be overcome before this can translate into the intended goal of early initiation of lifelong lifesaving antiretroviral therapy for the infants.
BMC Public Health 10/2013; 13(1):910. · 2.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The recently reported declining burden of malaria in some African countries has been attributed to scaling-up of different interventions although in some areas, these changes started before implementation of major interventions. This study assessed the long-term trends of malaria burden for 20 years (1992--2012) in Magoda and for 15 years in Mpapayu village of Muheza district, north-eastern Tanzania, in relation to different interventions as well as changing national malaria control policies.
Repeated cross-sectional surveys recruited individuals aged 0 -- 19 years from the two villages whereby blood smears were collected for detection of malaria parasites by microscopy. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infections and other indices of malaria burden (prevalence of anaemia, splenomegaly and gametocytes) were compared across the years and between the study villages. Major interventions deployed including mobile clinic, bed nets and other research activities, and changes in national malaria control policies were also marked.
In Magoda, the prevalence of P. falciparum infections initially decreased between 1992 and 1996 (from 83.5 to 62.0%), stabilized between 1996 and 1997, and further declined to 34.4% in 2004. A temporary increase between 2004 and 2008 was followed by a progressive decline to 7.2% in 2012, which is more than 10-fold decrease since 1992. In Mpapayu (from 1998), the highest prevalence was 81.5% in 1999 and it decreased to 25% in 2004. After a slight increase in 2008, a steady decline followed, reaching <5% from 2011 onwards. Bed net usage was high in both villages from 1999 to 2004 (>=88%) but it decreased between 2008 and 2012 (range, 28% - 68%). After adjusting for the effects of bed nets, age, fever and year of study, the risk of P. falciparum infections decreased significantly by >=97% in both villages between 1999 and 2012 (p < 0.001). The prevalence of splenomegaly (>40% to <1%) and gametocytes (23% to <1%) also decreased in both villages.Discussion and conclusionsA remarkable decline in the burden of malaria occurred between 1992 and 2012 and the initial decline (1992 -- 2004) was most likely due to deployment of interventions, such as bed nets, and better services through research activities. Apart from changes of drug policies, the steady decline observed from 2008 occurred when bed net coverage was low suggesting that other factors contributed to the most recent pattern. These results suggest that continued monitoring is required to determine causes of the changing malaria epidemiology and also to monitor the progress towards maintaining low malaria transmission and reaching related millennium development goals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To assess albuminuria in rural Zambia among patients with diabetes mellitus only (DM group), hypertension only (HTN group) and patients with combined DM and HTN (DM/HTN group). METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted at St. Francis Hospital in the Eastern province of Zambia. Albumin-creatinine ratio in one urine sample was used to assess albuminuria. Other information obtained included age, sex, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c ), random capillary glucose, time since diagnosis, medication and family history of DM or HTN. RESULTS: A total of 193 participants were included (DM group: n = 33; HTN group: n = 92; DM/HTN group: n = 68). The participants in the DM group used insulin more frequently as diabetes medication than the DM/HTN group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the DM group was younger and had lower BMI, WC and BP than the two other groups. In the DM group, HTN group and DM/HTN group, microalbuminuria was found in 12.1%, 19.6% and 29.4% (P = 0.11), and macroalbuminuria was found in 0.0%, 3.3% and 13.2% (P = 0.014), respectively. The urine albumin (P = 0.014) and albumin-creatinine ratio (P = 0.0006) differed between the three groups. CONCLUSION: This hospital-based survey in rural Zambia found a lower frequency of albuminuria among the participants than in previous studies of patients with DM or HTN in urban sub-Saharan Africa.
Tropical Medicine & International Health 06/2013; · 2.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are now the leading causes of mortality in Mongolia, and diabetes, in particular, is a growing public health threat. Mongolia is a nation undergoing rapid and widespread epidemiological transition and urbanisation: a process that is expected to continue in coming decades and is likely to increase the diabetes burden. To better inform policy and public-health responses to the impact of the growth in NCDs, a national NCD Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices survey was implemented in Mongolia in 2010; a section of which focused on diabetes. METHODS: This survey was a nationally-representative, household-based questionnaire conducted by field-workers. Households were selected using a multi-stage, cluster sampling technique, with one participant (aged 15--64) selected from each of the 3540 households. Questions explored demographic and administrative parameters, as well as knowledge attitudes and practices around NCDs and their risk factors. RESULTS: This research suggests low levels of diabetes-related health knowledge in Mongolia. Up to fifty percent of Mongolian sub-populations, and one in five of the total population, had never heard the term diabetes prior to surveying. This research also highlights a high level of misunderstanding around the symptomatology and natural progression of diabetes; for example, one-third of Mongolians were unaware that the disease could be prevented through lifestyle changes. Further, this study suggests that a low proportion of Mongolians have received counseling or health education about diabetes, with lowest access to such services for the urban poor and least educated sub-populations. CONCLUSIONS: This research suggests a low prevalence of diabetes-related health-knowledge among Mongolians. In this light, health-education should be part of any national strategy on diabetes.
BMC Public Health 03/2013; 13(1):236. · 2.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Mongolia has a high and increasing burden of hypertension and related disease, with cardiovascular diseases among the leading causes of death. Yet little is known about the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the Mongolian population with regards to blood pressure. With this in mind, a national Non-Communicable Diseases knowledge, attitudes and practices survey on blood pressure was implemented in late 2010. This paper reports on the findings of this research. METHODS: Using a multi-stage, random cluster sampling method 3450 participant households were selected from across Mongolia. This survey was interviewer-administered and included demographic and socio-economic questions. Sample size was calculated using methods aligned with the World Health Organization STEPS surveys. RESULTS: One fifth of participants reported having never heard the term 'blood pressure'. This absence of health knowledge was significantly higher in men, and particularly younger men. The majority of participants recognised high blood pressure to be a threat to health, with a higher level of risk awareness among urban individuals. Education level and older age were generally associated with a heightened knowledge and risk perception. Roughly seven in ten participants were aware of the relationship between salt and blood pressure. Exploring barriers to screening, participants rated a 'lack of perceived importance' as the main deterring factor among fellow Mongolians and overall, participants perceived medication and exercise as the only interventions to be moderately effective at preventing high blood pressure. CONCLUSION: Rural populations; younger populations; men; and less educated populations, all with lower levels of knowledge and risk perception regarding hypertension, present those most vulnerable to it and the related health outcomes. This research intimates major health knowledge gaps in sub-populations within Mongolia, regarding health-risks related to hypertension.
BMC Public Health 03/2013; 13(1):194. · 2.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This qualitative study aims to explore how HIV positive women living in a northern province of Vietnam experience seeking antiretroviral (ARV) treatment in the public health system, and how they address obstacles encountered along the way. Despite the fact that antiretroviral drugs were freely provided, they were not always accessible for women in need. A variety of factors at the population and health system level interacted in ways that often made access to ARV drugs a complicated and time-consuming process. We have suggested changes that could be made at the health system level that may help facilitate women's ability to access treatment.
Health Care For Women International 03/2013; 34(3-4):209-26. · 0.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The leading cause of mortality in Mongolia is Non-Communicable Disease. Alcohol is recognised by the World Health Organization as one of the four major disease drivers and so, in order to better understand and triangulate recent national burden-of-disease surveys and to inform policy responses to alcohol consumption in Mongolia, a national Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices survey was conducted. Focusing on Non-Communicable Diseases and their risk factors, this publication explores the alcohol-related findings of this national survey. METHODS: A door-to-door, household-based questionnaire was conducted on 3450 people from across Mongolia. Participants were recruited using a multi-stage random cluster sampling technique, and eligibility was granted to permanent residents of households who were aged between 15 and 64 years. A nationally representative sample size was calculated, based on methodologies aligned with the WHO STEPwise approach to Surveillance. RESULTS: Approximately 50% of males and 30% of females were found to be current drinkers of alcohol. Moreover, nine in ten respondents agreed that heavy episodic drinking of alcohol is common among Mongolians, and the harms of daily alcohol consumption were generally perceived to be high. Indeed, 90% of respondents regarded daily alcohol consumption as either 'harmful' or 'very harmful'. Interestingly, morning drinking, suggestive of problematic drinking, was highest in rural men and was associated with lower-levels of education and unemployment. CONCLUSION: This research suggests that Mongolia faces an epidemiological challenge in addressing the burden of alcohol use and related problems. Males, rural populations and those aged 25-34 years exhibited the highest levels of risky drinking practices, while urban populations exhibit higher levels of general alcohol consumption. These findings suggest a focus and context for public health measures addressing alcohol-related harm in Mongolia.
BMC Public Health 02/2013; 13(1):178. · 2.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The association between pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and diabetes mellitus (DM) has been previously attracted much attention. Diabetes alters immunity to tuberculosis, leading to more frequent treatment failure in TB patients with DM. Moreover, TB and DM often coincide with micronutrients deficiencies, such as retinol and vitamin D, which are especially important to immunity of the body and may influence pancreas beta-cell function. However, the effects of retinol and vitamin D supplementation in active TB patients with diabetes on treatment outcomes, immune and nutrition state are still uncertain. We are conducting a randomized controlled trial of vitamin A and/or D in active PTB patients with DM in a network of 4 TB treatment clinics to determine whether the supplementation could improve the outcome in the patients.Methods/design: This is a 2x2 factorial trial. We plan to enroll 400 active PTB patients with DM, and randomize them to VA (2000 IU daily retinol); VD (400 IU daily cholecalciferol); VAD (2000 IU daily retinol plus 400 IU cholecalciferol) or control (placebo) group. Our primary outcome measure is the efficacy of anti-tuberculosis treatment and ameliorating of glucose metabolism, and the secondary outcome measure being immune and nutrition status of the subjects. Of the first 37 subjects enrolled: 8 have been randomized to VA, 10 to VD, 9 to VAD and 10 to control. To date, the sample is 97.3% Han Chinese and 91.9% female. The average fasting plasma glucose level is 12.19 mmol/L. DISCUSSION: This paper describes the design and rationale of a randomized clinical trial comparing VA and/or VD supplementation to active pulmonary TB patients with DM. Our trial will allow rigorous evaluation of the efficacy of the supplementation to active TB and DM therapy for improving clinical outcomes and immunological condition. This detailed description of trial methodology can serve as a template for the development of future treatment scheme for active TB patient with DM.Trial registration: ChiCTR-TRC-12002546.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chloroquine (CQ) use in Mozambique was stopped in 2002 and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) was implemented in 2008. In light of no use of CQ and extensive use of AL, we determined the frequency of molecular markers of Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance/tolerance to CQ and AL in persons living in Linga-Linga, an isolated peninsula and in Furvela village, which is located 8 km inland. The P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter gene CVMNK wild type increased in frequency from 43.9% in 2009 to 66.4% in 2010 (P ≤ 0.001), and combined P. falciparum multidrug resistance gene 1 N86-184F-D1246 haplotype increased significantly between years (P = 0.039). The combination of P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter gene CVMNK and P. falciparum multidrug resistance gene NFD increased from 24.3% (2009) to 45.3% in (2010, P = 0.017). The rapid changes observed may largely be caused by decreased use of CQ and large-scale use of AL. In the absence of a clear AL-resistance marker and the (almost) continent-wide use of AL in sub-Saharan Africa, and when considering CQ reintroduction, continued monitoring of these markers is needed.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 02/2013; · 2.53 Impact Factor