Paul R Odgren

University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (76)302.08 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Plekhm1 is a large, multi-modular, adapter protein implicated in osteoclast vesicle trafficking and bone resorption. In patients, inactivating mutations cause osteopetrosis, and gain-of-function mutations cause osteopenia. Investigations of potential Plekhm1 interaction partners by mass spectrometry identified TRAFD1 (FLN29), a protein previously shown to suppress toll-like receptor signaling in monocytes/macrophages, thereby dampening inflammatory responses to innate immunity. We mapped the binding domains to the TRAFD1 zinc finger (aa 37-60), and to the region of Plekhm1 between its second pleckstrin homology domain and its C1 domain (aa 784-986). RANKL slightly increased TRAFD1 levels, particularly in primary osteoclasts, and the co-localization of TRAFD1 with Plekhm1 also increased with RANKL treatment. Stable knockdown of TRAFD1 in RAW 264.7 cells inhibited resorption activity proportionally to the degree of knockdown, and inhibited acidification. The lack of acidification occurred despite the presence of osteoclast acidification factors including carbonic anhydrase II, a3-V-ATPase, and the ClC7 chloride channel. Secretion of TRAP and cathepsin K were also markedly inhibited in knockdown cells. Truncated Plekhm1 in ia/ia osteopetrotic rat cells prevented vesicle localization of Plekhm1 and TRAFD1. We conclude that TRAFD1, in association with Plekhm1/Rab7-positive late endosomes-early lysosomes, has a previously unknown role in vesicle trafficking, acidification, and resorption in osteoclasts.
    PLoS ONE 05/2015; 10(5):e0127537. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0127537 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in sorting nexin 10 (Snx10) have recently been found to account for roughly 4% of all human malignant osteopetrosis, some of them fatal. To study the disease pathogenesis, we investigated the expression of Snx10 and created mouse models in which Snx10 was knocked down globally or knocked out in osteoclasts. Endocytosis is severely defective in Snx10-deficent osteoclasts, as is extracellular acidification, ruffled border formation, and bone resorption. We also discovered that Snx10 is highly expressed in stomach epithelium, with mutations leading to high stomach pH and low calcium solubilization. Global Snx10-deficiency in mice results in a combined phenotype: osteopetrosis (due to osteoclast defect) and rickets (due to high stomach pH and low calcium availability, resulting in impaired bone mineralization). Osteopetrorickets, the paradoxical association of insufficient mineralization in the context of a positive total body calcium balance, is thought to occur due to the inability of the osteoclasts to maintain normal calcium-phosphorus homeostasis. However, osteoclast-specific Snx10 knockout had no effect on calcium balance, and therefore led to severe osteopetrosis without rickets. Moreover, supplementation with calcium gluconate rescued mice from the rachitic phenotype and dramatically extended life span in global Snx10-deficient mice, suggesting that this may be a life-saving component of the clinical approach to Snx10-dependent human osteopetrosis that has previously gone unrecognized. We conclude that tissue-specific effects of Snx10 mutation need to be considered in clinical approaches to this disease entity. Reliance solely on hematopoietic stem cell transplantation can leave hypocalcemia uncorrected with sometimes fatal consequences. These studies established an essential role for Snx10 in bone homeostasis and underscore the importance of gastric acidification in calcium uptake.
    PLoS Genetics 03/2015; 11(3):e1005057. DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1005057 · 8.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The host endolysosomal compartment is often manipulated by intracellular bacterial pathogens. Salmonella (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium) secrete numerous effector proteins, including SifA, through a specialized type III secretion system to hijack the host endosomal system and generate the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV). To form this replicative niche, Salmonella targets the Rab7 GTPase to recruit host membranes through largely unknown mechanisms. We show that Pleckstrin homology domain-containing protein family member 1 (PLEKHM1), a lysosomal adaptor, is targeted by Salmonella through direct interaction with SifA. By binding the PLEKHM1 PH2 domain, Salmonella utilize a complex containing PLEKHM1, Rab7, and the HOPS tethering complex to mobilize phagolysosomal membranes to the SCV. Depletion of PLEKHM1 causes a profound defect in SCV morphology with multiple bacteria accumulating in enlarged structures and significantly dampens Salmonella proliferation in multiple cell types and mice. Thus, PLEKHM1 provides a critical interface between pathogenic infection and the host endolysosomal system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Cell Host & Microbe 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.chom.2014.11.011 · 12.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Because Chondrosarcoma is resistant to available chemotherapy and radiation regimens, wide resection is the mainstay in treatment, which frequently results in high morbidity and which may not prevent local recurrence. There is a clear need for improved adjuvant treatment of this malignancy. We have observed the presence of osteoclasts in the microenvironment of chondrosarcoma in human pathological specimens. We utilized the Swarm rat chondrosarcoma (SRC) model to test the hypothesis that osteoclasts affect chondrosarcoma pathogenesis. We implanted SRC tumors in tibia of Sprague-Dawley rats and analyzed bone histologically and radiographically for bone destruction and tumor growth. At three weeks, tumors invaded local bone causing cortical disruption and trabecular resorption. Bone destruction was accompanied by increased osteoclast number and resorbed bone surface. Treatment of rats with the zoledronic acid prevented cortical destruction, inhibited trabecular resorption, and resulted in decreased tumor volume in bone. To confirm that inhibition of osteoclasts per se, and not off-target effects of drug, was responsible for the prevention of tumor growth and bone destruction, we implanted SRC into osteopetrotic rat tibia. SRC-induced bone destruction and tumor growth were impaired in osteopetrotic bone compared with control bone. The results from our animal model demonstrate that osteoclasts contribute to chondrosarcoma-mediated bone destruction and tumor growth and may represent a therapeutic target in particular chondrosarcoma patients. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res
    Journal of Orthopaedic Research 12/2014; 32(12). DOI:10.1002/jor.22714 · 2.97 Impact Factor
  • Hanna Witwicka, Sung-Yong Hwang, Paul R. Odgren
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    ABSTRACT: Bone is a composite, living tissue made primarily of type I collagen fibers impregnated with crystals of calcium phosphate. Bone is dynamic, continuously undergoing repair and remodeling. Specialized cells carry out these functions under the control of systemic and local signals. The surface of bone is completely covered by live cells. Bone is also filled with cells that communicate with each other, with the bone surface and with the circulation via a network of cell extensions. The structure of bone reveals its history of growth and development. The shape and microarchitecture of bones are exquisitely designed for mechanical support and metabolic functions.
    Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences, 12/2014: chapter The Structure of Bone; Elsevier.
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    ABSTRACT: Bone is a composite, living tissue made primarily of type I collagen fibers impregnated with crystals of calcium phosphate. Bone is dynamic, continuously undergoing repair and remodeling. Specialized cells carry out these functions under the control of systemic and local signals. The surface of bone is completely covered by live cells. Bone is also filled with cells that communicate with each other, with the bone surface and with the circulation via a network of cell extensions. The structure of bone reveals its history of growth and development. The shape and microarchitecture of bones are exquisitely designed for mechanical support and metabolic functions.
    Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences, 12/2014: chapter The Structure of Bone; Elsevier.
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    ABSTRACT: The mitochondrial inner membrane contains a large protein complex that functions in inner membrane organization and formation of membrane contact sites. The complex was variably named the mitochondrial contact site complex, mitochondrial inner membrane organizing system, mitochondrial organizing structure, or Mitofilin/Fcj1 complex. To facilitate future studies, we propose to unify the nomenclature and term the complex "mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system" and its subunits Mic10 to Mic60.
    The Journal of Cell Biology 03/2014; 204(7):1083-6. DOI:10.1083/jcb.201401006 · 9.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A key goal of molecular/cell biology/biotechnology is to identify essential genes in virtually every physiological process to uncover basic mechanisms of cell function and to establish potential targets of drug therapy combating human disease. This article describes a semester-long, project-oriented molecular/cellular/biotechnology laboratory providing students, within a framework of bone cell biology, with a modern approach to gene discovery. Students are introduced to the topics of bone cells, bone synthesis, bone resorption, and osteoporosis. They then review the theory of microchip gene arrays, and study microchip array data generated during the differentiation of bone-resorbing osteoclasts in vitro. The class selects genes whose expression increases during osteoclastogenesis, and researches them in small groups using web-based bioinformatics tools. Students then go to a biotechnology company website to find and order small inhibitory RNAs (siRNAs) designed to "knockdown" expression of the gene of interest. Students then learn to transfect these siRNAs into osteoclasts, stimulate the cells to differentiate, assay osteoclast differentiation in vitro, and measure specific gene expression using real-time PCR and immunoblotting. Specific siRNA knockdown resulting in a decrease in osteoclastogenesis is indicative of a gene's physiological relevance. The results are analyzed statistically and presented to the class in groups. In the past 2 years, students identified several genes essential for optimal osteoclast differentiation, including Myo1d. The students hypothesize that the myo1d protein functions in osteoclasts to deliver important proteins to the cell surface via vesicular transport along microfilaments. Student response to the new course was overwhelmingly positive.
    Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education 11/2010; 38(6):385-92. DOI:10.1002/bmb.20433 · 0.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Investigations of naturally-occurring mutations in animal models provide important insights and valuable disease models. Lamins A and C, along with lamin B, are type V intermediate filament proteins which constitute the proteinaceous boundary of the nucleus. LMNA mutations in humans cause a wide range of phenotypes, collectively termed laminopathies. To identify the mutation and investigate the phenotype of a spontaneous, semi-dominant mutation that we have named Disheveled hair and ear (Dhe), which causes a sparse coat and small external ears in heterozygotes and lethality in homozygotes by postnatal day 10. Genetic mapping identified a point mutation in the Lmna gene, causing a single amino acid change, L52R, in the coiled coil rod domain of lamin A and C proteins. Cranial sutures in Dhe/+ mice failed to close. Gene expression for collagen types I and III in sutures was deficient. Skulls were small and disproportionate. Skeletons of Dhe/+ mice were hypomineralized and total body fat was deficient in males. In homozygotes, skin and oral mucosae were dysplastic and ulcerated. Nuclear morphometry of cultured cells revealed gene dose-dependent blebbing and wrinkling. Dhe mice should provide a useful new model for investigations of the pathogenesis of laminopathies.
    PLoS ONE 04/2010; 5(4):e9959. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0009959 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The central role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in osteoclast differentiation and in bone homeostasis prompted us to characterize the redox regulatory system of osteoclasts. In this report, we describe the expression and functional characterization of PAMM, a CXXC motif-containing peroxiredoxin 2-like protein expressed in bone marrow monocytes on stimulation with M-CSF and RANKL. Expression of wild-type (but not C to G mutants of the CXXC domain) PAMM in HEK293 cells results in an increased GSH/GSSG ratio, indicating a shift toward a more reduced environment. Expression of PAMM in RAW264.7 monocytes protected cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress, indicating that PAMM regulates cellular redox status. RANKL stimulation of RAW 264.7 cells caused a decrease in the GSH/GSSG ratio (reflecting a complementary increase in ROS). In addition, RANKL-induced osteoclast formation requires phosphorylation and translocation of NF-kappaB and c-Jun. In stably transfected RAW 264.7 cells, PAMM overexpression prevented the reduction of GSH/GSSG induced by RANKL. Concurrently, PAMM expression completely abolished RANKL-induced p100 NF-kappaB and c-Jun activation, as well as osteoclast formation. We conclude that PAMM is a redox regulatory protein that modulates osteoclast differentiation in vitro. PAMM expression may affect bone resorption in vivo and help to maintain bone mass.
    Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 12/2009; 13(1):27-37. DOI:10.1089/ars.2009.2886 · 7.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The septoclast is a specialized, cathepsin B-rich, perivascular cell type that accompanies invading capillaries on the metaphyseal side of the growth plate during endochondral bone growth. The putative role of septoclasts is to break down the terminal transverse septum of growth plate cartilage and permit capillaries to bud into the lower hypertrophic zone. This process fails in osteoclast-deficient, osteopetrotic animal models, resulting in a progressive growth plate dysplasia. The toothless rat is severely osteopetrotic because of a frameshift mutation in the colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) gene (Csf1(tl)). Whereas CSF-1 injections quickly restore endosteal osteoclast populations, they do not improve the chondrodysplasia. We therefore investigated septoclast populations in Csf1(tl)/Csf1(tl) rats and wild-type littermates, with and without CSF-1 treatment, at 2 weeks, before the dysplasia is pronounced, and at 4 weeks, by which time it is severe. Tibial sections were immunolabeled for cathepsin B and septoclasts were counted. Csf1(tl)/Csf1(tl) mutants had significant reductions in septoclasts at both times, although they were more pronounced at 4 weeks. CSF-1 injections increased counts in wild-type and mutant animals at both times, restoring mutants to normal levels at 2 weeks. In all of the mutants, septoclasts seemed misoriented and had abnormal ultrastructure. We conclude that CSF-1 promotes angiogenesis at the chondroosseous junction, but that, in Csf1(tl)/Csf1(tl) rats, septoclasts are unable to direct their degradative activity appropriately, implying a capillary guidance role for locally supplied CSF-1.
    American Journal Of Pathology 11/2009; 175(6):2668-75. DOI:10.2353/ajpath.2009.090185 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Osteopetrosis is a disease characterised by a generalized skeletal sclerosis resulting from a reduced osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Several spontaneous mutations lead to osteopetrotic phenotypes in animals. Moutier et al. (1974) discovered the osteopetrosis (op) rat as a spontaneous, lethal, autosomal recessive mutant. op rats have large nonfunctioning osteoclasts and severe osteopetrosis. Dobbins et al. (2002) localized the disease-causing gene to a 1.5-cM genetic interval on rat chromosome 10, which we confirm in the present report. We also refined the genomic localization of the disease gene and provide statistical evidence for a disease-causing gene in a small region of rat chromosome 10. Three strong functional candidate genes are within the delineated region. Clcn7 was previously shown to underlie different forms of osteopetrosis, in both human and mice. ATP6v0c encodes a subunit of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase or proton pump. Mutations in TCIRG1, another subunit of the proton pump, are known to cause a severe form of osteopetrosis. Given the critical role of proton pumping in bone resorption, the Slc9a3r2 gene, a sodium/hydrogen exchanger, was also considered as a candidate for the op mutation. RT-PCR showed that all 3 genes are expressed in osteoclasts, but sequencing found no mutations either in the coding regions or in intron splice junctions. Our ongoing mutation analysis of other genes in the candidate region will lead to the discovery of a novel osteopetrosis gene and further insights into osteoclast functioning.
    Calcified Tissue International 04/2009; 84(5):355-60. DOI:10.1007/s00223-009-9229-7 · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Microarray and real-time RT-PCR were used to examine expression changes in primary bone marrow cells and RAW 264.7 cells in response to RANKL. In silico sequence analysis was performed on a novel gene which we designate OC-STAMP. Specific siRNA and antibodies were used to inhibit OC-STAMP RNA and protein, respectively, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)+ multinucleated osteoclasts were counted. Antibodies were used to probe bone tissues and western blots of RAW cell extracts +/- RANKL. cDNA overexpression constructs were transfected into RAW cells and the effect on RANKL-induced differentiation was studied. OC-STAMP was very strongly up-regulated during osteoclast differentiation. Northern blots and sequence analysis revealed two transcripts of 2 and 3.7 kb differing only in 3'UTR length, consistent with predictions from genome sequence. The mRNA encodes a 498 amino acid, multipass transmembrane protein that is highly conserved in mammals. It has little overall homology to other proteins. The carboxy-terminal 193 amino acids, however, are significantly similar to the DC-STAMP family consensus sequence. DC-STAMP is a transmembrane protein required for osteoclast precursor fusion. Knockdown of OC-STAMP mRNA by siRNA and protein inhibition by antibodies significantly suppressed the formation of TRAP+, multinucleated cells in differentiating osteoclast cultures, with many TRAP+ mononuclear cells present. Conversely, overexpression of OC-STAMP increased osteoclastic differentiation of RAW 264.7 cells. We conclude that OC-STAMP is a previously unknown, RANKL-induced, multipass transmembrane protein that promotes the formation of multinucleated osteoclasts.
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 05/2008; 215(2):497-505. DOI:10.1002/jcp.21331 · 3.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bone resorption is regulated by a complex system of hormones and cytokines that cause osteoblasts/stromal cells and lymphocytes to produce factors including RANKL, that ultimately result in the differentiation and activation of osteoclasts, the bone resorbing cells. We used a microarray approach to identify genes upregulated in RANKL-stimulated osteoclast precursor cells. Osteoclast expression was confirmed by multiple tissue Northern and in situ hybridization analysis. Gene function studies were carried out by siRNA analysis. We identified a novel gene, which we termed nha-oc/NHA2, which is strongly upregulated during RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in vitro and in vivo. nha-oc/NHA2 encodes a novel cation-proton antiporter (CPA) and is the mouse orthologue of a human gene identified in a database search: HsNHA2. nha-oc/NHA2 is selectively expressed in osteoclasts. NHA-oc/NHA2 protein localizes to the mitochondria, where it mediates Na(+)-dependent changes in mitochondrial pH and Na(+) acetate induced mitochondrial passive swelling. RNA silencing of nha-oc/nha2 reduces osteoclast differentiation and resorption, suggesting a role for NHA-oc/NHA2 in these processes. nha-oc/NHA2 therefore is a novel member of the CPA family and is the first mitochondrial NHA characterized to date. nha-oc/NHA2 is also unique in that it is the first eukaryotic and tissue-specific CPA2 characterized to date. NHA-oc/NHA2 displays the expected activities of a bona fide CPA and plays a key role(s) in normal osteoclast differentiation and function.
    Bone 02/2008; 42(1):180-92. DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2007.09.046 · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play pivotal roles in bone and cartilage growth and repair. Through phenotypes of short-ear (se) mice, which have BMP-5 mutations, a role for BMP-5 in some specific aspects of skeletogenesis and cartilage growth is known. This report examines BMP-5 expression in the growth plate and in differentiating cultures of primary chondrocytes, and the effects of addition of BMP-5 or its inhibition by anti-BMP-5 antibody in chondrocyte cultures. By laser capture microdissection and immunohistochemistry, we found that BMP-5 is expressed in proliferating zone (PZ) chondrocytes and that the expression increases sharply with hypertrophic differentiation. A similar pattern was observed in differentiating cultures of primary chondrocytes, with BMP-5 expression increasing as cells differentiated, in contrast to other BMPs. BMP-5 added to cultures increased cell proliferation early in the culture period and also stimulated cartilage matrix synthesis. Also, BMP-5 addition to the cultures activated phosphorylation of Smad 1/5/8 and p38 MAP kinase and caused increased nuclear accumulation of phospho-Smads. Anti-BMP-5 antibody inhibited the endogenous BMP-5, reducing cell proliferation and phospho-Smad nuclear accumulation. Together, the results demonstrate that BMP-5 is normally an important regulator of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. Whether other BMPs may compensate in BMP-5 loss-of-function mutations is discussed.
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 01/2008; 214(1):56-64. DOI:10.1002/jcp.21164 · 3.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The success of vascular intervention including angioplasty, stenting, and arterial bypass remains limited by negative remodeling resulted in lumen restenosis. This study was to characterize the global transcription profile reflecting concurrent events along arterial remodeling and neointima formation in a rat carotid artery balloon-injury model. Expression profiling of injured and control common carotid arteries on days 4, 7, 14 post-injury that mark the major pathohistological progression stages of neointimal formation were recorded on high-density oligonucleotide arrays. A subset of genes from microarray-based data was further studied using quantitative real time RT-PCR and in situ hybridization with sequential arterial samples from days 1 to 28 post-injury. The gene-encoded proteins were validated with Western blot. Besides temporal induction of a large cluster of genes over-represented by cell proliferation and macromolecule metabolism gene ontology categories, a fast-evolving inflammation could be demonstrated by the induction of Tgfb and other anti-inflammatory genes (e.g., C1qtnf3 (C1q and tumor necrosis factor related protein 3 (predicted))) and a shift from type 1 to 2 helper T cell response. The most significant signature of the induced neointimal profile is enrichment of genes functionally related to angiogenesis and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling (e.g., Spp1 (secreted phosphoprotein 1), CD44 (CD44 antigen), and Cxcl12 (chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (stromal cell-derived factor 1)). Some of the genes represent stress-responsive mesenchymal stromal cell cytokines. This study highlighted mesenchymal stromal cell cytokines-driven inflammatory extracellular matrix remodeling, as target processes for potential clinical therapeutic intervention.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 05/2007; 101(2):399-410. DOI:10.1002/jcb.21190 · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study illustrates that Plekhm1 is an essential protein for bone resorption, as loss-of-function mutations were found to underlie the osteopetrotic phenotype of the incisors absent rat as well as an intermediate type of human osteopetrosis. Electron and confocal microscopic analysis demonstrated that monocytes from a patient homozygous for the mutation differentiated into osteoclasts normally, but when cultured on dentine discs, the osteoclasts failed to form ruffled borders and showed little evidence of bone resorption. The presence of both RUN and pleckstrin homology domains suggests that Plekhm1 may be linked to small GTPase signaling. We found that Plekhm1 colocalized with Rab7 to late endosomal/lysosomal vesicles in HEK293 and osteoclast-like cells, an effect that was dependent on the prenylation of Rab7. In conclusion, we believe PLEKHM1 to be a novel gene implicated in the development of osteopetrosis, with a putative critical function in vesicular transport in the osteoclast.
    Journal of Clinical Investigation 04/2007; 117(4):919-30. DOI:10.1172/JCI30328 · 13.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) is a cysteine-rich, extracellular matrix (ECM) protein that acts as an anabolic growth factor to regulate osteoblast differentiation and function. Recent studies have identified CTGF as a downstream effector of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) for certain functions in specific cell types. In this study, we examined the role of CTGF as a downstream mediator of TGF-beta1-induced ECM production and cell growth in osteoblasts. Using primary cultures, we demonstrated that TGF-beta1 is a potent inducer of CTGF expression in osteoblasts, and that this induction occurred at all stages of osteoblast differentiation from the proliferative through mineralization stages. TGF-beta1 treatment of osteoblasts increased the expression and synthesis of the ECM components, collagen and fibronectin. When CTGF-specific siRNA was used to prevent TGF-beta1 induction of CTGF expression, it also inhibited collagen and fibronectin production, thereby demonstrating the requirement of CTGF for their up-regulation. To examine the effects of TGF-beta1 on osteoblast cell growth, cultures were treated with TGF-beta1 during the proliferative stage. Cell number was significantly reduced and the cells exhibited a decrease in G1 cyclin expression, consistent with TGF-beta1-induced cell-cycle arrest. Cultures transfected with CTGF siRNA prior to TGF-beta1 treatment showed an even greater reduction in cell number, suggesting that TGF-beta1-induced growth arrest is independent of CTGF in osteoblasts. Collectively, these data demonstrate for the first time that CTGF is an essential downstream mediator for TGF-beta1-induced ECM production in osteoblasts, but these two growth factors function independently regarding their opposing effects on osteoblast proliferation.
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 03/2007; 210(3):843-52. DOI:10.1002/jcp.20917 · 3.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Osteoclasts differentiate from hematopoietic mononuclear precursor cells under the control of both colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1, or M-CSF) and receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL, or TRANCE, TNFSF11) to carry out bone resorption. Using high density gene microarrays, we followed gene expression changes in long bone RNA when CSF-1 injections were used to restore osteoclast populations in the CSF-1-null toothless (csf1(tl)/csf1(tl)) osteopetrotic rat. We found that ovarian cancer G-protein-coupled receptor 1 (OGR1, or GPR68) was strongly up-regulated, rising >6-fold in vivo after 2 days of CSF-1 treatments. OGR1 is a dual membrane receptor for both protons (extracellular pH) and lysolipids. Strong induction of OGR1 mRNA was also observed by microarray, real-time RT-PCR, and immunoblotting when mouse bone marrow mononuclear cells and RAW 264.7 pre-osteoclast-like cells were treated with RANKL to induce osteoclast differentiation. Anti-OGR1 immunofluorescence showed intense labeling of RANKL-treated RAW cells. The time course of OGR1 mRNA expression suggests that OGR1 induction is early but not immediate, peaking 2 days after inducing osteoclast differentiation both in vivo and in vitro. Specific inhibition of OGR1 by anti-OGR1 antibody and by small inhibitory RNA inhibited RANKL-induced differentiation of both mouse bone marrow mononuclear cells and RAW cells in vitro, as evidenced by a decrease in tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts. Taken together, these data indicate that OGR1 is expressed early during osteoclastogenesis both in vivo and in vitro and plays a role in osteoclast differentiation.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2006; 281(33):23598-605. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M602191200 · 4.60 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
302.08 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1979–2015
    • University of Massachusetts Medical School
      • • Department of Cell Biology
      • • Department of Pathology
      Worcester, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2014
    • University of Massachusetts Amherst
      Amherst Center, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1995
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States