[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A better understanding of costs associated with common and resource-intense conditions such as congenital heart disease has become increasingly important as children's hospitals face growing pressure to both improve quality and reduce costs. We linked clinical information from a large registry with resource utilization data from an administrative data set to describe costs for common congenital cardiac operations and assess variation across hospitals.
Using linked data from The Society of Thoracic Surgeons and Pediatric Health Information Systems Databases (2006-2010), estimated costs/case for 9 operations of varying complexity were calculated. Between-hospital variation in cost and associated factors were assessed by using Bayesian methods, adjusting for important patient characteristics.
Of 12 718 operations (27 hospitals) included, median cost/case increased with operation complexity (atrial septal defect repair, [$25 499] to Norwood operation, [$165 168]). Significant between-hospital variation (up to ninefold) in adjusted cost was observed across operations. Differences in length of stay (LOS) and complication rates explained an average of 28% of between-hospital cost variation. For the Norwood operation, high versus low cost hospitals had an average LOS of 50.8 vs 31.8 days and a major complication rate of 50% vs 25.3%. High volume hospitals had lower costs for the most complex operations.
This study establishes benchmarks for hospital costs for common congenital heart operations and demonstrates wide variability across hospitals related in part to differences in LOS and complication rates. These data may be useful in designing initiatives aimed at both improving quality of care and reducing cost.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Ondansetron hydrochloride use in children with gastroenteritis is increasing rapidly; however, little is known about its impact on outcomes. OBJECTIVE To determine whether increasing emergency department ondansetron use has resulted in a reduction in intravenous rehydration rates. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective observational analysis of eligible visits included in the Pediatric Health Information System administrative database. Eligible institutions included 18 emergency departments geographically distributed across the United States, and participants included 804 000 patients aged 0 to 18 years who were diagnosed as having gastroenteritis in an emergency department at an eligible participating institution between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2011. INTERVENTIONS The presence or absence of oral ondansetron administration was identified for each patient through database review. Visits were categorized based on institutional ondansetron use: low (<5% administered ondansetron), medium (5%-25%), or high (>25%). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES We conducted hospital-level analyses of the associations between ondansetron use and 3 outcomes: intravenous rehydration (primary), hospitalization, and emergency department revisits within 3 days. Time-series regression models were used, adjusting for demographic characteristics, laboratory testing, diagnostic imaging, and rotavirus infection. RESULTS A total of 804 000 eligible patient visits were identified. Oral ondansetron use increased from a median institutional rate of 0.11% (interquartile range, 0.04%-0.44%) of patient visits in 2002 to 42.2% (interquartile range, 37.5%-49.1%) in 2011 (P < .001). Intravenous rehydration was administered to 43 413 of 232 706 children (18.7%) during the low ondansetron period compared with 59 450 of 334 264 (17.8%) during the high ondansetron period (adjusted percentage change = -0.33%; 95% CI, -1.86% to 1.20%). During the transition from low to high ondansetron use, we observed no change in the hospitalization rate (adjusted percentage change = -0.33%; 95% CI, -0.95% to 0.29%), but emergency department revisits decreased (adjusted percentage change = -0.31%; 95% CI, -0.49% to -0.13%). The change in all 3 outcomes varied widely between low and high ondansetron use categories at an institutional level. Oral ondansetron was provided to 13.5% (95% CI, 13.3% to 13.7%) of children administered intravenous rehydration. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Although ondansetron use increased during the study period, intravenous rehydration rates were unchanged. Most children administered intravenous fluids did not receive oral ondansetron. Our findings highlight the need to focus efforts to administer ondansetron to children at greatest risk for oral rehydration failure.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Narrow-spectrum antibiotics are recommended as the first-line agent for children hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). There is little scientific evidence to support that this consensus-based recommendation is as effective as the more commonly used broad-spectrum antibiotics. The objective was to compare the effectiveness of empiric treatment with narrow-spectrum therapy versus broad-spectrum therapy for children hospitalized with uncomplicated CAP.METHODS:This multicenter retrospective cohort study using medical records included children aged 2 months to 18 years at 4 children's hospitals in 2010 with a discharge diagnosis of CAP. Patients receiving either narrow-spectrum or broad-spectrum therapy in the first 2 days of hospitalization were eligible. Patients were matched by using propensity scores that determined each patient's likelihood of receiving empiric narrow or broad coverage. A multivariate logistic regression analysis evaluated the relationship between antibiotic and hospital length of stay (LOS), 7-day readmission, standardized daily costs, duration of fever, and duration of supplemental oxygen.RESULTS:Among 492 patients, 52% were empirically treated with a narrow-spectrum agent and 48% with a broad-spectrum agent. In the adjusted analysis, the narrow-spectrum group had a 10-hour shorter LOS (P = .04). There was no significant difference in duration of oxygen, duration of fever, or readmission. When modeled for LOS, there was no difference in average daily standardized cost (P = .62) or average daily standardized pharmacy cost (P = .26).CONCLUSIONS:Compared with broad-spectrum agents, narrow-spectrum antibiotic coverage is associated with similar outcomes. Our findings support national consensus recommendations for the use of narrow-spectrum antibiotics in children hospitalized with CAP.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Child health is influenced by biomedical and socioeconomic factors. Few studies have explored the relationship between community-level income and inpatient resource utilization for children. Our objective was to analyze inpatient costs for children hospitalized with common conditions in relation to zip code-based median annual household income (HHI).METHODS:Retrospective national cohort from 32 freestanding children's hospitals for asthma, diabetes, bronchiolitis and respiratory syncytial virus, pneumonia, and kidney and urinary tract infections. Standardized cost of care for individual hospitalizations and across hospitalizations for the same patient and condition were modeled by using mixed-effects methods, adjusting for severity of illness, age, gender, and race. Main exposure was median annual HHI. Posthoc tests compared adjusted standardized costs for patients from the lowest and highest income groups.RESULTS:From 116 636 hospitalizations, 4 of 5 conditions had differences at the hospitalization and at the patient level, with lowest-income groups having higher costs. The individual hospitalization level cost differences ranged from $187 (4.1%) to $404 (6.4%). Patient-level cost differences ranged from $310 to $1087 or 6.5% to 15% higher for the lowest-income patients. Higher costs were typically not for laboratory, imaging, or pharmacy costs. In total, patients from lowest income zip codes had $8.4 million more in hospitalization-level costs and $13.6 million more in patient-level costs.CONCLUSIONS:Lower community-level HHI is associated with higher inpatient costs of care for 4 of 5 common pediatric conditions. These findings highlight the need to consider socioeconomic status in health care system design, delivery, and reimbursement calculations.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The 2011 Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) guideline recommends narrow-spectrum antimicrobial therapy for most children hospitalized with CAP. However, few studies have assessed the effectiveness of this strategy.METHODS:Using data from 43 children's hospitals, we conducted a retrospective cohort study to compare outcomes and resource utilization among children hospitalized with CAP between 2005 and 2011 receiving either parenteral ampicillin/penicillin (narrow spectrum) or ceftriaxone/cefotaxime (broad spectrum). Children with complex chronic conditions, interhospital transfers, recent hospitalization, or the occurrence of any of the following during the first 2 calendar days of hospitalization were excluded: pleural drainage procedure, admission to intensive care, mechanical ventilation, death, or hospital discharge.RESULTS:Overall, 13 954 children received broad-spectrum therapy (89.7%) and 1610 received narrow-spectrum therapy (10.3%). The median length of stay was 3 days (interquartile range 3-4) in the broad- and narrow-spectrum therapy groups (adjusted difference 0.12 days, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.02 to 0.26). One hundred fifty-six children (1.1%) receiving broad-spectrum therapy and 13 children (0.8%) receiving narrow-spectrum therapy were admitted to intensive care (adjusted odds ratio 0.85, 95% CI: 0.27 to 2.73). Readmission occurred for 321 children (2.3%) receiving broad-spectrum therapy and 39 children (2.4%) receiving narrow-spectrum therapy (adjusted odds ratio 0.85, 95% CI: 0.45 to 1.63). Median costs for the hospitalization were $3992 and $4375 (adjusted difference -$14.4, 95% CI: -177.1 to 148.3).CONCLUSIONS:Clinical outcomes and costs for children hospitalized with CAP are not different when treatment is with narrow- compared with broad-spectrum therapy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:To examine recent national trends in psychotropic use for very young children at US outpatient medical visits.METHODS:Data for 2- to 5-year-old children (N = 43 598) from the 1994-2009 National Ambulatory and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys were used to estimate the weighted percentage of visits with psychotropic prescriptions. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with psychotropic use. Time effects were examined in 4-year blocks (1994-1997, 1998-2001, 2002-2005, and 2006-2009).RESULTS:Psychotropic prescription rates were 0.98% from 1994-1997, 0.83% from 1998-2001, 1.45% from 2002-2005, and 1.00% from 2006-2009. The likelihood of preschool psychotropic use was highest in 2002-2005 (1994-1997 adjusted odds ratio [AOR] versus 2002-2005: 0.67; 1998-2001 AOR versus 2002-2005: 0.63; 2006-2009 AOR versus 2002-2005: 0.64), then diminished such that the 2006-2009 probability of use did not differ from 1994-1997 or from 1998-2001. Boys (AOR versus girls: 1.64), white children (AOR versus other race: 1.42), older children (AOR for 4 to 5 vs 2 to 3 year olds: 3.87), and those lacking private insurance (AOR versus privately insured: 2.38) were more likely than children from other groups to receive psychotropic prescriptions.CONCLUSIONS:Psychotropic prescription was notable for peak usage in 2002-2005 and sociodemographic disparities in use. Further study is needed to discern why psychotropic use in very young children stabilized in 2006-2009, as well as reasons for increased use in boys, white children, and those lacking private health insurance.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe the off-label use of antithrombin concentrate in tertiary care pediatric hospitals across the US.
This is a retrospective, multicenter, cohort study of 4210 admissions of children younger than 18 years of age who received antithrombin concentrate between 2002 and 2011 within the Pediatric Health Information System administrative database. An on-label admission was defined as an admission with an International Classification of Diseases diagnostic code for a primary hypercoagulable state; admissions without this code were classified as off-label.
During the 10-year study period, off-label use of antithrombin concentrate increased 5-fold. Overall, 97% of study subjects received antithrombin off-label. Neonates younger than 30 days of age comprised the largest age group (45.7%) of use; 87% of patients had at least one complex chronic condition, with congenital heart/lung defects being the most prevalent primary diagnosis (36.3%). Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was the most common procedure associated with antithrombin use (43.7%).
The off-label use of antithrombin concentrate is increasing rapidly, particularly in critically ill children receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, with few parallel studies to substantiate its safety or efficacy. Further preclinical and controlled clinical studies are critical to expanding our knowledge of this drug. In the meantime, antithrombin concentrate should be used judiciously by clinicians and following guidelines instated by hospitals.
The Journal of pediatrics 08/2013; · 4.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains one of the most common indications for pediatric hospitalization in the United States, and it is frequently the focus of research and quality studies. Use of administrative data is increasingly common for these purposes, although proper validation is required to ensure valid study conclusions. OBJECTIVE To validate administrative billing data for hospitalizations owing to childhood CAP. DESIGN AND SETTING Case-control study of 4 tertiary care, freestanding children's hospitals in the United States. PARTICIPANTS A total of 998 medical records of a 25% random sample of 3646 children discharged in 2010 with at least 1 International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) code representing possible pneumonia were reviewed. Discharges (matched on date of admission) without a pneumonia-related discharge code were also examined to identify potential missed pneumonia cases. Two reference standards, based on provider diagnosis alone (provider confirmed) or in combination with consistent clinical and radiographic evidence of pneumonia (definite), were used to identify CAP. EXPOSURE Twelve ICD-9-CM-based coding strategies, each using a combination of primary or secondary codes representing pneumonia or pneumonia-related complications. Six algorithms excluded children with complex chronic conditions. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values (NPV and PPV, respectively) of the 12 identification strategies. RESULTS For provider-confirmed CAP (n = 680), sensitivity ranged from 60.7% to 99.7%; specificity, 75.7% to 96.4%; PPV, 67.9% to 89.6%; and NPV, 82.6% to 99.8%. For definite CAP (n = 547), sensitivity ranged from 65.6% to 99.6%; specificity, 68.7% to 93.0%; PPV, 54.6% to 77.9%; and NPV, 87.8% to 99.8%. Unrestricted use of the pneumonia-related codes was inaccurate, although several strategies improved specificity to more than 90% with a variable effect on sensitivity. Excluding children with complex chronic conditions demonstrated the most favorable performance characteristics. Performance of the algorithms was similar across institutions. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Administrative data are valuable for studying pediatric CAP hospitalizations. The strategies presented here will aid in the accurate identification of relevant and comparable patient populations for research and performance improvement studies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several initiatives aim to reduce postoperative infection across a variety of surgical patients as a means to improve overall quality of care and reduce variation across centers. However, the association of infection rates with hospital-level outcomes and resource utilization has not been well described. We evaluated this association across a multicenter cohort undergoing congenital heart surgery.
The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database was linked to resource utilization data from the Pediatric Health Information Systems Database for hospitals participating in both (2006 to 2010). Hospital-level infection rates (sepsis, wound infection, mediastinitis, endocarditis, pneumonia) adjusted for patient risk factors and case mix were calculated using Bayesian methodology, and association with hospital mortality rates, postoperative length of stay (LOS), and total costs evaluated.
The cohort included 32,856 patients (28 centers); 3.7% had a postoperative infection. Across hospitals, the adjusted infection rate varied from 0.9% to 9.8%. Hospitals with the highest infection rates had longer (LOS) (13.2 vs 11.7 days, p < 0.001) and increased hospital costs ($71,100 vs $65,100, p < 0.001), but similar mortality rates (odds ratio 0.99, 95% confidence interval 0.80 to 1.21, p = 0.9). The proportion of variation in costs and LOS explained by infection was 15% and 6%, respectively.
Infection after congenital heart surgery contributes to prolonged LOS and increased costs on a hospital level. However, given that infection rates alone explained relatively little of the variation in these outcomes across hospitals, further study is needed to identify additional factors that may be targeted in initiatives to reduce variation and improve outcomes across centers.
The Annals of thoracic surgery 06/2013; · 3.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that children's hospitals with shorter length of stay (LOS) for hospitalized patients have higher all-cause readmission rates. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal, retrospective cohort study of the Pediatric Health Information System of 183 616 admissions within 43 US children's hospitals for appendectomy, asthma, gastroenteritis, and seizure between July 2009 and June 2011. Admissions were stratified by medical complexity, based on whether patients had a complex chronic health condition, were neurologically impaired, or were assisted with medical technology. Outcome measures include LOS; all-cause readmission rates within 3, 7, 15, and 30 days; and the association between hospital-specific mean LOS and all-cause readmission rates as determined by linear regression. RESULTS: Mean LOS was <3 days for all patients across all conditions, except for appendectomy in complex patients (mean LOS 3.7 days, 95% CI 3.47-4.01). Condition-specific 3-, 7-, 15-, and 30-day all-cause readmission rates for noncomplex patients were all <5%. Condition-specific readmission rates for complex patients ranged from <1% at 3 days for seizures to 16% at 30 days for gastroenteritis. There was no linear association between hospital-specific, condition-specific mean LOS, stratified by medical complexity, and all-cause readmission rates at any time interval within 30 days (all P values ≥.10). CONCLUSION: In children's hospitals, LOS is short and readmission rates are low for asthma, appendectomy, gastroenteritis, and seizure admissions. In the conditions studied, there is no association between shorter hospital-specific LOS and higher readmission rates within the LOS observed.
The Journal of pediatrics 05/2013; · 4.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Observation status, in contrast to inpatient status, is a billing designation for hospital payment. Observation-status stays are presumed to be shorter and less resource-intensive, but utilization for pediatric observation-status stays has not been studied. The goal of this study was to describe resource utilization characteristics for patients in observation and inpatient status in a national cohort of hospitalized children in the Pediatric Health Information System.METHODS:This study was a retrospective cohort from 2010 of observation- and inpatient-status stays of ≤2 days; all children were admitted from the emergency department. Costs were analyzed and described. Comparison between costs adjusting for age, severity, and length of stay were conducted by using random-effect mixed models to account for clustering of patients within hospitals.RESULTS:Observation status was assigned to 67 230 (33.3%) discharges, but its use varied across hospitals (2%-45%). Observation-status stays had total median costs of $2559, including room costs and $678 excluding room costs. Twenty-five diagnoses accounted for 74% of stays in observation status, 4 of which were used for detailed analyses: asthma (n = 6352), viral gastroenteritis (n = 4043), bronchiolitis (n = 3537), and seizure (n = 3289). On average, after risk adjustment, observation-status stays cost $260 less than inpatient-status stays for these select 4 diagnoses. Large overlaps in costs were demonstrated for both types of stay.CONCLUSIONS:Variability in use of observation status with large overlap in costs and potential lower reimbursement compared with inpatient status calls into question the utility of segmenting patients according to billing status and highlights a financial risk for institutions with a high volume of pediatric patients in observation status.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Traumatic lumbar punctures occur frequently in the neonatal intensive care unit, making the interpretation of cerebrospinal fluid values difficult. We report correction factors for cerebrospinal fluid protein and white blood cells in the face of red blood cell contamination. These correction factors should facilitate the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis in high risk hospitalized infants.
The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 04/2013; · 3.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In Lyme disease-endemic areas, many children with aseptic meningitis are hospitalized while awaiting Lyme serology results. Although Lyme serology takes several days, an enteroviral polymerase chain reaction (EV PCR) test takes only a few hours to return results. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to measure the impact of EV PCR testing on duration of stay for children evaluated for Lyme meningitis. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed with children evaluated for Lyme meningitis at 3 Emergency Departments located in Lyme disease-endemic areas. We defined Lyme meningitis using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria (either positive Lyme serology test result or an erythema migrans rash). The duration of stay was compared by EV PCR test result (positive, negative, and not obtained). RESULTS: There were 423 study patients identified, 117 (28%) of whom had Lyme meningitis and 209 (49%) had an EV PCR test performed. Median length of stay varied by the EV PCR test status: children with a positive EV PCR test (n = 103; 28 h; interquartile range 17-48 h), those with a negative EV PCR test (n = 106; 72 h; interquartile range 48-120 h), and those who did not have an EV PCR test obtained (n = 214; 48 h; interquartile range 24-96 h; p ≤ 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Rapid EV PCR testing could assist clinical decision making by Emergency Physicians, avoiding potentially unnecessary hospitalization and parenteral antibiotics for children at low risk of Lyme meningitis.
Journal of Emergency Medicine 04/2013; · 1.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:To determine trends in the diagnosis and management of children with viral meningitis at US children's hospitals.METHODS:We performed a multicenter cross sectional study of children presenting to the emergency department (ED) across the 41 pediatric tertiary-care hospitals participating in the Pediatric Health Information System between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2011. A case of viral meningitis was defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, discharge diagnosis, and required performance of a lumbar puncture. We examined trends in diagnosis, antibiotic use, and resource utilization for children with viral meningitis over the study period.RESULTS:We identified 7618 children with viral meningitis (0.05% of ED visits during the study period). Fifty-two percent of patients were <1 year of age, and 43% were female. The absolute number and the proportion of ED visits for children with viral meningitis declined from 0.98 cases per 1000 ED visits in 2005 to 0.25 cases in 2011 (P < .001). Most children with viral meningitis received a parenteral antibiotic (85%), and were hospitalized (91%). Overall costs for children for children with viral meningitis remain substantial (median cost per case $5056, interquartile range $3572-$7141).CONCLUSIONS:Between 2005 and 2011, viral meningitis diagnoses at US children's hospitals declined. However, most of these children are hospitalized, and the cost for caring for these children remains considerable.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The multi-institutional PHIS+ clinical database is currently being developed to support pediatric comparative effectiveness research, and will include information extracted from clinical narratives. We are currently developing a pneumonia information extraction application for this purpose, aiming at the rapid adaptation of existing recent information extraction applications and high performance.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:: National guidelines recommend obtaining blood cultures in children hospitalized with moderate or severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of bacteremia in children, identify factors associated with bacteremia, and quantify the influence of positive blood cultures on clinical management in children hospitalized with CAP METHODS:: This multi-center retrospective study included children 60 days to 18 years of age requiring hospitalization for CAP. Categories analyzed were; bacteremia, culture negative, and no culture. RESULTS:: Blood cultures were performed in 369 (56%) of 658 children with CAP. The prevalence of bacteremia was 7% (4.7-10.1%) in patients with a blood culture obtained. Bacteremia occurred in 21% of patients with a pleural drainage procedure and 75% of patients with distant site of infection (e.g., osteomyelitis). Patients with bacteremia had longer duration of fever before admission and higher C-reactive protein (CRP) values compared with those with negative or no blood culture. However, differences in white blood cell count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate between those with bacteremia and those without were not significant.Contamination rates were low and similar across institutions, ranging from 1-3.8% (p=0.63). Blood culture directed changes in antibiotic management occurred in 33% of patients with a contaminated culture and 65% of bacteremic patients. Antibiotic therapy was narrowed in 26% of bacteremic patients at hospital discharge CONCLUSION:: The prevalence of bacteremia was higher than previously reported in children hospitalized with CAP and consistent across children's hospitals. Positive blood cultures should prompt change to narrow-spectrum antibiotic therapy.
The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 03/2013; · 3.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent publication of national guidelines by the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society (PIDS) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) provide recommendations around diagnostic testing and antibiotic treatment for children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). These guidelines emphasize limited use of chest radiograph (CXR) and complete blood count (CBC) and routinely performing viral testing and use of narrow-spectrum antibiotics.
The objective was to estimate the rate of emergency department (ED) visits for pediatric CAP in the United States and to describe management of patients prior to publication of consensus national guidelines.
Data were obtained from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) for ED visits from 2001 through 2009 for children with CAP.
During the study period there were an estimated 375,000 ED visits for CAP annually; 85% occurred within a general, rather than pediatric, ED. Overall, 20% of children with CAP were hospitalized. Among children discharged from EDs with CAP, CBC was performed during 30% of visits, CXR during 83%, and viral testing in only 13%. Twelve percent of children discharged from EDs with CAP had blood cultures obtained. No major differences were observed in the rates of laboratory testing or antibiotic administration between children treated in general versus pediatric EDs. During the study period, only 21% of children discharged from EDs with CAP received amoxicillin, the guideline-recommended antibiotic.
Most ED visits for CAP in the United States occur in general EDs. To encourage care that is consistent with national guidelines, efforts should be made to reduce the performance of certain diagnostic testing, such as CBC and CXR, among children discharged from EDs with CAP. Additionally, the use of narrow-spectrum antibiotics should be encouraged.
Academic Emergency Medicine 03/2013; 20(3):240-6. · 1.76 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To describe variations in emergency department (ED) quality measures and determine the association between ED costs and outcomes for 3 pediatric conditions: asthma, gastroenteritis, and simple febrile seizure. STUDY DESIGN: This cross-sectional analysis of ED visits used the Pediatric Health Information System database. Children aged ≤18 years who were evaluated in an ED between July 2009 and June 2011 and had a discharge diagnosis of asthma, gastroenteritis, or simple febrile seizure were included. Two quality of care metrics were evaluated for each target condition, and Spearman correlation was applied to evaluate the relationship between ED costs (reflecting overall resource utilization) and admission and revisit rates among institutions. RESULTS: More than 250 000 ED visits at 21 member hospitals were analyzed. Among children with asthma, the median rate of chest radiography utilization was 35.1% (IQR, 31.3%-41.7%), and that of corticosteroid administration was 82.6% (IQR, 78.5%-86.5%). For children with gastroenteritis, the median rate of ondansetron administration was 52% (IQR, 43.2%-57.0%), and that of intravenous fluid administration was 18.1% (IQR, 15.3%-21.3%). Among children with febrile seizures, the median rate of computed tomography utilization was 3.1% (IQR, 2.7%-4.3%), and that of lumbar puncture was 4.0% (IQR, 2.3%-5.6%). Increased costs were not associated with lower admission rate or 3-day ED revisit rate for the 3 conditions. CONCLUSION: We observed variation in quality measures for patients presenting to pediatric EDs with common conditions. Higher costs were not associated with lower hospitalization or ED revisit rates.
The Journal of pediatrics 01/2013; · 4.02 Impact Factor