M N Verbaten

University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Capital Region, Denmark

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Publications (179)524.85 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between mean corpuscular volume (MCV), carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels and gray and white brain matter in male drinkers to find out which if any of these biomarkers of alcohol consumption is indicative for alcohol-related differences in brain volume. METHOD: Plasma levels of CDT, GGT, and MCV and magnetic resonance imaging-determined brain gray and white matter volumes were assessed in 55 male drinkers. Current alcohol intake and lifetime alcohol intake were determined by self-report measures. The relationship between MCV, CDT, and GGT and brain volumes was explored using multiple linear regression analyses. RESULTS: There was a significant negative relationship between plasma GGT and MCV levels and gray matter volumes. Middle-aged male drinkers with highly elevated GGT and MCV levels (twice the standard deviation above the mean) have 4-12% less parietal and occipital gray matter than males with average GGT and MCV levels. There was no association between CDT levels and brain gray or white matter. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated GGT and MCV levels may be indicative of alcohol-related gray-matter decline in male drinkers. The link with GGT may reflect that elevated GGT levels are a sign of increased oxidative stress. The link with MCV levels may reflect a decreased oxygen transport to the brain. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Human Psychopharmacology Clinical and Experimental 10/2012; · 2.10 Impact Factor
  • M N Verbaten
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    ABSTRACT: A quantitative meta-analysis was carried out on the chronic effects of ecstasy use on working memory (WM), assumed to consist of a central executive (CE) and four executive subcomponents: Updating, Attention shifting, Inhibition and Access to long term memory. Publications dating from January 1998 to January 2008 were only included when they fulfilled the criteria for a meta-analysis (number of subjects, means and standard deviations) and when polydrug users were used as controls. In addition, we also determined effect sizes for lifetime consumption differences between the groups of other psycho-active substances than ecstasy. Both Lifetime Total Ecstasy Consumption (LTEC) and the effect sizes for alcohol, nicotine, amphetamine, cocaine and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) were regressed on the mean effect sizes (mES) of the WM subcomponents in order to study dose-response relationships. Ecstasy users appeared to score significantly lower on the subcomponents Updating, Attention shifting and Access to long term memory, but not on Inhibition. We did not find significant regressions of LTEC on any of the executive functioning subcomponents mES values. Ecstasy users also consumed significantly more amphetamine, cocaine, alcohol, nicotine and LSD, but less alcohol than polydrug controls. However, also for these drugs no indications were found for a dose-response relationship with executive functioning.
    Current Drug Abuse Reviews 11/2010; 3(3):129-38.
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    ABSTRACT: Declarative memory deficits are common in untreated adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but limited evidence exists to support improvement after treatment with methylphenidate. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of methylphenidate on memory functioning of adults with ADHD. Eighteen adults with ADHD who were clinical responders to methylphenidate participated in this randomized crossover trial. After 3 days of no treatment, patients received in random order either their usual methylphenidate dose (mean: 14.7 mg; range: 10-30 mg) or placebo, separated by a 6-7-day washout period. Patients performed an immediate word recall test 1 h after treatment administration. Three hours after intake, patients performed the second part of the memory test (delayed word recall and a recognition test). Delayed recognition and immediate recall was similar on treatment and on placebo. Delayed word recall was significantly better in the methylphenidate than in the placebo condition (F (1, 17) = 7.0, p <  0.017). A significant correlation was found between prestudy CES-D depression scores and difference scores on delayed recall (r = 0.602, p <  0.008). Methylphenidate improves declarative memory functioning in patients with ADHD. New studies should further examine whether subclinical depressive symptoms mediate the effect of methylphenidate on declarative memory.
    Psychopharmacology 10/2010; 212(2):277-81. · 3.99 Impact Factor
  • Marinus N Verbaten
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    ABSTRACT: Some studies suggest that the effects of low to moderate drinking (about 1-3 standard glasses of alcohol per day) on the brain and cognitive performance are positive. In the present study this hypothesis is investigated. For this purpose studies on the effects of low to moderate drinking on brain structure (Magnetic Resonance Induction (MRI) studies) and on cognitive performance were analysed and discussed In MRI studies, a linear negative effect of alcohol consumption on brain volume was found. Furthermore, a linear decrease in grey matter concurring with a linear increase in white matter volumes as a function of number of drinks was reported in males, but not in females. Only in elderly low to moderate drinkers (aged > 65 years) there appeared to be an U-shaped relationship between alcohol consumption and white matter integrity (grade) on the one hand and cognition on the other hand. The changes reported in brain shrinkage, grey matter and white matter volume, as a result of low to moderate alcohol consumption sooner offer support for the contention that such drinking decreases brain health than for its beneficial effect. An exception might hold for elderly light and moderate drinkers where less white matter damage was found than in abstainers concurring with better cognitive performance. However, methodological problems impose limits on this conclusion.
    Human Psychopharmacology Clinical and Experimental 05/2009; 24(3):199-205. · 2.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ability to revise one's action plans, as reflected in so-called stopping performance, is of fundamental importance to adaptive behavior. Previous studies in children and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have revealed impaired stopping, which improved after the administration of methylphenidate (MPH). Event-related brain potentials revealed that one crucial mechanism in adequate stopping is the link between the cortical areas that process the signal to stop and the motor system (stop N1). This stop N1 was severely compromised in adults with ADHD. The present study investigates whether methylphenidate can restore the stop N1, in addition to improving stopping performance. The acute effect of a serotonergic reuptake inhibition on these parameters was also assessed. Twelve adult combined-type ADHD patients received either placebo, MPH .4 mg/kg or .6 mg/kg, or 20 mg paroxetine in a double-blind, randomized, within-subjects design. The .6 mg/kg dose of methylphenidate improved stopping performance, whereas it did not affect go reaction time (RT). It also restored the stop N1 that was absent under placebo. Methylphenidate reduced a later stop-related potential, the stop P3, which may reflect monitoring of failed stops. Paroxetine had no effect on stopping performance or on stop N1, but it reduced stop P3. A .6 mg/kg dose of methylphenidate improves stopping performance and directly targets a stop-related brain mechanism that has been reported before to be compromised in a group of ADHD patients. This mechanism was not influenced by acute serotonergic reuptake inhibition.
    Biological psychiatry 04/2009; 65(7):614-9. · 8.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antagonists of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors such as ketamine, induce abnormalities in healthy subjects similar to those found in schizophrenia. However, recent evidence, suggests that most of the currently known NMDA antagonists have a broader receptor profile than originally thought. Besides exerting an antagonistic effect on NMDA receptors, they have agonistic effects on dopamine D2 receptors. Can haloperidol (D2 antagonist) counteract the disruptive effects of ketamine on psychophysiological parameters of human attention? In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment 18 healthy male volunteers received placebo/placebo, placebo/ketamine (0.3 mg/kg i.v.) and haloperidol (2 mg)/ketamine (0.3 mg/kg i.v.) on three separate test days, after which they were tested in an auditory selective-attention paradigm. Haloperidol/ketamine reduced task performance compared to placebo/placebo, while the task performance in these two treatments did not differ from placebo/ketamine. Furthermore, placebo/ketamine reduced processing negativity compared to both placebo/placebo and haloperidol/ketamine, while processing negativity did not differ between placebo/placebo and haloperidol/ketamine treatments. However, both placebo/ketamine and haloperidol/ketamine reduced P300 amplitude compared to placebo/placebo, while P300 amplitude did not differ between placebo/ketamine and haloperidol/ketamine treatments. The combined effects of haloperidol and ketamine reduced task performance, suggesting that this is dependent on dopaminergic D2 activity, probably in the prefrontal cortex. In addition, ketamine reduced both P300 amplitude and processing negativity. In contrast to the P300 amplitude, the disruptive effects of ketamine on processing negativity could be prevented by pretreatment with haloperidol. The current results suggest that ketamine reduced P300 amplitude by its antagonistic effect on glutamatergic activity, while it reduced processing negativity by its agonistic effect on dopaminergic D2 activity.
    The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 02/2009; 12(6):823-32. · 5.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have reported improved driving performance on methylphenidate, limited evidence exists to support an effect of treatment on driving performance and some regions prohibit driving on methylphenidate. A randomized, crossover trial examining the effects of methylphenidate versus placebo on highway driving in 18 adults with ADHD was carried out. After three days of no treatment, patients received either their usual methylphenidate dose (mean: 14.7 mg; range: 10-30 mg) or placebo and then the opposite treatment after a six to seven days washout period. Patients performed a 100 km driving test during normal traffic, 1.5 h after treatment administration. Standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), the weaving of the car, was the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measurements included the standard deviation of speed and patient reports of driving performance. Driving performance was significantly better in the methylphenidate than in the placebo condition, as reflected by the SDLP difference (2.3 cm, 95% CI = 0.8-3.8, P = 0.004). Variation in speed was similar on treatment and on placebo (-0.05 km/h, 95% CI = -0.4 to 0.2, P = 0.70). Among adults with ADHD, with a history of a positive clinical response to methylphenidate, methylphenidate significantly improves driving performance.
    Journal of Psychopharmacology 06/2008; 22(3):230-7. · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The looking behavior of children with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) and age- and IQ-matched normal control children was studied using infrared oculography. Stimuli varying in complexity and topic were presented to test whether children with PDD have specific abnormalities in looking behavior to complex stimuli and/or to faces. All children showed more and longer fixations on the complex objects than on the simple objects, especially the complex nonsense figure, but group differences were not found. The results show no evidence for specific abnormalities in looking behavior to either faces or to complex stimuli in high functioning children with PDD.
    Brain and Cognition 11/2007; 65(1):107-11. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In alcohol dependent individuals, abnormalities in brain functioning have been revealed using event-related potential (ERP) methods. In the present study, we investigated whether in non-alcohol dependent drinkers functioning of the brain is also compromised as a function of recent and lifetime drinking history (LDH). An ERP verb generation task consisting of two conditions (generating verbs describing the use of visually presented nouns versus reading nouns aloud) was used; subtracting ERPs in the latter condition from those in the former should reveal the sequence of brain processes involved in verb generation. Four groups were included, consisting of individuals drinking either lightly, moderately, heavily, or excessively (overall mean age 46.6 years). Participants were sober at the time of testing. Although the excessive group had the highest per cent retrieval errors, there was no continuous relationship between this score and amount of alcohol consumption. However, number of glasses per week affected differential ERPs associated with verb generation both at short (120-220 ms, mid-frontal sites) and at longer latencies (from 700 ms on),left-temporal and right-frontal electrode sites (T7, F6). It is concluded that moderate, heavy, and excessive drinkers, compared to light drinkers, show abnormal brain potentials associated with verb generation over frontal and temporal areas. Moderate to excessive drinking alters some but not all brain processes involved in verb generation. In particular the frontal and temporal brain areas appear to be vulnerable for the effects of chronic lifetime drinking.
    Human Psychopharmacology Clinical and Experimental 04/2007; 22(3):157-66. · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of methylphenidate (MPH) on inhibitory control as assessed by the stop task in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) could be influenced by task difficulty and may be mediated by attention. Fifteen children with ADHD performed the stop and the change task after placebo, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg MPH in a within-subject design. Linear-trend analysis showed a similar effect of MPH in both tasks and a stronger effect for inhibitory control than for attention. Furthermore, a correlation was found between blood serum metabolites of norepinephrine and dopamine for attentional measures and inhibitory control measures, respectively. In children with ADHD MPH could act primarily on inhibitory control, and is not influenced by task difficulty. Also, attention and inhibitory control could have differential pharmacological profiles.
    European Psychiatry 01/2007; 21(8):544-7. · 3.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with schizophrenia exhibit diverse cognitive deficits, one of which is a loss of the ability to focus attention. According to the revised dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia both an increased mesolimbic and a decreased prefrontal dopaminergic activity is suggested to be involved in schizophrenia. The current study was designed to explore the relationship between dopamine and two psychophysiological parameters of selective attention, i.e. P300 amplitude and processing negativity (PN) in healthy volunteers. In two separate experiments, with a double-blind, balanced and placebo-controlled crossover design, 18 healthy male volunteers were orally administered either 300 mg l-dopa (precursor of dopamine) or placebo (experiment I), or 1.25mg bromocriptine (D2 agonist) or placebo (experiment II). Following this treatment they were tested in an auditory, dichotic selective attention paradigm. An increase in P300 amplitude was found following deviant stimuli when compared to standard stimuli and following attended stimuli when compared to unattended stimuli, regardless of treatment. Similarly, PN was found regardless of treatment. Neither l-dopa nor bromocriptine affected task performance or the amplitudes of PN or P300. In the present study neither l-dopa nor bromocriptine affected PN, P300 amplitude or task performance in healthy controls, phenomena which are usually found to be disrupted in schizophrenia. This indicates that P300 amplitude and PN are neither affected by a global (l-dopa) increased dopaminergic activity, nor by a more selectively towards striatal areas targeted (bromocriptine) increase in dopaminergic activity.
    Journal of Psychopharmacology 12/2006; 20(6):789-98. · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with schizophrenia exhibit reduced levels of both prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex (PPI) and condition-test suppression of the P50 event-related potential. This study investigated the extent to which PPI and P50 suppression, which exhibit similar parametric sensitivities, are intrinsically auditory phenomena or can be induced cross-modally, and reflect common or distinct neural mechanisms of inhibition. PPI, N100, and P50 were assessed in 20 healthy male volunteers, using auditory test probes and both visual and auditory lead stimuli, separated by 100- or 500-ms interstimulus intervals (ISIs). PPI was found in the auditory-lead condition across the complete group, and with visual-lead stimuli in approximately half of the subjects. Intra-modal auditory PPI was significantly higher with the 100-ms ISI than with the 500-ms ISI. P50 suppression was found only with the 500-ms ISI, with no difference between the auditory and visual conditions. Source analyses revealed that suppression was associated with frontal cortical activity. N100 suppression was found only in the auditory condition, with no difference between 100- and 500-ms ISIs. Although both phenomena are considered to provide operational measures of gating, PPI and P50 suppression are differentially sensitive to ISI and therefore reflect partly different neural mechanisms. They are not intrinsically auditory phenomena, and both appear to involve frontal cortical activity. In contrast, N100 suppression is most likely based on refractory mechanisms intrinsic to the auditory system.
    Psychiatry Research 09/2006; 143(2-3):147-58. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In alcohol-dependent individuals, synchronization of brain activity is different from that in non-alcohol-dependent individuals as reflected by EEG differences at alpha and beta frequencies (8-30 Hz). These EEG differences may not only be related to long-term alcohol intake but also to genetic factors that are associated with alcohol dependence. Thus, it is not known what the pure effect of long-term alcohol intake on synchronization of brain activity is. Therefore, we investigated whether EEG synchronization differs between light (0.5-6 drinks per week), moderate (7-20 drinks per week), and heavy (21-53 drinks per week) drinkers. All participants (49 males and 47 females) were free of a personal and family history of alcohol dependence. Eyes-closed EEG was recorded at rest and during mental rehearsal of pictures. EEG synchronization was determined by computing Synchronization Likelihood for six frequency bands (0.5-4 Hz, 4-8 Hz, 8-12 Hz, 12-20 Hz, 20-30 Hz, 30-45 Hz). Both male and female heavy drinkers displayed a loss of lateralization in alpha (8-12 Hz) and slow-beta (12-20 Hz) synchronization. In addition, moderately and heavily drinking males had lower fast-beta (20-30 Hz) synchronization than lightly drinking males. It is concluded that both male and female drinkers who drink 21 alcoholic drinks per week or more have impaired synchronization of brain activity during rest and mental rehearsal at alpha and beta frequencies as compared to individuals who drink less. As individuals with a personal or family history of alcohol dependence were excluded, the confounding effects of genetic factors related to alcohol dependence on synchronization of brain activity were minimized.
    International Journal of Psychophysiology 07/2006; 60(3):304-14. · 2.65 Impact Factor
  • European Neuropsychopharmacology 01/2006; · 5.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Poor sleep quality often results in decreased alertness, drowsiness and sleepiness the following day. Pharmacological treatment of sleep complaints can aggravate these effects, resulting in impaired performance at work and during daily activities such as driving a car. The first hypnotics, the barbiturates, have a limited safety profile and produce significant daytime impairment. They were replaced by the benzodiazepines during the 1970s, which showed to be efficient in the treatment of insomnia but are much safer than the barbiturates. However, bedtime use of benzodiazepines also produces sleepiness and significantly impairs driving performance the following day. The presence and severity of driving impairment varies between benzodiazepines, depending on their half-life, dosage and time after administration. Nonbenzodiazepines such as zopiclone, zolpidem and zaleplon were developed to overcome the residual hypnotic effects interfering with daytime performance. Zolpidem showed little to no daytime driving impairment when administered at bedtime, but middle-of-the-night administration is not recommended for this drug. In contrast, zaleplon (10 mg and 20 mg), administered either at bedtime or in the middle of the night, does not affect driving ability. Therefore, zaleplon is a safe alternative for patients suffering from insomnia that want treatment as needed (during the night when symptoms occur), and are willing to drive a car the following morning.
    12/2005: pages 188-200;
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    ABSTRACT: In alcohol-dependent individuals changes in brain functioning, as measured with Event Related Potentials (ERP) have been reported. In the present study a visual attention and an auditory oddball task were used to investigate possible differences between light, moderate, and heavy social drinkers and excessive drinkers. It was hypothesized that with increasing alcohol intake an increasing number of ERP components elicited in the visual attention task and the auditory oddball task would show diminished amplitudes. No differences were found between light, moderate, and heavy social drinkers. A trend for a smaller P3 amplitude in the visual attention task was found when comparing the alcohol-dependent participants with the light social drinkers. It is argued that this difference might be an effect of alcohol dependence and/or a reflection of possible unknown or undetected family history of alcohol-related disturbances. In the current study, even at rather large amounts of regular alcohol intake, no evidence was found for any toxic effect of social alcohol use neither in a visual attention task nor in an auditory oddball task.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 12/2005; 29(11):2029-38. · 3.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present selective review addresses attention, inhibition, and their underlying brain mechanisms, especially in relation to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (AD/HD), and the effects of methylphenidate. In particular, event-related potential (ERP) studies suggest a deficit in the early-filtering aspect of selective attention in children with AD/HD. Results from stop tasks are consistent with impairments in stopping performance in AD/HD, but in children (as opposed to adults) these effects cannot be easily dissociated from more general impairments in attention to the task, and therefore an interpretation in terms of inhibitory control is not straightforward. On the other hand, the beneficial effects of methylphenidate are more specific to stopping, and there are no clearcut effects of methylphenidate on measures of selective attention. Even when group differences pertain specifically to stopping performance (as with adults with AD/HD), ERP evidence suggests at least a partial contribution of differences in switching attention to the stop signal, as revealed in measures of sensory cortex activation. ERP evidence from cued go/nogo tasks underlines the importance of taking into account the contribution of higher order control processes involved in anticipation of and preparation for task stimuli. It suggests that in certain conditions, expectancy, rather than response bias, contributes to increased behavioral response tendencies, and that a presumed index of response inhibition, the nogo N2, may rather reflect conflict monitoring. In sum, direct reflections of brain activity suggest that mechanisms of expectation and attention, rather than of response bias or inhibitory control, govern behavioral manifestations of impulsivity.
    International Journal of Psychophysiology 11/2005; 58(1):59-70. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A lack of inhibitory control has been suggested to be the core deficit in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), especially in adults. This means that a primary deficit in inhibition mediates a cascade of secondary deficits in other executive functions, such as attention. Impaired stopping has been claimed to support the inhibition hypothesis. However, executive functions such as inhibition and attention are hard to disentangle. To use event-related potentials in adult patients with ADHD to show that impaired stopping is associated with abnormalities of attention. The stop signal task was presented to 24 adults with ADHD combined subtype and 24 controls. Stop event-related potentials are distorted by overlap from event-related potentials to other stimuli in close temporal proximity, but we applied a method (Adjar level 2) to effectively remove this overlap. In line with an inhibitory control deficit, the stop signal reaction time was longer in adults with ADHD (F(1,46) = 7.12, P<.01) whereas there was no significant difference for go stimulus reaction time. Overlap-free stop event-related potentials revealed smaller stop P3s in adults with ADHD (F(1,44) = 4.20, P<.05). In children with ADHD, this has been interpreted to reflect deficient inhibitory control. However, controls were also found to have larger early responses in the auditory cortex (N1) when stop signals resulted in successful stops, relative to failed stops, signifying increased attention (F(1,23) = 11.88, P<.01). This difference was completely absent in adults with ADHD. Disturbed attentional processing of the stop signal contributed to impaired stopping in adults with ADHD. This finding may have implications for treatment.
    Archives of General Psychiatry 10/2005; 62(10):1129-36. · 13.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A lack of inhibitory control has been suggested to be the core deficit in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This means that a primary deficit in behavioral inhibition mediates a cascade of secondary deficits in other executive functions, such as arousal regulation. Clinical observations have revealed that with increasing age symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity decline at a higher rate than those of inattention. This might imply that a deficit in attention rather than a lack of inhibitory control is the major feature in adult ADHD. To study whether an attentional or inhibitory deficit predominates, the stop-signal task and the stop-change task were presented to 24 adults with ADHD combined subtype and 24 controls. Relative to controls, the stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) was significantly more prolonged than the go-stimulus reaction time (RT) in patients with ADHD. This disproportionate elongation of the SSRT was comparable across tasks, even though the stop-change task exerted more complex (or at least different) demands on the inhibitory system than the stop-signal task. ADHD patients had a higher proportion of choice errors, possibly reflecting more premature responses. Specifically in the stop-change task, patients had more variable choice responses and made more inappropriate change responses, which may also reflect enhanced impulsivity. The results support a core deficit in behavioral inhibition in adults with ADHD. We further suggest that there is more evidence for a critical role of deficient inhibitory control in adults than in children with ADHD.
    Psychological Medicine 07/2005; 35(6):807-16. · 5.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether current or lifetime alcohol intake is related to focal gray and white matter in healthy non-alcohol-dependent drinkers, and, if so, whether these densities are related to functional brain activity associated with visual attention. Voxel-based morphometric analyses of gray- and white-matter densities, and event-related potentials in response to a visual-attention task were determined in 47 male drinkers (current alcohol intake 20 drinks per week, lifetime alcohol intake 240 kg) and 44 female drinkers (current alcohol intake 15 drinks per week, lifetime alcohol intake 170 kg). All participants had a negative personal and family history of alcohol dependence to reduce possible confounding by genetic factors related to alcohol dependence. In males, mean lifetime alcohol intake was negatively associated with gray-matter density and positively associated with white-matter density in the right frontal gyrus (BA 6) and the right parietal region (BA 40). Right frontal (but not right parietal) gray and white matter in males correlated with the P3 amplitude of the event-related potentials elicited in a visual-attention task. In females, mean lifetime alcohol intake was not associated with gray- or white-matter density. Current alcohol intake was unrelated to gray or white matter in both males and females. In conclusion, lifetime alcohol intake is associated with focal gray-matter decreases and white-matter increases in the right frontal and right parietal brain regions in non-alcohol-dependent males, but not in females. These alcohol-related differences in focal brain matter in males are associated with differences in brain function related to visual attention. As the confounding effects of genetic factors were reduced, the present results may selectively relate to the effects of alcohol intake on focal brain matter.
    NeuroImage 07/2005; 26(2):536-45. · 6.13 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
524.85 Total Impact Points


  • 2009
    • University of Copenhagen
      • Centre for Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research
      Copenhagen, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 1992–2009
    • University of Amsterdam
      • • Department of Developmental Psychology
      • • Department of Psychonomics
      Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 1975–2009
    • Universiteit Utrecht
      • • Division of Pharmacology and Pathofysiology
      • • Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences
      • • Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences
      Utrecht, Provincie Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 2004–2006
    • Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen University
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
    • Maastricht University
      Maestricht, Limburg, Netherlands
  • 1994–2005
    • University Medical Center Utrecht
      • • Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      Utrecht, Provincie Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 2002
    • National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
      Maryland, United States
    • Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands