[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report that programmed death ligand 2 (PD-L2), a known ligand of PD-1, also binds to repulsive guidance molecule b (RGMb), which was originally identified in the nervous system as a co-receptor for bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). PD-L2 and BMP-2/4 bind to distinct sites on RGMb. Normal resting lung interstitial macrophages and alveolar epithelial cells express high levels of RGMb mRNA, whereas lung dendritic cells express PD-L2. Blockade of the RGMb-PD-L2 interaction markedly impaired the development of respiratory tolerance by interfering with the initial T cell expansion required for respiratory tolerance. Experiments with PD-L2-deficient mice showed that PD-L2 expression on non-T cells was critical for respiratory tolerance, but expression on T cells was not required. Because PD-L2 binds to both PD-1, which inhibits antitumor immunity, and to RGMb, which regulates respiratory immunity, targeting the PD-L2 pathway has therapeutic potential for asthma, cancer, and other immune-mediated disorders. Understanding this pathway may provide insights into how to optimally modulate the PD-1 pathway in cancer immunotherapy while minimizing adverse events.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 04/2014; · 13.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plexins and semaphorins comprise a large family of receptor-ligand pairs controlling cell guidance in nervous, immune, and vascular systems. How plexin regulation of neurite outgrowth, lymphoid trafficking, and vascular endothelial cell branching is linked to integrin function, central to most directed movement, remains unclear. Here we show that on developing thymocytes, plexinD1 controls surface topology of nanometer-scaled β1 integrin adhesion domains in cis, whereas its ligation by sema3E in trans regulates individual β1 integrin catch bonds. Loss of plexinD1 expression reduces β1 integrin clustering, thereby diminishing avidity, whereas sema3E ligation shortens individual integrin bond lifetimes under force to reduce stability. Consequently, both decreased expression of plexinD1 during developmental progression and a thymic medulla-emanating sema3E gradient enhance thymocyte movement toward the medulla, thus enforcing the orchestrated lymphoid trafficking required for effective immune repertoire selection. Our results demonstrate plexin-tunable molecular features of integrin adhesion with broad implications for many cellular processes.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2013; · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An important role for plexinD1 in thymic development is inferred from studies of germline Plxnd1 knockout (KO) mice where mislocalized CD69(+) thymocytes as well as ectopic thymic subcapsular medullary structures were observed. Given embryonic lethality of the Plxnd1 (-/-) genotype, fetal liver transplantation was employed in these prior analyses. Such embryonic hematopoietic reconstitution may have transferred Plxnd1 KO endothelial and/or epithelial stem cells in addition to Plxnd1 KO lymphoid progenitors, thereby contributing to that phenotype. Here we use Plxnd1 (flox/flox) mice crossed to pLck-Cre, pKeratin14-Cre, or pTek-Cre transgenic animals to create cell-type specific conditional knockout (CKO) lines involving thymocytes (D1ThyCKO), thymic epithelium (D1EpCKO), and thymic endothelium (D1EnCKO), respectively. These CKOs allowed us to directly assess the role of plexinD1 in each lineage. Loss of plexinD1 expression on double positive (DP) thymocytes leads to their aberrant migration and cortical retention after TCR-mediated positive selection. In contrast, ectopic medulla formation is a consequence of loss of plexinD1 expression on endothelial cells, in turn linked to dysregulation of thymic angiogenesis. D1EpCKO thymi manifest neither abnormality. Collectively, our findings underscore the non-redundant roles for plexinD1 on thymocytes and endothelium, including the dynamic nature of medulla formation resulting from crosstalk between these thymic cellular components.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD40L has a well-established role in enhancing the immunostimulatory capacity of normal and malignant B cells, but a formulation suitable for clinical use has not been widely available. Like other TNF family members, in vivo and in vitro activity of CD40L requires a homotrimeric configuration, and growing evidence suggests that bioactivity depends on higher-order clustering of CD40. We generated a novel formulation of human recombinant CD40L (CD40L-Tri) in which the CD40L extracellular domain and a trimerization motif are connected by a long flexible peptide linker. We demonstrate that CD40L-Tri significantly expands normal CD19+ B cells by over 20- to 30-fold over 14 days and induces B cells to become highly immunostimulatory antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Consistent with these results, CD40L-Tri-activated B cells could effectively stimulate antigen-specific T responses (against the influenza M1 peptide) from normal volunteers. In addition, CD40L-Tri could induce malignant B cells to become effective APCs, such that tumor-directed immune responses could be probed. Together, our studies demonstrate the potent immune-stimulatory effects of CD40L-Tri on B cells that enable their expansion of antigen-specific human T cells. The potent bioactivity of CD40L-Tri is related to its ability to self-multimerize, which may be facilitated by its long peptide linker.
Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 08/2012; · 3.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Candidate interactions identified by high-throughput protein microarray screening require rigorous -confirmation. Such validation is time-consuming and labor-intensive using conventional techniques. We describe a medium-throughput validation protocol based on coprecipitation of biotin-labeled -proteins synthesized in vitro using a rabbit reticulocyte lysate-coupled transcription and translation system. As our experimental system is based on screening for serum antibodies, we also present methods on purifying immunoglobulin from serum and quantifying the amount of coprecipitated (immunoprecipitated) target protein on Western blot. This technique provides a sensitive confirmatory test allowing for the rapid elimination of false positives prior to more extensive validation and analysis of target interactions in their native environment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) who relapse after allogeneic transplant may achieve durable remission following donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI), showing the potency of donor-derived immunity in eradicating tumors. We sought to elucidate the antigenic basis of the effective graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) responses associated with DLI for the treatment of CLL by analyzing the specificity of plasma antibody responses developing in two DLI-treated patients who achieved long-term remission without graft-versus-host disease. By probing high-density protein microarrays with patient plasma, we discovered 35 predominantly intracellular antigens that elicited high-titer antibody reactivity greater in post-DLI than in pre-DLI plasma. Three antigens-C6orf130, MDS032, and ZFYVE19-were identified by both patients. Along with additional candidate antigens DAPK3, SERBP1, and OGFOD1, these proteins showed higher transcript and protein expression in B cells and CLL cells compared with normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. DAPK3 and the shared antigens do not represent minor histocompatibility antigens, as their sequences are identical in both donor and tumor. Although ZFYVE19, DAPK3, and OGFOD1 elicited minimal antibody reactivity in 12 normal subjects and 12 chemotherapy-treated CLL patients, 5 of 12 CLL patients with clinical GvL responses were serologically reactive to these antigens. Moreover, antibody reactivity against these antigens was temporally correlated with clinical disease regression. These B-cell antigens represent promising biomarkers of effective anti-CLL immunity.
Cancer Research 02/2010; 70(4):1344-55. · 9.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: African Americans have higher incidence and poorer response to lung cancer treatment compared with Caucasians. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms for the significant ethnic difference are not known. The present study examines the ethnic differences in the type and frequency of MET proto-oncogene (MET) mutation in lung cancer and correlated them with other frequently mutated genes such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), KRAS2, and TP53.
Using tumor tissue genomic DNA from 141 Asian, 76 Caucasian, and 66 African American lung cancer patients, exons coding for MET and EGFR were PCR amplified, and mutations were detected by sequencing. Mutation carriers were further screened for KRAS2 and TP53 mutations. Functional implications of important MET mutations were explored by molecular modeling and hepatocyte growth factor binding studies.
Unlike the frequently encountered somatic mutations in EGFR, MET mutations in lung tumors were germline. MET-N375S, the most frequent mutation of MET, occurred in 13% of East Asians compared with none in African Americans. The frequency of MET mutations was highest among male smokers and squamous cell carcinoma. The MET-N375S mutation seems to confer resistance to MET inhibition based on hepatocyte growth factor ligand binding, molecular modeling, and apoptotic susceptibility to MET inhibitor studies.
MET in lung cancer tissues contained nonsynonymous mutations in the semaphorin and juxtamembrane domains but not in the tyrosine kinase domain. All the MET mutations were germline. East Asians, African-Americans, and Caucasians had different MET genotypes and haplotypes. MET mutations in the semaphorin domain affected ligand binding.
Clinical Cancer Research 10/2009; 15(18):5714-23. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The lipid phosphatase PTEN functions as a tumor suppressor by dephosphorylating the D3 position of phosphoinositide-3,4,5-trisphosphate, thereby negatively regulating the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathway. In mammalian cells, PTEN exists either as a monomer or as a part of a >600-kDa complex (the PTEN-associated complex [PAC]). Previous studies suggest that the antagonism of PI3K/AKT signaling by PTEN may be mediated by a nonphosphorylated form of the protein resident within the multiprotein complex. Here we show that PTEN associates with p85, the regulatory subunit of PI3K. Using newly generated antibodies, we demonstrate that this PTEN-p85 association involves the unphosphorylated form of PTEN engaged within the PAC and also includes the p110beta isoform of PI3K. The PTEN-p85 association is enhanced by trastuzumab treatment and linked to a decline in AKT phosphorylation in some ERBB2-amplified breast cancer cell lines. Together, these results suggest that integration of p85 into the PAC may provide a novel means of downregulating the PI3K/AKT pathway.
Molecular and Cellular Biology 07/2009; 29(19):5377-88. · 5.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The renewed interest in strategies to combat infectious agents with epidemic potential has led to a re-examination of vaccination protocols against smallpox. To help define which antigens elicit a human antibody response, we have targeted proteins known or predicted to be presented on the surface of the intracellular mature virion (IMV) or the extracellular enveloped virion (EEV). The predicted ectodomains were expressed in a mammalian in vitro coupled transcription/translation reaction using tRNA(lys) precharged with lysine-epsilon-biotin followed by solid phase immobilization on 384-well neutravidin-coated plates. The generated array is highly specific and sensitive in a micro-ELISA format. By comparison of binding of vaccinia-immune sera to the reticulocyte lysate-produced proteins and to secreted post-translationally modified proteins, we demonstrate that for several proteins including the EEV proteins B5 and A33, proper recognition is dependent upon appropriate folding, with little dependence upon glycosylation per se. We further demonstrate that the humoral immune response to vaccinia among different individuals is not uniform in specificity or strength, as different IMV and EEV targets predominate within the group of immunogenic proteins. This heterogeneity likely results from the diversity of HLA Class II alleles and CD4 T helper cell epitopes stimulating B cell antibody production. Our findings have important implications both for design of new recombinant subunit vaccines as well as for methods of assaying the human antibody response utilizing recombinant proteins produced in vitro.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) is a replication-defective strain of vaccinia virus (VV) that is being investigated in humans as an alternative vaccine against smallpox. Understanding the parameters of a MVA vaccine regimen that can effectively enhance protective immunity will be important for clinical development. The present studies utilize cohorts of rhesus monkeys immunized with recombinant MVA (rMVA) or recombinant VV (rVV) vaccine vectors to investigate the magnitude, breadth, and durability of anti-VV immunity elicited by a single or multi-dose vaccine regimen. These data demonstrate that a single immunization with rMVA elicits weaker cellular and humoral immunity compared to a single inoculation with rVV. However, vaccine-elicited antibody responses, but not T cell responses, are significantly enhanced with repeated immunizations of rMVA. Importantly, only monkeys receiving up to four inoculations with rMVA generated neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses that were comparable in magnitude and durability to those elicited in monkeys receiving two inoculations with rVV. These data also show that the breadth of antibody responses against protein antigens associated with two antigenically distinct forms of infectious VV are similar in rMVA- and rVV-immunized monkeys. Together, these studies suggest that a multi-dose vaccine regimen utilizing up to four inoculations of MVA generates robust and durable antibody-mediated immunity comparable to that elicited by replication-competent VV.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Precise intrathymic cell migration is important for thymocyte maturation and organ architecture. The orchestration of thymocyte trafficking, however, is not well understood at a molecular level. Here, we described highly regulated plexinD1 expression on CD4+CD8+ double positive (DP) thymocytes. PlexinD1 expression was further affected by the engagement of T cell receptor complex. Activation of plexinD1 via the ligand, semaphorin 3E, repressed CCL25 chemokine signaling via its receptor CCR9 in CD69+ thymocytes. In the absence of plexinD1, CD69+ thymocytes remained in the cortex, maturing to form ectopic single positive (SP) thymocyte clusters in Plxnd1-deficient fetal liver cell-transplanted mice. As a consequence, the boundary between DP and SP thymocytes at corticomedullary junctions was disrupted and medullary structures formed under the thymic capsule. These results demonstrate the importance of plexinD1 in directing migration of maturing thymocytes via modulation of biological responses to chemokine gradients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) family has outgrown its humble origins as a simple enzymatic activity cleaving dipeptides from peptides with an accessible N-terminal penultimate proline with no clear role in metabolism. It is now understood to play a critical role in regulating signaling capacity of chemokines, neuropeptides and other extracellular messengers in addition to playing direct roles by means of non-enzymatic interactions to regulate the local extracellular proliferative environment. Consequently, examination of DPP-IV family representation and activity in immune and oncogenic processes has become a major focus. Objectives: To review the evidence for DPP-IV family members as markers of malignancy. Methods: Overview of published data. Results/conclusion: The DPP-IV family, which is probably linked directly to the pathogenesis of cancer, holds significant promise for exploitation in the diagnostic arena.
Expert Opinion on Medical Diagnostics 06/2008; 2(6):677-89.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations at the attractin (Atrn) locus in mice result in altered pigmentation on an agouti background, higher basal metabolic rate and juvenile-onset hypomyelination leading to neurodegeneration, while studies on human immune cells indicate a chemotaxis regulatory function. The underlying biochemical defect remains elusive. In this report we identify a role for attractin in plasma membrane maintenance. In attractin's absence there is a decline in plasma membrane glycolipid-enriched rafts from normal levels at 8 weeks to a complete absence by 24 weeks. The structural integrity of lipid rafts depends upon cholesterol and sphingomyelin, and can be identified by partitioning within of ganglioside GM(1). Despite a significant fall in cellular cholesterol with maturity, and a lesser fall in both membrane and total cellular GM(1), these parameters lag behind raft loss, and are normal when hypomyelination/neurodegeneration has already begun thus supporting consequence rather than cause. These findings can be recapitulated in Atrn-deficient cell lines propagated in vitro. Further, signal transduction through complex membrane receptor assemblies is not grossly disturbed despite the complete absence of lipid rafts. We find these results compatible with a role for attractin in plasma membrane maintenance and consistent with the proposal that the juvenile-onset hypomyelination and neurodegeneration represent a defect in attractin-mediated raft-dependent myelin biogenesis.
Experimental Cell Research 03/2007; 313(4):761-71. · 3.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The definition of human MHC class I haplotypes through association of HLA-A, HLA-Cw and HLA-B has been used to analyze ethnicity, population migrations and disease association.
Here, we present HLA-E allele haplotype association and population linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis within the ~1.3 Mb bounded by HLA-B/Cw and HLA-A to increase the resolution of identified class I haplotypes. Through local breakdown of LD, we inferred ancestral recombination points both upstream and downstream of HLA-E contributing to alternative block structures within previously identified haplotypes. Through single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis of the MHC region, we also confirmed the essential genetic fixity, previously inferred by MHC allele analysis, of three conserved extended haplotypes (CEHs), and we demonstrated that commercially-available SNP analysis can be used in the MHC to help define CEHs and CEH fragments.
We conclude that to generate high-resolution maps for relating MHC haplotypes to disease susceptibility, both SNP and MHC allele analysis must be conducted as complementary techniques.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ligation of TCRs on stimulated T cells leads to activation-induced cell death (AICD) resulting in the downregulation of immune responses, a process essential for T-cell homeostasis. In this study, using transformed T-cell lines such as Jurkat and Do11.10 as cellular models of TCR-mediated AICD, we have demonstrated that the proapoptotic protein Siva-1 is required for TCR-induced apoptosis. Knockdown of Siva-1 rendered T cells specifically resistant to anti-CD3 but not Fas-induced apoptosis. Further, we observed that in Siva-1 knockout Jurkat cells, TCR-mediated activation of the canonical and non-canonical limbs of the NF-kappaB pathway are significantly enhanced as reflected by elevated nuclear levels of p65 and RelB, respectively. In addition, loss of endogenous Siva-1 also resulted in the enhanced expression of NF-kappaB- responsive anti-apoptotic genes such as Bcl-xL and c-FLIP. Interestingly, the c-FLIP(short) was detected only in TCR-ligated Siva-1 knockdown Jurkat cells. These results demonstrate a significant role for endogenous Siva-1, through its inhibitory effect on NF-kappaB activity, in TCR-mediated AICD with implications in peripheral tolerance, T-cell homeostasis and cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The immune cell adaptor adhesion and degranulation promoting adaptor protein (ADAP) and its binding to T-cell adaptor Src kinase-associated protein of 55 kDa (SKAP-55) play a key role in the modulation of T-cell adhesion. While primary binding occurs via SKAP-55 SH3 domain binding to a proline-rich region in ADAP, a second interaction occurs between the ADAP C-terminal SH3 domain (ADAP-SH3c) and a non-canonical RKXXY294XXY297 motif in SKAP-55. Increasing numbers of non-canonical SH3 domain binding motifs have been identified in a number of biological systems. The presence of tyrosine residues in the SKAP-55 RKXXY294XXY297 motif suggested that phosphorylation might influence this unusual SH3 domain interaction. Here, we show that the Src kinase p59fyn can induce the in vivo phosphorylation of the motif, and this event blocks ADAP-SH3c domain binding to the peptide motif. The importance of tyrosine phosphorylation was confirmed by plasmon resonance interaction analysis showing that phosphorylation of Tyr294 residue plays a central role in mediating dissociation, whereas phosphorylation of the second Tyr297 had no effect. Although loss of this secondary interaction did not result in the disruption of the complex, the Y294F mutation blocked T-cell receptor-induced up-regulation of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1-mediated adhesion to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and interleukin-2 promoter activity. Our findings identify a RKXXY294 motif in SKAP-55 that mediates unique ADAP SH3c domain binding and is needed for LFA-1-mediated adhesion and cytokine production.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2006; 281(19):13743-50. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several of the proinflammatory peptides involved in rheumatoid arthritis pathogenesis, including peptides induced downstream of tumor necrosis factor-alpha as well as the monocyte/T cell-attracting chemokines RANTES and stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1alpha and the neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and substance P, have their biological half-lives controlled by dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV). Proteolysis by DPPIV regulates not only the half-life but also receptor preference and downstream signaling. In this article, we examine the role of DPPIV homologs, including CD26, the canonical DPPIV, and their substrates in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. The differing specific activities of the DPPIV family members and their differential inhibitor response provide new insights into therapeutic design.
Arthritis research & therapy 02/2005; 7(6):253-69. · 4.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: First discovered as a circulating secreted molecule expressed by activated T lymphocytes, attractin was examined as a potential marker of immune activity. The discovery that a transmembrane form not only controls neuropeptide regulation of hair pigmentation in animals but also affects basal metabolism led to proposals that attractin may also be an extracellular target amenable for the development of obesity-regulating drugs. Examination of several animal mutants used as models ofjuvenile-onset neurodegeneration revealed mutations at the attractin locus as the cause, and the reassessment of earlier attractin mutants demonstrated that neurodegeneration, alterations in pigmentation regulation, and basal metabolic rate were common to all the allelic variants. The presentation and severity of the symptoms differ depending upon the mutation, and some may be variably penetrant even within an allelic line. In this report, we review our rapidly altering perception of the functional activity of attractin with each further addition to its sphere of physiological involvement. We further reappraise our concepts of the subcellular location of attractin, leading to a new proposal that provides a unifying mechanism for attractin's pleiotropic activities. Progress in elucidating each new aspect of attractin function provides a case study in the evolution of possible therapeutic interventions as well as illuminating some of the pitfalls of studying molecular pathways isolated from the whole organism physiology.
Journal of Environmental Pathology Toxicology and Oncology 02/2004; 23(1):1-11. · 0.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations at the Atrn locus that encodes a transmembrane protein with a large ectodomain are responsible for a juvenile-onset neurodegeneration manifest as hypomyelination and cerebral vacuole development in several rodent species. In addition to a membrane isoform, the human Atm locus generates by alternative splicing a secreted form corresponding to the entire ectodomain that then circulates at high concentration in the periphery, released in part by activated T lymphocytes. We report here that the secreted form mRNA is downregulated throughout representative discrete regions of the human brain while membrane attractin mRNA is well represented, resulting in the apparent absence of secreted attractin protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Transcription of attractin secreted form mRNA is strongly downregulated upon differentiation of a human cortical neuron-derived cell line (HCN-1A) to a mature neuron phenotype in response to nerve growth factor. Recombinant secreted attractin disrupts neurite formation by differentiated HCN-1A cells, resulting in higher levels of branching with shorter processes. This effect is duplicated by anti-attractin and by human serum but not by human serum depleted of attractin or by CSF We propose that inappropriate expression of secreted attractin in the CNS blocks membrane attractin function and that its presence, either by leakage from the periphery, aberrant transcription, or release from inflammatory foci may affect neuron extracellular interactions leading to neurodegeneration in the human.
Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 10/2002; 61(9):767-77. · 4.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The proliferative responses of T lymphocytes of a subset of patients with CVID are abnormally low. This may be due to abnormalities in extracellular interactions or signalling defects downstream from membrane-associated receptors. Demonstrating that the T cell receptor signalling was normal, we observed no abnormal pattern of activation-induced tyrosine phosphorylation in cells from CVID patients. Moreover, the addition of exogenous IL-2 increased the low proliferation to mitogens, thus indicating the integrity of the IL-2R signalling apparatus. Attractin is a rapidly expressed T cell activation antigen involved in forming an association between T cells and monocytes. Twenty-four to 48 h after activation by CD3 cross-linking, attractin expression was not up-regulated on the cells of CVID patients despite normal up-regulation of CD25 and CD26. On control cells, however, attractin expression was up-regulated together with CD25 and CD26. The addition of the purified 175-kD attractin was capable of restoring the proliferative response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells following CD3 X-L in the presence of suboptimal concentrations of rIL-2 (10 and 20 U/ml). The effect was dose-dependent with the maximal effect at a concentration of 500 ng/ml, and present at a concentration as low as 50 ng/ml. Due to the likely role of attractin in cell guidance and amplification of the immune response, our results indicate that the lack of up-regulation of the molecule in patients with CVID may in turn affect any further step of productive immune response. Our finding may also imply a potential therapeutic role for this novel molecule.