Peter M Monti

Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, United States

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Publications (259)662.09 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Misreporting smoking behavior is common among younger smokers participating in clinical trials for smoking cessation. This study focused on the prevalence of and factors associated with adolescent misreporting of smoking behaviors within the context of a randomized clinical trial for smoking cessation.
    Addictive Behaviors 06/2015; 45. DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2015.01.017 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stepped care approaches for mandated college students provide individual brief motivational interventions (BMI) only for individuals who do not respond to an initial, low-intensity level of treatment such as Brief Advice (BA). However, how BMIs facilitate change in this higher-risk group of mandated students remains unclear. Perceived descriptive norms and alcohol-related expectancies are the most commonly examined mediators of BMI efficacy but have yet to be examined in the context of stepped care. Participants were mandated college students (N = 598) participating in a stepped care trial in which mandated students first received BA. Those who reported continued risky drinking 6 weeks following a BA session were randomized to either a single-session BMI (N = 163) or an assessment-only comparison condition (AO; N = 165). BMI participants reduced alcohol-related problems at the 9 month follow up significantly more than AO participants. Multiple mediation analyses using bootstrapping techniques examined whether perceived descriptive norms and alcohol-related expectancies mediated the observed outcomes. Reductions in perceptions of average student drinking (B = -.24; 95% CI [-.61, -.04]) and negative expectancies (B = -.13; 95% CI [-.38, -.01]) mediated the BMI effects. Furthermore, perceived average student norms were reduced after the BMI to levels approximating those of students who had exhibited lower risk drinking following the BA session. Findings highlight the utility of addressing perceived norms and expectancies in BMIs, especially for students who have not responded to less intensive prevention efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
    Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 06/2015; DOI:10.1037/adb0000092 · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Past research has shown that underage college-student drinkers (UCSDs) report increased subjective craving and exhibit stronger attentional biases to alcohol following alcohol-cue exposure. To date, less research has examined whether momentary decreases in alcohol craving are associated with reductions in attentional bias. One experimental manipulation that has been used to produce within-session decreases in alcohol craving is to extend the duration of laboratory-based alcohol-cue exposure protocols. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of both brief and extended alcohol-cue exposure on subjective craving and attentional bias among UCSDs. Eighty participants were randomized either to a group that received a short, in vivo, alcohol-cue-exposure period (short-exposure group [SE], 2 3-min blocks) or to a group that received a long-exposure period (long-exposure group [LE], 6 3-min blocks). Both groups completed a visual probe task before and after cue exposure to assess changes in attentional bias. Analyses revealed no group differences in mean craving or mean attentional bias before or after cue exposure. Further, exploratory analyses revealed no sex differences in our measures of craving or attentional bias. For Group LE, but not Group SE, within-session changes in craving positively predicted within-session changes in attentional bias. However, further analyses revealed that this relationship was significant only for women in the LE group. Implications for treatments that aim to reduce craving and/or attentional bias are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
    Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 06/2015; 23(3):159-167. DOI:10.1037/pha0000018 · 2.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Global association and experimental studies suggest that alcohol use may increase sexual behavior that poses risk for exposure to sexually transmitted infections (STI) among heterosexual men and women. However, results from longitudinal and daily recall studies exploring the co-occurrence of alcohol use with various sexual risk outcomes in more naturalistic contexts have been mixed, and the bulk of this research has focused on college students. The current study enrolled heavy-drinking emergency department (ED) patients and used a cross-sectional, 30-day Timeline Followback (TLFB) method to examine the daily co-occurrence between alcohol use and three sexual behavior outcomes: Any sex, unprotected intercourse (UI), and UI with casual partners (versus protected intercourse [PI] with casual partners, or UI/PI with steady partners). Results indicated that increasing levels of alcohol use on a given day increased the odds of engaging in any sexual activity and that heavy drinking (but not very heavy drinking) on a given day was associated with an increased odds of engaging in UI with either steady or casual partners. However, day-level alcohol use was not associated with an increased odds of UI with casual partners. These findings suggest that alcohol may play an important role in increasing risk for HIV/STIs among heterosexuals, and support the continued need to target heavy drinking in sex risk reduction interventions. However, our results also suggest that alcohol may not universally result in unprotected sex with casual partners, a behavior posing perhaps the highest risk for HIV/STI transmission. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Drug and alcohol dependence 04/2015; 152. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.04.011 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cue-elicited craving for alcohol is well established but extinction-based treatment to extinguish this response has generated only modest positive outcomes in clinical trials. Basic and clinical research suggests that D-cycloserine (DCS) enhances extinction to fear cues under certain conditions. However, it remains unclear whether DCS would also accelerate extinction of cue-elicited craving for alcohol. The goal of the current study was to examine whether, compared with placebo (PBO), DCS enhanced extinction of cue-elicited craving among treatment-seeking individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Participants were administered DCS (50 mg) or PBO 1 h before an alcohol extinction paradigm in a simulated bar environment on two occasions. The extinction procedures occurred 1 week apart and were fully integrated into outpatient treatment. Subjective craving for alcohol was the primary variable of interest. Follow-up cue reactivity sessions were conducted 1 week and 3 weeks later to ascertain persisting DCS effects. Drinking outcomes and tolerability were also examined. DCS was associated with augmented reductions in alcohol craving to alcohol cues during the first extinction session and these effects persisted through all subsequent sessions, suggesting facilitation of extinction. Participants in the DCS condition reported significant short-term reductions in drinking, although these did not persist to follow-up, and found the medication highly tolerable. These findings provide evidence that DCS enhances extinction of cue-elicited craving for alcohol in individuals with AUDs in the context of outpatient treatment. The potential clinical utility of DCS is discussed, including methodological considerations and context-dependent learning.
    Translational Psychiatry 04/2015; 5(4). DOI:10.1038/tp.2015.41 · 4.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Unhealthy alcohol use is common among HIV-infected patients and contributes to co-morbidities, cognitive decline, unprotected sex, and poor medication adherence. Studies consistently show missed opportunities to address unhealthy alcohol use as part of care. Although treatment of other drug use has been integrated into HIV care in some settings, more information is needed regarding provider attitudes regarding the need for integration of alcohol treatment and HIV care. We surveyed 119 HIV and 159 addiction providers regarding the following domains: existing knowledge, desire for new knowledge (with subdomains relative advantage, compatibility, and complexity of integrating knowledge), and individual and program development needs. Scale scores for each domain were correlated with demographics to identify factors associated with training need. Both HIV and addiction providers reported agreement with statements of existing knowledge and the need for additional skills. The priority attributed to training, however, was low for both groups. Knowledge and perceived prevalence of HIV and unhealthy alcohol use increased with years of experience. Perceived prevalence correlated with compatibility but not the relative advantage of training. Though addressing alcohol use and HIV was acknowledged to be important, the priority of this was low, particularly early career providers. These providers may be important targets for training focusing on motivating coordination of care and skills related to assessment and counseling.
    Addictive Disorders & Their Treatment 03/2015; 14(1):16-28. DOI:10.1097/ADT.0000000000000040
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    ABSTRACT: Residential drug treatment provides an opportunity to intervene with smokers with substance use disorders (SUD). A randomized controlled clinical trial compared: (1) contingent vouchers (CV) for smoking abstinence to noncontingent vouchers (NCV), crossed with (2) motivational interviewing (MI) or brief advice (BA), for 184 smokers in SUD treatment. During the voucher period, 36% of carbon monoxide readings indicated smoking abstinence for those receiving CV versus 13% with NCV (p<.001). Post-treatment (3-9 months) point-prevalence abstinence rates were low (3-4% at each follow up), with more abstinence when CV was combined with MI (6.6% on average) than with BA (0% on average). No differential effects on drug use or motivation to quit smoking occurred. Thus, CV had limited effects on long-term smoking abstinence in this population but effects were improved when CV was combined with MI. More effective methods are needed to increase motivation to quit smoking and quit rates in this high-risk population. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 03/2015; 55. DOI:10.1016/j.jsat.2015.02.010 · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) has afforded several important advances in the field of alcohol research, including testing prominent models of alcohol abuse etiology in “high resolution.” Using high-tech methods for signaling and/or assessment, such as mobile electronic diaries, personal data assistants, and smartphones, EMA approaches potentially can improve understanding of precipitants of drinking, drinking patterns, and consequences. For example, EMA has been used to study complex drinking patterns and dynamic predictors of drinking in near–real time. Compared with other methods, EMA can better sample and capture changes in these phenomena that occur in relatively short time frames. EMA also has several potential applications in studying the consequences of alcohol use, including physical, interpersonal, behavioral, and legal problems. However, even with all these potential capabilities, EMA research in the alcohol field still is associated with some limitations, including the potential for measurement reactivity and problems with acceptability and compliance. Despite these limitations, electronically based EMA methods are versatile and are capable of capturing data relevant to a variety of momentary influences on both alcohol use and consequences. Therefore, it will be exciting to fully realize the potential of future applications of EMA technologies, particularly if the associated costs can be reduced.
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    ABSTRACT: Topiramate reduces drinking, but little is known about the mechanisms that precipitate this effect. This double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study assessed the putative mechanisms by which topiramate reduces alcohol use among 96 adult non-treatment-seeking heavy drinkers in a laboratory-based alcohol cue reactivity assessment and in the natural environment using ecological momentary assessment methods. Topiramate reduced the quantity of alcohol heavy drinkers consumed on drinking days and reduced craving while participants were drinking but did not affect craving outside of drinking episodes in either the laboratory or in the natural environment. Topiramate did not alter the stimulant or sedative effects of alcohol ingestion during the ascending limb of the blood alcohol curve. A direct test of putative mechanisms of action using multilevel structural equation mediation models showed that topiramate reduced drinking indirectly by blunting alcohol-induced craving. These findings provide the first real-time prospective evidence that topiramate reduces drinking by reducing alcohol's priming effects on craving and highlight the importance of craving as an important treatment target of pharmacotherapy for alcoholism.
    Addiction Biology 11/2014; DOI:10.1111/adb.12192 · 5.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The discipline of behavioral economics integrates principles from psychology and economics to systematically characterize decision-making preferences. Two forms of behavioral economic decision making are of relevance to HIV risk behavior: delay discounting, reflecting preferences for immediate small rewards relative to larger delayed rewards (i.e., immediate gratification), and probability discounting, reflecting preferences for larger probabilistic rewards relative to smaller guaranteed rewards (i.e., risk sensitivity). This study examined questionnaire-based indices of both types of discounting in relation to sexual risk taking in an emergency department sample of hazardous drinkers who engage in risky sexual behavior. More impulsive delay discounting was significantly associated with increased sexual risk-taking during a drinking episode, but not general sexual risk-taking. Probability discounting was not associated with either form of sexual risk-taking. These findings implicate impulsive delay discounting with sexual risk taking during alcohol intoxication and provide further support for applying this approach to HIV risk behavior.
    AIDS and Behavior 09/2014; 19(3). DOI:10.1007/s10461-014-0909-6 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of alcohol-cue exposure on eliciting craving has been well documented, and numerous theoretical models assert that craving is a clinically significant construct central to the motivation and maintenance of alcohol-seeking behavior. Furthermore, some theories propose a relationship between craving and attention, such that cue-induced increases in craving bias attention toward alcohol cues, which, in turn, perpetuates craving. This study examined the extent to which alcohol cues induce craving and bias attention toward alcohol cues among underage college-student drinkers. We designed within-subject cue-reactivity and visual-probe tasks to assess in vivo alcohol-cue exposure effects on craving and attentional bias on 39 undergraduate college drinkers (ages 18-20). Participants expressed greater subjective craving to drink alcohol following in vivo cue exposure to a commonly consumed beer compared with water exposure. Furthermore, following alcohol-cue exposure, participants exhibited greater attentional biases toward alcohol cues as measured by a visual-probe task. In addition to the cue-exposure effects on craving and attentional bias, within-subject differences in craving across sessions marginally predicted within-subject differences in attentional bias. Implications for both theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 09/2014; DOI:10.1037/adb0000028 · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background National guidelines call for exercise of at least moderate intensity; however, recommending self-paced exercise may lead to better adherence, particularly among overweight and obese adults. Purpose The purpose of this study was to test proof-of-concept for recommending self-paced exercise among overweight adults. Methods Fifty-nine healthy, low-active (exercise n = 30) or moderate (64-76 % maximum heart rate; n = 29) intensity exercise. All participants used electronic diaries and heart rate monitors to track exercise frequency, duration, and intensity. Results The self-paced condition reported more minutes/week of walking (f 2 = 0.17, p = 0.045) and a trend toward greater exercise-related energy expenditure/week (f 2 = 0.12, p = 0.243), corresponding to approximately 26 additional minutes/week and 83 additional kilocalories/week over 6 months. Conclusions Explicit recommendation for self-paced exercise may improve adherence to exercise programs among overweight and obese adults.
    Annals of Behavioral Medicine 09/2014; 49(2). DOI:10.1007/s12160-014-9642-7 · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Men who have sex with men (MSM) account for the largest proportion of new HIV infections in the United States. Alcohol may facilitate HIV transmission by increasing unprotected anal sex, but few studies have focused on transmission behaviors in HIV-positive MSM. This study explored daily associations between alcohol use and sexual behavior among heavy drinking HIV-positive MSM using a 30-day Timeline Followback interview. Results of generalized estimating equations indicated that greater alcohol consumption on a given day was associated with a linear increase in the odds of having unprotected anal sex with partners of any HIV status. However, the odds of reporting unprotected anal sex with HIV-negative or HIV-status unknown partners increased in a curvilinear fashion, occurring primarily at very heavy levels of use (12+ drinks). Results suggest that very heavy drinking increases the risk of engaging in sexual behavior that has the potential for transmitting HIV to other men.
    AIDS and Behavior 09/2014; 19(3). DOI:10.1007/s10461-014-0896-7 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Individuals who drink alcohol for the explicit motive of facilitating or enhancing sex may be more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior, including having sex under the influence of alcohol. However, efforts to assess sexual motives for drinking (SMDs) have been very limited to date. We examined the psychometric properties of a 5-item measure of SMDs in a sample of HIV-positive heavy drinking men who have sex with men. Findings provided excellent support for the scale's internal consistency and concurrent validity with a well-established measure of sexual alcohol expectancies (SAEs). Good discriminant validity was also established, as SMDs were correlated with other drinking motives but uniquely predicted the proportion of sex acts occurring under the influence of alcohol and other drugs, over and above other drinking motives and SAEs. SMDs were not significantly associated with unprotected anal intercourse. Adjusting for alcohol problem severity, higher SMDs were associated with lower willingness to consider changing drinking. Results suggest this measure of SMDs exhibits sound psychometric properties and may be useful in studies examining the association between alcohol use and sexual behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 08/2014; 29(1). DOI:10.1037/adb0000006 · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Background: Group treatment is delivered in youth correctional facilities, yet groups may be iatrogenic. Few measures with demonstrated psychometric properties exist to track behaviors of individuals during groups. We assessed psychometrics for the Group Process-Individual Level measure (GP-IL) of group treatment. Methods: N = 152 teens were randomized to 1 of 2 groups (10 sessions each). Adolescents, counselors, and observers rated teen behaviors at sessions 3 and 10. GP-IL assesses reinforcement for deviancy and positive behaviors, member rejection, and counselor connection and praise. Results: Internal consistency and 1-month stability were demonstrated. Concurrent validity is supported by correlations with measures expected to be associated with group behavior (e.g., coping skills). Counselors and observers rated more deviancy during interactive skills-building groups versus didactic psycho-educational groups (p≤ .005). Scales evidenced incremental validity. Conclusions: GP-IL offers a sound method of tracking adolescent behaviors for professionals working with groups. Counselors ratings were most reliable and valid overall.
    Substance Abuse 08/2014; 35(4). DOI:10.1080/08897077.2014.949337 · 1.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Effects of brief motivational interventions (BMIs) for heavy drinkers identified by alcohol-related emergency department (ED) visits are mixed. The successes of including significant others (SOs) in behavioral treatment suggest that involving SOs in ED-delivered BMI might prove beneficial. This study investigated the relative efficacy of an SO-enhanced motivational intervention (SOMI) compared with an individual motivational intervention (IMI) to address heavy drinking in emergency care settings. Method: ED (n = 317) or trauma unit (n = 89) patients were randomly assigned to receive either an IMI or an SOMI and were reassessed at 6 and 12 months for alcohol consumption, alcohol-related consequences, and perceived alcohol-specific SO support. Results: Generalized estimating equation analyses showed consistent reductions over time for both alcohol consumption and consequences. At 1-year follow-up, the average reduction in total drinks consumed per week was greater for patients in the SOMI condition than the IMI condition. In SOMI, 9.4% more patients moved to within the national guidelines for weekly drinking than did IMI patients. Frequency of heavy drinking and negative alcohol consequences showed no differential effects of intervention. Conclusions: Emergence of a modest treatment effect at 12 months suggests that SO involvement in the SOMI condition may have led to more sustained positive influence on patient drinking than in the IMI condition. Implications and limitations regarding SO involvement in brief treatment are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 08/2014; DOI:10.1037/a0037658 · 4.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Opportunistic brief in-person emergency department (ED) interventions can be effective at reducing hazardous alcohol use in young adult drinkers, but require resources frequently unavailable. Mobile telephone text messaging (short message service [SMS]) could sustainably deliver behavioral support to young adult patients, but efficacy remains unknown. We report 3-month outcome data of a randomized controlled trial testing a novel SMS-delivered intervention in hazardous-drinking young adults.
    Annals of Emergency Medicine 07/2014; 64(6). DOI:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2014.06.010 · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Across the United States, tens of thousands of college students are mandated to receive an alcohol intervention following an alcohol policy violation. Telephone interventions may be an efficient method to provide mandated students with an intervention, especially when they are away from campus during summer vacation. However, little is known about the utility of telephone-delivered brief motivational interventions. Method: Participants in the study (N = 57) were college students mandated to attend an alcohol program following a campus-based alcohol citation. Participants were randomized to a brief motivational phone intervention (pBMI) (n = 36) or assessment only (n = 21). Ten participants (27.8%) randomized to the pBMI did not complete the intervention. Follow-up assessments were conducted 3, 6, and 9 months post-intervention. Results: Results indicated the pBMI significantly reduced the number of alcohol-related problems compared to the assessment-only group. Participants who did not complete the pBMI appeared to be lighter drinkers at baseline and randomization, suggesting the presence of alternate influences on alcohol-related problems. Conclusion: Phone BMIs may be an efficient and cost-effective method to reduce harms associated with alcohol use by heavy-drinking mandated students during the summer months.
    Journal of substance abuse treatment 05/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jsat.2014.01.001 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Theoretical models of alcoholism emphasize the acute reinforcing properties of alcohol as chief determinants of drinking, and animal research suggests adolescents are uniquely sensitive to these effects. Human studies of these phenomena, however, are virtually nonexistent. We used ecological momentary assessment methods to capture adolescents' subjective responses to alcohol in real time in their natural environments. Adolescent participants were 22 problem drinkers, ages 15 to 19 years (M = 18.3, SD = 0.09; 55% female; 55% alcohol dependent). Participants consumed alcohol on 38% of days during a 1-week monitoring period, with an average of 5 drinks per occasion. Momentary data revealed that adolescents experience decreased stimulation and increased sedation and "high" across the ascending limb of the blood alcohol curve. Notably, greater craving predicted higher volumes of subsequent alcohol consumption during the episode, whereas greater "high" attenuated use. To test for developmental differences in these effects, we pooled these data with data from a similarly ascertained sample of 36 adult heavy drinkers, ages 24 to 64 years (M = 38.1, SD = 11.8; 50% female; 61% alcohol dependent). Adolescents were more sensitive to the stimulant effects of alcohol than adults. This study provides novel data on how adolescent problem drinkers experience alcohol in their natural contexts and illustrates how these effects, which appear to differ from adult problem drinkers, confer liability for future drinking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    Journal of Abnormal Psychology 02/2014; 123(1):117-29. DOI:10.1037/a0035328 · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The purpose of this study was to establish the frequency of positive and negative alcohol-related consequences during the first year of college and to evaluate gender, race/ethnicity, time of year, alcohol use, and intoxication as predictors of consequences using frequent assessments. Method: Participants (N = 1,053; 57.5% female) completed biweekly assessments of alcohol use and positive and negative alcohol-related consequences throughout the year. Results: The majority of drinkers reported both positive and negative consequences. Having a good time and feeling less stressed were the most commonly reported positive consequences. Blackouts and getting physically sick were the most commonly endorsed negative consequences. At the weekly level, number of drinking days, drinks per drinking day, and estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC, reflecting intoxication) were significantly related to all consequences after controlling for demographics and time of year. Negative consequences had stronger associations with number of drinks and eBAC than positive consequences did. With each additional drink consumed on a drinking day, the incidence of negative consequences more than doubled (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 2.34, 95% CI [2.19, 2.50]), whereas the incidence of positive consequences increased by about half (IRR = 1.51, 95% CI [1.47, 1.56]). The consequence with the largest gender difference was regretted sex, with women reporting it more often. Few racial/ethnic differences were found in report of negative consequences. Greater positive and negative consequences were endorsed at the beginning of both academic semesters. Conclusions: As number of drinks and eBAC increase, the relative odds of a negative consequence are higher than that of a positive consequence. Alcohol interventions could promote greater awareness of the likelihood of specific consequences and could highlight that positive consequences are associated with lower levels of drinking. (J. Stud. Alcohol Drugs, 75, 103-114, 2014).
    Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs 01/2014; 75(1):103-14. DOI:10.15288/jsad.2014.75.103 · 2.27 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

8k Citations
662.09 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1983–2015
    • Brown University
      • • Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies
      • • Department of Medicine
      Providence, Rhode Island, United States
  • 2011
    • Social Science Research Council
      New York City, New York, United States
    • George Mason University
      • Department of Psychology
      페어팩스, Virginia, United States
    • Butler Hospital
      Providence, Rhode Island, United States
  • 2008–2011
    • University of Rhode Island
      • Cancer Prevention Research Center
      Kingston, Rhode Island, United States
  • 2010
    • University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 1982–2009
    • Jesse Brown VA Medical Center
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2005–2008
    • Rhode Island Hospital
      Providence, Rhode Island, United States
    • University of Wisconsin, Madison
      • Department of Psychology
      Madison, MS, United States
  • 2006
    • Risk Management Solutions, Inc.
      Ньюарк, California, United States
  • 1981–2006
    • Alpert Medical School - Brown University
      • Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior
      Providence, Rhode Island, United States
  • 2004
    • Boston University
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2003
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      Baltimore, MD, United States
  • 2002
    • Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Department of Psychology
      San Diego, CA, United States
  • 1997
    • University of Massachusetts Boston
      • Department of Psychology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1994
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • Psychology
      Pittsburgh, PA, United States
  • 1992
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States