A Jerlich

Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz, Gratz, Styria, Austria

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Publications (14)36.98 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Phagocytic cells produce a variety of oxidants as part of the immune defence, which react readily both with proteins and lipids, and could contribute to the oxidation of low density lipoprotein in atherosclerosis. We have investigated the oxidation of phospholipid vesicles by neutrophils and mononuclear cells, to provide a model of lipid oxidation in the absence of competing protein. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated neutrophils were incubated with phospholipid vesicles containing dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine, palmitoyl-arachidonoyl phosphatidylcholine (PAPC) and stearoyl-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine, before extraction of the lipids for analysis by HPLC coupled to electrospray mass spectrometry. The formation of monohydroperoxides (814 m/z) and bishydroperoxides (846 m/z) of PAPC was observed. However, the major oxidized product occurred at 828 m/z,and was identified as 1-palmitoyl-2-(5,6-epoxyisoprostane E2)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. These products were also formed in incubations where the neutrophils were replaced by mononuclear cells, and the amounts produced per million cells were similar. These results show that following oxidative attack by phagocytes stimulated by PMA, intact phospholipid oxidation products can be detected. The identification of an epoxyisoprostane phospholipid as the major product of phagocyte-induced phospholipid oxidation is novel, and in view of its inflammatory properties has implications for phagocyte involvement in atherogenesis.
    Free Radical Research 07/2003; 37(6):645-53. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Measurement of lipid peroxidation is a commonly used method of detecting oxidative damage to biological tissues, but the most frequently used methods, including MS, measure breakdown products and are therefore indirect. We have coupled reversed-phase HPLC with positive-ionization electrospray MS (LC-MS) to provide a method for separating and detecting intact oxidized phospholipids in oxidatively stressed mammalian cells without extensive sample preparation. The elution profile of phospholipid hydroperoxides and chlorohydrins was first characterized using individual phospholipids or a defined phospholipid mixture as a model system. The facility of detection of the oxidized species in complex mixtures was greatly improved compared with direct-injection MS analysis, as they eluted earlier than the native lipids, owing to the decrease in hydrophobicity. In U937 and HL60 cells treated in vitro with t-butylhydroperoxide plus Fe(2+), lipid oxidation could not be observed by direct injection, but LC-MS allowed the detection of monohydroperoxides of palmitoyl-linoleoyl and stearoyl-linoleoyl phosphatidylcholines. The levels of hydroperoxides observed in U937 cells were found to depend on the duration and severity of the oxidative stress. In cells treated with HOCl, chlorohydrins of palmitoyloleoyl phosphatidylcholine were observed by LC-MS. The method was able to detect very small amounts of oxidized lipids compared with the levels of native lipids present. The membrane-lipid profiles of these cells were found to be quite resistant to damage until high concentrations of oxidants were used. This is the first report of direct detection by LC-MS of intact oxidized phospholipids induced in cultured cells subjected to oxidative stress.
    Biochemical Journal 05/2001; 355(Pt 2):449-57. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this investigation was to compare an improved fluorometric method with an UV absorbance assay for their ability to monitor low density lipoprotein (LDL) modification by myeloperoxidase (MPO) and to evaluate determining factors influencing the modification of LDL. Using absorbance at 234 nm to study the kinetics of LDL aggregation, and a native fluorescence assay for protein oxidation, we found that all components of the MPO/H2O2/Cl- system may have rate determining effects on LDL modification. While the lipoprotein modification rate correlated positively with enzyme concentration, variation of the concentration of H2O2 had a biphasic effect on the maximal rate of LDL modification with both methods. Furthermore, a positive association was found between the maximal rate of LDL modification and the acidity of the medium, with a pathophysiologically relevant optimal rate at a slightly acidic pH of 5-6, but hardly any modification above pH 6.8. In summary, both methods provide simple and useful tools for the continuous monitoring of LDL modification by the MPO/H2O2/Cl- system, but the more sensitive fluorometric method is preferable, since it allows the application of experimental conditions which are much closer to the situation in vivo.
    Redox Report 02/2001; 6(4):257-64. · 1.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, the production of the highly toxic oxidant hypochlorous acid (HOCl) by the phagocytic enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO) was quantitated and the concomitant alterations of low density lipoprotein (LDL) were analyzed in view of the potential role of LDL in atherosclerosis. Using the monochlorodimedone assay, it was found that HOCl is produced in micromolar concentrations. The kinetics of the decrease of tryptophan fluorescence appeared to be a sensitive method to monitor LDL alterations under near in vivo conditions. Therefore, this method was used to subsequently compare the effectiveness of MPO inhibitors that block production of HOCl with compounds that act as HOCl traps. The efficiency of MPO inhibitors to prevent LDL damage increased in the series benzohydroxamic acid < salicylhydroxamic acid < 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole < sodium azide < potassium cyanide < p-hydroxy-benzoic acid hydrazide, while for the HOCl traps the protective efficiency increased in the series glycine < taurine < methionine. We conclude that HOCl traps may have high potential therapeutic impact in vivo due to their low toxicity, although high concentrations of them would have to reach sites of inflammation. In contrast, only low concentrations of a specific MPO inhibitor would be required to irreversibly inhibit the enzyme.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 09/2000; 1481(1):109-18. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The relative susceptibility of the apoprotein components of human lipoproteins [high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)] and their subclasses to oxidation by the myeloperoxidase/H2O2/Cl- system in vitro was studied by measuring the decrease in rate of tryptophan fluorescence. Whereas the lipoprotein-modification rate showed a saturation type of dependence on the concentration of myeloperoxidase, a biphasic dependence on the concentration of the lipoproteins was found. High concentrations of H2O2 were also found to inhibit tryptophan oxidation in LDL but to a lesser extent in HDL. The optimal rate of LDL and HDL modification was observed at pH 6.0. HDL was modified much more rapidly than LDL, which may be due to differences in size and different relative contents of protein and lipids per particle. No differences in rates of modification of LDL subclasses were observed, when the assays were standardized to equal LDL protein concentrations, but, when standardized to equal particle mass, an optimum at subclass 8 was found, which is probably due to differences in apolipoprotein B-100 conformation. It was concluded that HDL may have a beneficial effect in retarding LDL modification in inflammatory processes.
    European Journal of Biochemistry 08/2000; 267(13):4137-43. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The relative susceptibility of the apoprotein components of human lipoproteins [high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)] and their subclasses to oxidation by the myeloperoxidase/H2O2/Cl− system in vitro was studied by measuring the decrease in rate of tryptophan fluorescence. Whereas the lipoprotein-modification rate showed a saturation type of dependence on the concentration of myeloperoxidase, a biphasic dependence on the concentration of the lipoproteins was found. High concentrations of H2O2 were also found to inhibit tryptophan oxidation in LDL but to a lesser extent in HDL. The optimal rate of LDL and HDL modification was observed at pH 6.0. HDL was modified much more rapidly than LDL, which may be due to differences in size and different relative contents of protein and lipids per particle. No differences in rates of modification of LDL subclasses were observed, when the assays were standardized to equal LDL protein concentrations, but, when standardized to equal particle mass, an optimum at subclass 8 was found, which is probably due to differences in apolipoprotein B-100 conformation. It was concluded that HDL may have a beneficial effect in retarding LDL modification in inflammatory processes.
    European Journal of Biochemistry. 06/2000; 267(13):4137 - 4143.
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    ABSTRACT: A wealth of evidence now indicates that low-density lipoprotein (LDL) must be modified to promote atherosclerosis, and that this may involve oxidants released by phagocytes. Many studies of oxidative damage in atherosclerosis previously have concentrated on damage by nonhalogenated oxidants, but HOCl is a highly toxic oxidant produced by myeloperoxidase in phagocytes, which is also likely to be important in the disease pathogenesis. Currently some controversy exists over the products resulting from reaction of HOCl with LDL lipids, in particular regarding whether predominantly chlorohydrins or lipid peroxides are formed. In this study LC-MS of phosphatidylcholines in human LDL treated either with HOCl or the myeloperoxidase system was used as a specific method to detect chlorohydrin and peroxide formation simultaneously, and with comparable sensitivity. Chlorohydrin products from lipids containing oleic, linoleic and arachidonic acids were detected, but no hydroperoxides of linoleoyl or arachidonoyl lipids could be observed. This study provides the first direct evidence that lipid chlorohydrins rather than peroxides are the major products of HOCl- or myeloperoxidase-treated LDL phospholipids. This in turn provides important information required for the study of oxidative damage in vivo which will allow the type and source of oxidants involved in the pathology of atherosclerosis to be investigated.
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine 04/2000; · 5.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The phagocyte-derived enzyme myeloperoxidase has been recently implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, because it catalyzes the reaction of hydrogen peroxide with chloride ions to give the highly toxic oxidant hypochlorous acid. The aim of this study was to determine the dependence of this reaction on the concentration of hydrogen peroxide and of the enzyme by means of the photometric monochlorodimedone assay. The initial rate of hypochlorous acid formation increased less than proportionally with increasing myeloperoxidase concentrations. Variation of the concentration of hydrogen peroxide had a biphasic effect, with an optimal concentration of hydrogen peroxide. Above this concentration enzyme destruction is apparently predominant. The progress curves of hypochlorous acid formation showed two distinct maxima. It was concluded that hypochlorous acid not only reacts with monochlorodimedone but also with the amino groups of myeloperoxidase to form intermediary chloramines that may further chlorinate monochlorodimedone. This was supported by the kinetics in the presence of the amino compound glycine, a competitive substrate for chlorination by hypochlorous acid. In the presence of high concentrations of glycine the progress curve rises continuously, yielding a greatly increased concentration of chlorinating species, either hypochlorous acid or chloramines. We concluded that glycine protects myeloperoxidase against hypochlorous acid-induced self-destruction.
    International Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Research 02/2000; 30(1):33-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Myeloperoxidase (MPO), an abundant enzyme in phagocytes, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory diseases including atherosclerosis. The major oxidant produced by MPO, hypochlorous acid (HOCl), is able to modify a great variety of biomolecules by chlorination and/or oxidation. In this paper the reactions of lipids (preferentially unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol) with either reagent HOCl or HOCl generated by the MPO-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system are reviewed. One of the major issues has been whether the reaction of HOCl with lipids of low density lipoprotein (LDL) yields predominantly chlorohydrins or lipid hydroperoxides. Electrospray mass spectrometry provided direct evidence that chlorohydrins rather than peroxides are the major products of HOCl- or MPO-treated LDL phosphatidylcholines. Nevertheless lipid peroxidation is a possible alternative reaction of HOCl with polyunsaturated fatty acids if an additional radical source such as pre-formed lipid hydroperoxides is available. In phospholipids carrying a primary amino group such as phosphatidylethanolamine chloramines are the preferred products compared to chlorohydrins. Cholesterol can be converted by HOCl to great variety of oxysterols besides three isomers of chlorohydrins. For the situation in vivo it appears that the type of reaction occurring between HOCl and lipids would very much depend on the circumstances, e.g. the pH and the presence of radical initiators. The biological effects of lipid chlorohydrins are not yet well understood. It has been shown that chlorohydrins of both unsaturated fatty acids as well as of cholesterol may cause lysis of target cells, possibly by disruption of membrane structures.
    Acta biochimica Polonica 02/2000; 47(4):889-99. · 1.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Myeloperoxidase is an enzyme in phagocytes which catalyzes several redox reactions. A major product is hypochlorous acid which appears to be important in inflammatory processes such as atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the kinetics of low-density lipoprotein modification by the myeloperoxidase/hydrogen peroxide/chloride system in vitro conform to the established kinetics of hypochlorous acid formation and to compare the results with known in vivo data. The absorbance at 234 nm was applied to study the kinetics of the modification of low-density lipoprotein. Variation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein, hydrogen peroxide, and chloride, respectively, had a biphasic effect on the maximal rate of low-density lipoprotein modification. Increasing the substrates up to certain threshold levels resulted in increased modification, however, further increases caused inhibition of low-density lipoprotein modification. The inhibitory effect of higher low-density lipoprotein concentrations might be relevant, since these concentrations occur in the human aortic intima. Furthermore, a positive correlation was found between the maximal rate of low-density lipoprotein modification and the acidity of the medium. In summary, low-density lipoprotein modification is affected by the myeloperoxidase/hydrogen peroxide/chloride system in a similar manner to hypochlorous acid production. We conclude that myeloperoxidase, which has been detected in atherosclerotic lesions, is able to modify low-density lipoprotein into the form which is taken up by macrophages in an uncontrolled manner.
    International Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Research 02/1999; 29(4):155-61.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to further clarify which part of human low density lipoprotein (LDL) is attacked by the MPO/H2O2/Cl- -system and which reactive oxygen species is responsible for the attack. Therefore the influence of this system on the modification of the lipid and protein moiety of LDL was studied in vitro. Using the monochlorodimedone assay it was found that HOCl is produced in micromolar quantities in the absence of LDL and is rapidly consumed by LDL in a concentration dependent manner. The consumption of HOCl was reflected in the formation of HOCl-specific epitopes on apo B-100 as determined by an antibody raised against HOCl-modified LDL. The absorbency at 234 nm was applied to measure continuously the extent of modification of LDL. The general kinetic pattern of the absorbency measurement consisted of a lag phase where no LDL modification was observed, followed by a rapid increase of absorbency and a plateau phase. Finally the absorbency decreased due to LDL precipitation. Time dependent absorption spectra indicated that this kinetic pattern is mainly caused by light scattering due to particle aggregation rather than by a specific absorption at 234 nm due to conjugated diene formation. In agreement with this finding a low rate of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBArS) formation was observed after a lag phase. The aggregation of LDL occurs most likely by modification of apo B-100, which was determined fluorimetrically in terms of LDL-tryptophan destruction in presence of the MPO/H2O2/Cl(-)-system. The kinetic course of tryptophan fluorescence generally consisted of a rapid decrease leveling off into a low plateau phase. Gas chromatographic determinations of linoleic acid in LDL in presence of the MPO system showed that this polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) is easily attacked by HOCl. Consistent with this finding NMR spectra of HOCl modified LDL indicated a complete disappearance of bis-allylic methylene groups. Since lipid peroxidation products only partially account for this loss of PUFAs, other reactions of HOCl with unsaturated lipids--probably chlorohydrin formation--must be involved. Summarizing, although the rate of lipid peroxidation is low, both the lipid and the protein moiety of LDL are readily modified by the MPO system. It appears that the immediate consequence of apo B-100 modification is its aggregation. It is concluded that MPO, which has been detected in atherosclerotic lesions, is able to contribute to the modification of LDL into a form recognizable for uncontrolled uptake by macrophages.
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine 06/1998; 24(7-8):1139-48. · 5.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to further clarify which part of human low density lipoprotein (LDL) is attacked by the MPO/H2O2/Cl−-system and which reactive oxygen species is responsible for the attack. Therefore the influence of this system on the modification of the lipid and protein moiety of LDL was studied in vitro. Using the monochlorodimedone assay it was found that HOCl is produced in micromolar quantities in the absence of LDL and is rapidly consumed by LDL in a concentration dependent manner. The consumption of HOCl was reflected in the formation of HOCl-specific epitopes on apo B-100 as determined by an antibody raised against HOCl-modified LDL. The absorbency at 234 nm was applied to measure continuously the extent of modification of LDL. The general kinetic pattern of the absorbency measurement consisted of a lag phase where no LDL modification was observed, followed by a rapid increase of absorbency and a plateau phase. Finally the absorbency decreased due to LDL precipitation. Time dependent absorption spectra indicated that this kinetic pattern is mainly caused by light scattering due to particle aggregation rather than by a specific absorption at 234 nm due to conjugated diene formation. In agreement with this finding a low rate of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBArS) formation was observed after a lag phase. The aggregation of LDL occurs most likely by modification of apo B-100, which was determined fluorimetrically in terms of LDL-tryptophan destruction in presence of the MPO/H2O2/Cl−-system. The kinetic course of tryptophan fluorescence generally consisted of a rapid decrease leveling off into a low plateau phase. Gas chromatographic determinations of linoleic acid in LDL in presence of the MPO system showed that this polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) is easily attacked by HOCl. Consistent with this finding NMR spectra of HOCl modified LDL indicated a complete disappearance of bis-allylic methylene groups. Since lipid peroxidation products only partially account for this loss of PUFAs, other reactions of HOCl with unsaturated lipids—probably chlorohydrin formation—must be involved. Summarizing, although the rate of lipid peroxidation is low, both the lipid and the protein moiety of LDL are readily modified by the MPO system. It appears that the immediate consequence of apo B-100 modification is its aggregation. It is concluded that MPO, which has been detected in atherosclerotic lesions, is able to contribute to the modification of LDL into a form recognizable for uncontrolled uptake by macrophages.
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 05/1998;
  • Atherosclerosis 01/1997; 134(1):221-221. · 3.71 Impact Factor
  • Atherosclerosis 01/1997; 134(1):223-223. · 3.71 Impact Factor