Lynne M Ausman

Tufts University, Бостон, Georgia, United States

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Publications (94)404.98 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Chronic and excessive alcohol consumption leads to the development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and greatly increases the risk of liver cancer. Induction of the cytochrome p450 2E1 (CYP2E1) enzyme by chronic and excessive alcohol intake is known to play a role in the pathogenesis of ALD. High intake of tomatoes, rich in the carotenoid lycopene, is associated with a decreased risk of chronic disease. We investigated the effects of whole tomato (tomato powder, TP), partial tomato (tomato extract, TE), and purified lycopene (LYC) against ALD development in rats. Of the three supplements, only TP reduced the severity of alcohol-induced steatosis, hepatic inflammatory foci, and CYP2E1 protein levels. TE had no effect on these outcomes and LYC greatly increased inflammatory foci in alcohol-fed rats. To further support the protective effect of TP against ALD, TP was supplemented in a carcinogen (diethylnitrosamine, DEN)-initiated alcohol-promoted mouse model. In addition to reduced steatosis and inflammatory foci, TP abolished the presence of preneoplastic foci of altered hepatocytes in DEN-injected mice fed alcohol. These reductions were associated with decreased hepatic CYP2E1 protein levels, restored levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and downstream gene expression, decreased inflammatory gene expression, and reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress markers. These data provide strong evidence for TP as an effective whole food prevention strategy against ALD. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 01/2015; · 3.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aging is one of the most important risk factors for cancer. It appears that aberrant epigenetic changes might be a common driver of aging and cancer. Among them are changes in DNA methylation and DNA hydroxymethylation. The 5' carbon of cytosines in CpG dinucleotides of DNA can be either methylated or hydroxymethylated. Like 5'-methylcytosine, changes in 5'-hydroxymethylcytosine may occur due to aging, potentially leading to downstream changes in transcription and cancer development. We set up a method to measure 5'-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine and 5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxycytidine in DNA using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) and used this method to measure the percentage of total cytosine that was either methylated or hydroxymethylated in the liver tissues of young and old C57Bl/6 male mice. The DNA was enzymatically hydrolyzed by sequential digestion with nuclease P1, phosphodiesterase I and alkaline phosphatase. The isotopomers [(15)N3]-2'-deoxycytidine and (methyl-d 3, ring-6-d 1)-5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine were added to the DNA hydrolysates as internal standards. DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation were calculated as a percentage of total deoxycytidine in genomic DNA. Within day variations for DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation were 3.45% and 8.40%, while day to day variations were 6.14% and 17.68%, respectively. Using this method it was determined that hepatic DNA of old mice had increased levels of hydroxymethylation relative to young (0.32 ± 0.02% vs. 0.24 ± 0.01%, P = 0.02), with no significant changes in 5'-methylcytosine. DNA hydroxymethylation measured by LC/MS-MS method can be a novel biomarker of aging. It will be useful to investigate the potential role of DNA hydroxymethylation in the development and prevention of age-associated cancer.
    Journal of cancer prevention. 12/2014; 19(4):301-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is associated with increased liver cancer risks and mortality. We recently showed that apo-10'-lycopenoic acid, a lycopene metabolite generated by beta-carotene-9',10'-oxygenase (BCO2), inhibited carcinogen-initiated, high-fat diet (HFD)-promoted liver inflammation and hepatic tumorigenesis development. The present investigation examined the outstanding question of whether the lycopene could suppress HFD-promoted hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression, and if BCO2 is important in BCO2-knockout (BCO2-KO) and wild-type male mice. Results showed that lycopene supplementation (100 mg/kg diet) for 24 weeks resulted in comparable accumulation of hepatic lycopene (19.4 vs 18.2 nmol/g) and had similar effects on suppressing HFD-promoted HCC incidence (19% vs 20%) and multiplicity (58% vs 62%) in wild-type and BCO2-KO mice, respectively. Intriguingly, lycopene chemopreventive effects in wild-type mice were associated with reduced hepatic pro-inflammatory signaling (phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB p65 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3; interleukin-6 protein) and inflammatory foci. In contrast, the protective effects of lycopene in BCO2-KO but not in wild-type mice were associated with reduced hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated unfolded protein response (ERUPR), through decreasing ERUPR-mediated protein kinase RNA-activated like kinase-eukaryotic initiation factor 2α activation, and inositol requiring 1α-X-box binding protein 1 signaling. Lycopene supplementation in BCO2-KO mice suppressed oncogenic signals including Met mRNA, β-catenin protein, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 activation, which was associated with increased hepatic microRNA (miR)-199a/b and miR-214 levels. These results provided novel experimental evidence that dietary lycopene can prevent HFD-promoted HCC incidence and multiplicity in mice, and may elicit different mechanisms depending on BCO2 expression.
    Cancer Prevention Research 10/2014; · 5.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Aging and chronic alcohol consumption are both modifiers of DNA methylation, but it is not yet known whether chronic alcohol consumption also alters DNA hydroxymethylation, a newly discovered epigenetic mark produced by oxidation of methylcytosine. Furthermore, it has not been tested whether aging and alcohol interact to modify this epigenetic phenomenon, thereby having an independent effect on gene expression.Methods Old (18 months) and young (4 months) male C57BL/6 mice were pair-fed either a Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet with alcohol (18% of energy) or an isocaloric Lieber-DeCarli control diet for 5 weeks. Global DNA hydroxymethylation and DNA methylation were analyzed from hepatic DNA using a new liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Hepatic mRNA expression of the Tet enzymes were measured via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.ResultsIn young mice, mild chronic alcohol exposure significantly reduced global DNA hydroxymethylation compared with control mice (0.22 ± 0.01 vs. 0.29 ± 0.06%, p = 0.004). Alcohol did not significantly alter hydroxymethylcytosine levels in old mice. Old mice fed the control diet showed decreased global DNA hydroxymethylation compared with young mice fed the control diet (0.24 ± 0.02 vs. 0.29 ± 0.06%, p = 0.04). This model suggests an interaction between aging and alcohol in determining DNA hydroxymethylation (pinteraction = 0.009). Expression of Tet2 and Tet3 was decreased in the old mice relative to the young (p < 0.005).Conclusions The observation that alcohol alters DNA hydroxymethylation indicates a new epigenetic effect of alcohol. This is the first study demonstrating the interactive effects of chronic alcohol consumption and aging on DNA hydroxymethylation.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 07/2014; · 3.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies demonstrated that diet-induced obese mice fed a semi-purified high-fat diet (HFD) had greater liver tumorigenesis than mice fed a non-semi-purified diet. Because ingredients present in standard unpurified diets may elicit potential chemopreventive properties that are not present in semi-purified diets, the present study evaluated hepatic tumorigenic effects of dietary fat by replacing it with refined carbohydrates [digestible saccharides; high-carbohydrate diet (HCD)] in a semi-purified diet without altering other components. Two-week-old C57Bl/6J male mice were randomly injected i.p. with either the liver-specific carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (25 mg/kg body weight) to induce liver cancer or saline as the nontumor control. At age 6 wk, mice with or without cancer initiation were further randomly assigned to an HFD (26% and 60% energy from carbohydrates and fat, respectively) or an HCD (66% and 12% energy from carbohydrates and fat, respectively) and consumed food ad libitum for 24 wk. Results showed that HCD-fed mice had a comparable degree of hepatic tumorigenesis (tumor number and volume) as HFD-fed mice, despite having significantly reduced body weights. HCD feeding induced greater hepatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated protein kinase RNA-activated-like kinase (PERK) activation and oncogenic interleukin-6/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling than HFD feeding. HCD-stimulated PERK signaling was associated with elevated expression of prosurvival markers in tumors, including induced protein kinase B activation, increased extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 phosphorylation, and elevated cyclin D1 protein expression. However, HCD-mediated PERK activation in tumors was also positively associated with markers of proapoptosis, which included elevated CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homology protein expression and increased cleaved caspase-3. HCD-fed mice had greater severity in hepatic steatosis than HFD-fed mice. HCD-induced steatosis exacerbation was associated with increased expression in hepatic de novo lipogenic markers that can promote ER stress. Together, these data indicated that chronic HCD consumption by mice can produce comparable severity of hepatic tumorigenesis as HFD consumption, potentially through upregulating PERK-mediated ER stress.
    Journal of Nutrition 03/2014; · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is associated with increased risk in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development and mortality. An important disease control strategy is the prevention of obesity-related hepatic inflammation and tumorigenesis by dietary means. Here, we report that apo-10'-lycopenoic acid (APO10LA), a cleavage metabolite of lycopene at its 9',10'-double bond by carotene-9',10'-oxygenase, functions as an effective chemopreventative agent against hepatic tumorigenesis and inflammation. APO10LA treatment on human liver THLE-2 and HuH7 cells dose-dependently inhibited cell growth and up-regulated sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase that may suppress hepatic carcinogenesis. This observed SIRT1 induction was associated with decreased cyclin D1 protein, increased cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 protein expression, and induced apoptosis. APO10LA supplementation (10 mg/kg diet) for 24 weeks significantly reduced diethylnitrosamine-initiated, high fat diet (HFD)-promoted hepatic tumorigenesis (50% reduction in tumor multiplicity; 65% in volume) and lung tumor incidence (85% reduction) in C57Bl/6J mice. The chemopreventative effects of APO10LA were associated with increased hepatic SIRT1 protein and deacetylation of SIRT1 targets, as well as with decreased caspase-1 activation and SIRT1 protein cleavage. APO10LA supplementation in diet improved glucose intolerance and reduced hepatic inflammation (decreased inflammatory foci, TNFα, IL-6, NF-κB p65 protein expression, and STAT3 activation) in HFD-fed mice. Furthermore, APO10LA suppressed Akt activation, cyclin D1 gene and protein expression, and promoted PARP protein cleavage in transformed cells within liver tumors. Taken together, this data indicates that APO10LA can effectively inhibit HFD-promoted hepatic tumorigenesis by stimulating SIRT1 signaling while reducing hepatic inflammation.
    Cancer Prevention Research 10/2013; · 4.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prior studies assessing the metabolic effects of different types of carbohydrates have focused on their glycaemic response. However, the response of postprandial cardiometabolic risk indicators has not been considered in these studies. The present study assessed postprandial lipid responses to two forms of carbohydrates used as reference foods for glycaemic index determinations, white bread (50 g available carbohydrate) and glucose (50 g), under controlled conditions and with intra-individual replicate determinations. A total of twenty adults (20-70 years) underwent two cycles of challenges with each pair of reference foods (four challenges/person), administered in a random order on separate days under standard conditions. Serum lipids (total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, TAG and NEFA), glucose and insulin were monitored for 5 h post-ingestion. Oral glucose resulted in greater glycaemic and insulinaemic responses than white bread for the first 90 min and a greater subsequent decline after 120 min (P =0·0001). The initial decline in serum NEFA concentrations was greater after the oral glucose than after the white bread challenge, as was the rebound after 150 min (P =0·001). Nevertheless, the type of carbohydrate had no significant effect on postprandial total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol concentrations. Following an initial modest rise in TAG concentrations in response to both challenges, the values dropped below the fasting values for oral glucose but not for the white bread challenge. These data suggest that the type of carbohydrate used to determine the glycaemic index, bread or glucose, has little or modest effects on postprandial plasma cholesterol concentrations. Differences in TAG and NEFA concentrations over the 5 h time period were modest, and their clinical relevance is unclear.
    The British journal of nutrition 05/2013; · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nicotine, a large constituent of cigarette smoke, is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer, but the data supporting this relationship are inconsistent. Here, we found that nicotine treatment not only induced emphysema but also increased both lung tumor multiplicity and volume in 4-nitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)-initiated lung cancer in A/J mice. This tumor-promoting effect of nicotine was accompanied by significant reductions in survival probability and lung Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expression, which has been proposed as a tumor suppressor. The decreased level of SIRT1 was associated with increased levels of AKT phosphorylation and interleukin (il)-6 mRNA but decreased tumor suppressor p53 and retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-β mRNA levels in the lungs. Using this mouse model, we then determined whether β-cryptoxanthin (BCX), a xanthophyll that is strongly associated with a reduced risk of lung cancer in several cohort studies, can inhibit nicotine-induced emphysema and lung tumorigenesis. We found that BCX supplementation at two different doses was associated with reductions of the nicotine-promoted lung tumor multiplicity and volume, as well as emphysema in mice treated with both NNK and nicotine. Moreover, BCX supplementation restored the nicotine-suppressed expression of lung SIRT1, p53, and RAR-β to that of the control group, increased survival probability; and decreased the levels of lung il-6 mRNA and phosphorylation of AKT. The present study indicates that BCX is a preventive agent against emphysema and lung cancer with SIRT1 as a potential target. In addition, our study establishes a relevant animal lung cancer model for studying tumor growth within emphysematous microenvironments.
    Cancer Prevention Research 12/2012; · 4.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA) are essential fatty acids that play an important role in modulation of T cell proliferation. The effects of feeding novel soybean oils in varying LA:ALA ratios were assessed in T cell proliferation and inflammatory responses of older adults. Eighteen participants (>50 y old) with elevated cholesterol levels (3.37-4.14 mmol/L LDL cholesterol) consumed 5 experimental diets in random order for periods of 35 d. Each diet contained 30% of energy as fat, two-thirds of which was high-oleic acid soybean oil (HiOleic-SO), soybean oil (SO), low-SFA soybean oil (LoSFA-SO), hydrogenated soybean oil (Hydrog-SO), or low-ALA soybean oil (LoALA-SO), resulting in LA:ALA ratios of 2.98, 8.70, 9.69, 15.2, and 18.3, respectively. Participants had higher proliferative responses to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) compared with baseline following consumption of SO (26%; P < 0.05), LoSFA-SO (22%; P < 0.05), or HiOleic-SO (24%; P < 0.05) diets. Proliferative response was similar to the baseline after participants consumed diets with an LA:ALA ratio >10 (Hydrog-SO and LoALA-SO). Post-diet intervention, LA:ALA ratios correlated with proliferative responses to PHA (r = -0.87; P = 0.05). An optimal proliferative response was observed at an LA:ALA ratio of 8.70, with an inverse correlation between proliferative response and LA:ALA ratios >8.70. These effects were independent of changes in the production of PGE(2), inflammatory cytokines, or cytokines involved in growth of lymphocytes. These data suggest that the LA:ALA ratio modulates proliferative ability of T lymphocytes, which may be due to subtle changes in fatty acid composition of the phospholipids in immune cells.
    Journal of Nutrition 10/2012; 142(12). · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the validity of two techniques used to measure human cholesterol synthesis, the rate of uptake of deuterium (D) into plasma free cholesterol (FC), and plasma cholesterol precursor (squalene, lanosterol, desmosterol and lathosterol) levels were compared in 14 women [65–71 yr with low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C)≥3.36 mmol·l −1]. Subjects consumed each of six diets for 5-wk periods according to a randomized crossover design. The experimental diets included a baseline diet (39% energy as fat, 164 mg chol·4.2 MJ−1) and five reduced-fat diets (30% of energy as fat), where two-thirds of the fat was either soybean oil; squeeze, tub or stick margarines; or butter. Fractional and absolute synthesis rates (FSR and ASR) of FC were determined using the deuterium incorporation (DI) method, while cholesterol precursor levels were measured using gas-liquid chromatography. Data were pooled across diets for each variable and correlation coefficients were calculated to determine if associations were present. There was good agreement among levels of the various cholesterol precursors. In addition, FSR in pools/d (p·d−1) and ASR in grams/d (g·d−1) were strongly associated with lathosterol (r=0.72 and 0.71, P=0.0001), desmosterol (r=0.75 and 0.75, P=0.0001), lanosterol (r=0.67 and 0.67), and squalene (r=0.69 and 0.68) when levels of the precursors were expressed as μmol·mmol−1C. Significant but lower correlations were observed between the D uptake and plasma cholesterol precursor levels when the latter were expressed in absolute amounts (μmol·L−1). The wide range of fatty acid profiles of the experimental diets did not influence the degree of association between methods. In conclusion, the DI method and levels of some cholesterol precursors correspond as methods for shortterm measurement of cholesterol synthesis.
    Lipids 04/2012; 35(9):1037-1044. · 2.35 Impact Factor
  • Eileen T Kennedy, Hanqi Luo, Lynne M Ausman
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    ABSTRACT: The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 provides authoritative advice on what Americans should eat to stay healthy. These guidelines provide a quantitative recommendation to consume 250 mg/d of (n-3) fatty acids (also known as omega-3 fatty acids). To achieve this goal, Americans would need to more than triple the amount of EPA and DHA currently consumed. This paper assessed the cost implications of increased levels of EPA and DHA from marine and nonmarine food sources using data from the 2007-2008 NHANES, USDA nutrient data base, and the USDA Center for the Nutrition Policy and Promotion food price data. Stearidonic acid (SDA)-enhanced soybean oil is a lower cost alternative to commonly consumed marine food as a source of EPA. In addition, given that SDA-enhanced soybean oil is intended to be used as an ingredient in a variety of products, this may enable consumers to increase consumption of EPA through commonly consumed foods.
    Journal of Nutrition 03/2012; 142(3):605S-609S. · 4.23 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Nutrition 08/2010; 140(8):1402-3. · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Information is scarce regarding the effect of dietary protein type, with specific focus on the lysine-to-arginine (Lys:Arg) ratio, on cardiovascular risk factors and vascular reactivity in humans. Determine the effect of dietary Lys:Arg ratio on cardiovascular risk factors and vascular reactivity in moderately hypercholesterolemic adults. Randomized cross-over design of two 35-day diet phases; thirty adults (21 females and 9 males, >or=50 years, LDL cholesterol>or=120 mg/dL). Diets had 20% energy (E) protein, 30%E fat, 50%E carbohydrate and were designed to have low (0.7) or high (1.4) Lys:Arg ratio. Measures included fasting and postprandial lipid, lipoprotein, apolipoprotein concentrations; fasting high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), small dense LDL (sdLDL) cholesterol, remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RemLC), glycated albumin, adiponectin and immunoreactive insulin concentrations, endogenous cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and lecithin:cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT) activities; cholesterol fractional synthesis rate (FSR); and flow mediated dilation (FMD) and peripheral artery tonometry (PAT). No differences were observed in fasting and/or postprandial total, LDL, HDL and sdLDL cholesterol, RemLC, Lp(a) or apo B concentrations, LCAT and CETP activities, FSR, glycated albumin, immunoreactive insulin, FMD or PAT. The low, relative to the high, Lys:Arg ratio diet resulted in lower postprandial VLDL cholesterol (-24%, P=0.001) and triglycerides (-23%, P=0.001), and small but significant differences in fasting (-3%, P=0.003) and postprandial (-3%, P=0.018) apo AI, and fasting adiponectin concentrations (+7%, P=0.035). Fasting and postprandial hsCRP concentrations were 23% lower after the low Lys:Arg ratio diet (P=0.020 for both). Diets differing in Lys:Arg ratios had no or small effects on cardiovascular risk factors and vascular reactivity.
    Atherosclerosis 06/2010; 210(2):555-62. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fatty acid profiles of biological specimens from epidemiological/clinical studies can serve as biomarkers to assess potential relationships between diet and chronic disease risk. However, data are limited regarding fatty acid stability in archived specimens following long-term storage, a variable that could affect result validity. Our objective was to determine the effect of prolonged storage at -80 degrees C on the fatty acid profiles of serum cholesteryl ester (CE), triglyceride (TG), and phospholipid (PL) fractions. This was accomplished by determining the fatty acid profile of frozen, archived, previously unthawed serum samples from 22 subjects who participated in a controlled feeding trial. Initial analysis was performed after trial completion and the repeat analysis after 8-10 years of storage using GC. No significant differences were observed among the majority of fatty acids regardless of lipid fraction. Reliability coefficients were high for the fatty acid classes (saturated fatty acid : 0.70, MUFA : 0.90, PUFA : 0.80). When differences were identified, they were limited to low abundance fatty acids (<or=1.5 mol%). These differences were quantitatively small and likely attributable to technical improvements in GC methodology rather than sample degradation. Thus, our data demonstrate that storage at -80 degrees C up to 10 years does not significantly influence serum CE, TG, or PL fatty acid profiles.
    The Journal of Lipid Research 05/2010; 51(9):2826-32. · 4.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The accuracy of stated energy contents of reduced-energy restaurant foods and frozen meals purchased from supermarkets was evaluated. Measured energy values of 29 quick-serve and sit-down restaurant foods averaged 18% more than stated values, and measured energy values of 10 frozen meals purchased from supermarkets averaged 8% more than originally stated. These differences substantially exceeded laboratory measurement error but did not achieve statistical significance due to considerable variability in the degree of underreporting. Some individual restaurant items contained up to 200% of stated values and, in addition, free side dishes increased provided energy to an average of 245% of stated values for the entrees they accompanied. These findings suggest that stated energy contents of reduced-energy meals obtained from restaurants and supermarkets are not consistently accurate, and in this study averaged more than measured values, especially when free side dishes were taken into account. If widespread, this phenomenon could hamper efforts to self-monitor energy intake to control weight, and could also reduce the potential benefit of recent policy initiatives to disseminate information on food energy content at the point of purchase.
    Journal of the American Dietetic Association 01/2010; 110(1):116-23. · 3.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) does not become clinically manifest until adulthood. However, children and young adults have evidence of atheromatous lesions and fatty streaks in their aortas and coronary vessels. Most longitudinal studies in children are not designed to evaluate the dynamics of change in CVD risk factors. There is a need to describe the trajectory of CVD risk factors as growth processes, to better understand their relationships. This study assesses the associations between dietary variables and blood total cholesterol concentration (BTCC) among children and adolescents aged 8-18 years after adjustment for sexual maturation. There were 678 boys and girls aged 8, 11, and 14 years at baseline who were followed for up to 4 years, allowing the creation of a synthetic cohort analytically, from ages 8-18 years. Multilevel modeling was used to longitudinally assess BTCC, dietary intake, Tanner stage, and BMI. For every 1-mg/day increase in dietary cholesterol, BTCC increased by 0.012 mg/dL. However, no associations were evident between BTCC and dietary total fat, saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, or monounsaturated fatty acids. In girls, none of the dietary variables was significantly associated with BTCC after controlling for Tanner stage for breast. In boys, with the exception of dietary cholesterol, no other dietary variable was significantly associated with BTCC after controlling for Tanner stage for genitalia. Sexual maturation exerts a strong influence on BTCC in children and adolescents aged 8-18 years, obscuring most associations between diet and BTCC. The inclusion of sexual maturity stage is important in studies of blood lipids among children and adolescents.
    American journal of preventive medicine 08/2009; 37(1 Suppl):S65-70. · 4.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological and experimental studies provide supportive evidence that lycopene (LY), a major carotenoid from tomatoes and tomato products, may act as a chemopreventive agent against certain types of cancers. We recently showed that high-fat diet (HFD)-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) promoted diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-initiated hepatocarcinogenesis in a rat model. Using this model, we investigated the efficacy of an equivalent dosage of dietary LY from either a pure compound or a tomato extract (TE) against NASH-promoted hepatocarcinogenesis. Six groups of rats were injected with DEN and then fed either Lieber-DeCarli control diet or HFD with or without LY or TE for 6 weeks. Results showed that both LY and TE supplementations significantly decreased the number of altered hepatic foci expressing the placental form of glutathione S-transferase in the livers of HFD-fed rats. This was associated with significantly lower proliferating cell nuclear antigen positive hepatocytes and cyclinD1 protein, as well as decreased activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and nuclear NF-kappaB. Although both LY and TE supplementations reduced HFD-induced lipid peroxidation in the livers, we observed significantly decreased cytochrome P450 2E1, inflammatory foci and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-12) in the HFD+TE fed group but increased nuclear NF-E2-related factor-2 and heme oxygenase-1 proteins in the HFD+LY fed group, relative to HFD feeding alone. These data indicate that LY and TE can inhibit NASH-promoted hepatocarcinogenesis mainly as a result of reduced oxidative stress, which could be fulfilled through different mechanisms.
    International Journal of Cancer 07/2009; 126(8):1788-96. · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Compared to vegetable oils in their unmodified state, partially-hydrogenated fat is associated with less favorable effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Acceptable alternatives must be adjudicated. Our objective was to assess the effect of a recent commercial fat substitution, corn oil for partially-hydrogenated soybean oil. Using a double-blind cross-over design, 30 postmenopausal women >or=50 years with LDL-cholesterol concentrations >or=120 mg/dL were randomly assigned to each of two 35-day phases; all food and beverage was provided to maintain body weight. Corn or partially-hydrogenated soybean oil was incorporated throughout the diet and contributed two-thirds of fat. Primary outcomes included fasting and non-fasting lipid, lipoprotein, apolipoprotein, and fasting high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) concentrations; secondary outcomes included fasting small dense LDL (sdLDL)-cholesterol, remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RemLC), glycated albumin, adiponectin and immunoreactive insulin concentrations, and endogenous cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and lecithin:cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT) activities. Relative to the partially-hydrogenated soybean oil enriched diet, the corn oil enriched diet resulted in lower fasting total cholesterol (7%; P<0.0001), LDL-cholesterol (10%; P<0.0001), VLDL-cholesterol (7%; P=0.052), apo B (9%; P<0.0001), lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] (5%; P=0.024), sdLDL-cholesterol (17%; P=0.001), and RemLC (20%; P=0.007) concentrations, and no significant effect on the other outcomes. Changes in postprandial (4-h post-meal) lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein concentrations were similar to the fasting state. The replacement of partially-hydrogenated soybean oil with corn oil favorably affects a range of CVD risk factors and is an appropriate option to decrease cardiovascular disease risk factors in moderately hypercholesterolemic individuals.
    Atherosclerosis 04/2009; 207(1):208-12. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatocyte apoptosis in addition to oxidative stress could be a key component in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, the underlying mechanisms of hepatocellular apoptotic response associated with oxidative stress have not been investigated in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NASH models. In this study, Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a Lieber-DeCarli control diet (CD; 35% energy from fat) or a HFD (71% energy from fat) for 6 wk. Pathologic lesions, lipid peroxidation products, and apoptotic hepatocytes in the liver were examined. The expressions of hepatic tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and protein concentrations of cleaved caspase-3, cytochrome p4502E1 (CYP2E1), phosphorylated c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK), Bax, Bcl-2, and Bcl-xl were measured. Results showed that the key histological features of NASH, including steatosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, and ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes, were induced by HFD feeding, with increased hepatic TNFalpha mRNA expression. HFD-fed rats had elevated lipid peroxidation products and CYP2E1 protein in the liver. The apoptotic hepatocytes were significantly greater in livers of rats fed HFD than in those fed CD, and these were associated with a higher level of cleaved caspase-3. In addition, HFD feeding increased both hepatic phosphorylated JNK and pro-apoptotic Bax but did not affect anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl compared with CD feeding. These data indicate that the increased oxidative stress and its associated JNK activation as well as an imbalance of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins in the Bcl-2 family all contribute to high hepatocyte apoptosis that may play an important role in the pathogenesis of NASH in this model.
    Journal of Nutrition 11/2008; 138(10):1866-71. · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) may have high risk for liver cancer. However, it is unknown whether high-fat diet (HFD) induced NASH promotes hepatocarcinogenesis. In this study, Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with a low dose of hepatic carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and then fed either Lieber-DeCarli control diet (CD) or HFD for 6 weeks. Liver histology and the hepatic placental form of glutathione S-transferase (P-GST) positive foci were examined. Expression levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cyclinD1, phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38, as well as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) were measured in the liver. Induction of lipid peroxidation end products (malondialdehyde plus 4-hydroxynonenal) in liver and apoptotic hepatocytes were also assessed. Results showed that HFD-fed rats developed significantly higher incidence and multiplicity of P-GST positive foci along with more fat accumulation, infiltration of inflammatory cells and higher lipid peroxidation in the liver, when compared with rats fed the CD. This high prevalence of hepatic lesions in the liver was accompanied by greater PCNA expression and cyclinD1 protein concentration but little change in hepatocyte apoptosis. HFD feeding elevated hepatic phosphorylated ERK but reduced phosphorylated p38 when compared with the CD feeding. In addition, a significantly higher expression of TNF-alpha mRNA and nuclear NF-kappaB p65 protein were observed in HFD group than in CD group. These data clearly demonstrate that NASH induced by HFD promoted DEN-initiated early hepatocarcinogenesis, which was associated with elevated TNF-alpha/NF-kappaB signaling and MAPK related hepatocyte proliferation.
    International Journal of Cancer 10/2008; 124(3):540-6. · 6.20 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
404.98 Total Impact Points


  • 1993–2015
    • Tufts University
      • • Gerald J. and Dorothy R. Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy
      • • Cardiovascular Nutrition Research Laboratory
      • • Department of Medicine
      Бостон, Georgia, United States
  • 1998–2006
    • McGill University
      • School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2003
    • Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
      • Department of Neonatology
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 1994–1998
    • University of Massachusetts Lowell
      • Department of Clinical Laboratory and Nutritional Sciences
      Lowell, Massachusetts, United States
    • Regis College
      Weston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1988–1989
    • Harvard University
      • Department of Nutrition
      Boston, MA, United States
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Division of Nutrition
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1972
    • Massachusetts Department of Public Health
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States