Ken-ichi Yamamoto

Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan

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Publications (41)112.18 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: NBS1 is the causative gene product of Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS), a recessive genetic disorder resulting in chromosomal instability and immunodeficiency. We isolated DNMT1 cDNA by 2-hybrid screening by using NBS1 as bait to study its function in DNA replication and damage checkpoint. DNMT1 encodes DNA methyltransferase 1, which maintains the genomic methylation pattern and also regulates the checkpoint pathway via interactions with various factors such as CHK1, p53, Rb, and ATM. The interaction between NBS1 and DNMT1 was observed under conditions of hydroxyl urea treatment, resulting in replication stall, and mitomycin C treatment, resulting in DNA damage. Additionally, we mapped their binding regions to the N-terminus of NBS1 (including the FHA domain) and amino acids 1401-1503 in the target recognition domain in the C-terminus of DNMT1. Under DNA replication stall conditions, DNMT1 was recruited to the survivin promoter by p53, and it repressed survivin expression via hetrochromatin formation; this regulation was dependent on the NBS1 genotype. These results suggest that DNMT1 function in the regulatory response is controlled by NBS1.
    Journal of biochemistry 08/2013; · 1.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene (RB) product has been implicated in epigenetic control of gene expression owing to its ability to physically bind to many of chromatin modifiers. However, the biological and clinical significance of this activity was not well elucidated. To address this, we performed genetic and epigenetic analyses in an Rb-deficient mouse thyroid C cell tumor model. Here we report that the genetic interaction of Rb and ATM regulates DNMT1 protein stability, and hence controls the DNA methylation status in the promoter of at least Ink4a, Shc2, FoxO6 and Noggin genes. Further, we demonstrate that inactivation of pRB promotes the Tip60 (acetyltransferase)-dependent ATM activation, allows activated ATM to physically bind to DNMT1 forming a complex with Tip60 and UHRF1 (E3 ligase), and consequently accelerates DNMT1 ubiquitination driven by Tip60-dependent acetylation. Our results indicate that inactivation of pRB pathway in coordination with aberration in DNA damage response deregulates DNMT1 stability leading to abnormal DNA methylation pattern and malignant progression.
    Molecular and cellular biology 06/2013; · 6.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: When DNA replication is stalled at sites of DNA damage, a cascade of responses is activated in the cell to halt cell cycle progression and promote DNA repair. A pathway initiated by the kinase Ataxia teleangiectasia and Rad3 related (ATR) and its partner ATR interacting protein (ATRIP) plays an important role in this response. The Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway is also activated following genomic stress, and defects in this pathway cause a cancer-prone hematologic disorder in humans. Little is known about how these two pathways are coordinated. We report here that following cellular exposure to DNA cross-linking damage, the FA core complex enhances binding and localization of ATRIP within damaged chromatin. In cells lacking the core complex, ATR-mediated phosphorylation of two functional response targets, ATRIP and FANCI, is defective. We also provide evidence that the canonical ATR activation pathway involving RAD17 and TOPBP1 is largely dispensable for the FA pathway activation. Indeed DT40 mutant cells lacking both RAD17 and FANCD2 were synergistically more sensitive to cisplatin compared with either single mutant. Collectively, these data reveal new aspects of the interplay between regulation of ATR-ATRIP kinase and activation of the FA pathway.
    Nucleic Acids Research 05/2013; · 8.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: NBS1 plays unique and essential roles in ATM activation in response to DNA double-strand breaks. We found that CHK1 phosphorylation and FANCD2 ubiquitination induced by various DNA replication-stalling agents were abrogated in Nbs1 knockout DT40 cells but not in conditional Mre11 knockout cells, indicating an MRE11-independent role for NBS1 in ATR activation. The results of in vitro ATR kinase assay indicated that the N-terminal region of NBS1 directly activates ATR independently of TOPBP1, consistent with the findings that this region of NBS1 directly interacts with ATR. This conclusion was furthermore supported by the results of in vivo experiments; the expression of the N-terminal region of NBS1 fused to PCNA induces ATR activation in Rad17 knockout cells, and the expression of the ATR activation domain of TOPBP1 fused to PCNA induces ATR activation in Nbs1 knockout cells. These results therefore indicate that NBS1 and TOPBP1 have the potential to activate ATR independently, although both are required for functional activation of ATR in vivo.
    Genes to Cells 02/2013; · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) has long been a mainstay antimetabolite chemotherapeutic drug for the treatment of major solid tumors, particularly colorectal cancer. 5-FU is processed intracellularly to yield active metabolites that compromise RNA and DNA metabolism. However, the mechanisms responsible for its cytotoxicity are not fully understood. From the phenotypic analysis of mutant chicken B lymphoma DT40 cells, we found that homologous recombinational repair (HRR), involving Rad54 and BRCA2, and the ATR-Chk1 signaling pathway, involving Rad9 and Rad17, significantly contribute to 5-FU tolerance. 5-FU induced γH2AX nuclear foci, which were colocalized with the key HRR factor Rad51, but not with DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), in a dose-dependent manner as cells accumulated in the S phase. Inhibition of Chk1 kinase by UCN-01 increased 5-FU-induced γH2AX and enhanced 5-FU cytotoxicity not only in wild-type cells but also in Rad54- or BRCA2-deficient cells, suggesting that HRR and Chk1 kinase have non-overlapping roles in 5-FU tolerance. 5-FU-induced Chk1 phosphorylation was significantly impaired in Rad9- or Rad17-deficient cells, and severe γH2AX nuclear foci and DSBs were formed, which was followed by apoptosis. Finally, inhibition of Chk1 kinase by UCN-01 increased 5-FU-induced γH2AX nuclear foci and enhanced 5-FU cytotoxicity in Rad9- or Rad17-deficient cells. These results suggest that Rad9- and Rad17-independent activation of the ATR-Chk1 signaling pathway also significantly contributes to 5-FU tolerance.
    DNA repair 12/2011; 11(3):247-58. · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Claspin was originally identified as a Check1 (Chk1)-interacting protein. Claspin and Rad17 are reportedly involved in the DNA damage-induced phosphorylation of Chk1, a hallmark of checkpoint activation. To understand the cellular functions of Claspin and the functional relationship between Claspin and Rad17, we generated Claspin(-/-) and Claspin(-/-)/RAD17(-) cells using chicken DT40 cells, which contain an exogenously introduced Claspin that can be suppressed by the addition of doxycycline (Dox). In the presence of Dox, Claspin(-/-) cells ceased growth within 2 days, leading to cell death. In addition, a remarkable reduction in the rate of DNA elongation was observed in Claspin-depleted cells, suggesting that Claspin plays a critical role in DNA replication in the absence of exogenous stress. When cells were exposed to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), a DNA damaging agent, RAD17(-) cells showed a greater defect in checkpoint activation than Claspin(-/-) cells as monitored by progression of cell cycle and phosphorylation of Chk1. Knocking out RAD17 gene showed almost no additive effects on cell death and DNA elongation rates in Claspin-depleted cells.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/2011; 414(2):298-303. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Zn²(+)-finger proteins comprise one of the largest protein superfamilies with diverse biological functions. The ATM substrate Chk2-interacting Zn²(+)-finger protein (ASCIZ; also known as ATMIN and ZNF822) was originally linked to functions in the DNA base damage response and has also been proposed to be an essential cofactor of the ATM kinase. Here we show that absence of ASCIZ leads to p53-independent late-embryonic lethality in mice. Asciz-deficient primary fibroblasts exhibit increased sensitivity to DNA base damaging agents MMS and H2O2, but Asciz deletion knock-down does not affect ATM levels and activation in mouse, chicken, or human cells. Unexpectedly, Asciz-deficient embryos also exhibit severe respiratory tract defects with complete pulmonary agenesis and severe tracheal atresia. Nkx2.1-expressing respiratory precursors are still specified in the absence of ASCIZ, but fail to segregate properly within the ventral foregut, and as a consequence lung buds never form and separation of the trachea from the oesophagus stalls early. Comparison of phenotypes suggests that ASCIZ functions between Wnt2-2b/ß-catenin and FGF10/FGF-receptor 2b signaling pathways in the mesodermal/endodermal crosstalk regulating early respiratory development. We also find that ASCIZ can activate expression of reporter genes via its SQ/TQ-cluster domain in vitro, suggesting that it may exert its developmental functions as a transcription factor. Altogether, the data indicate that, in addition to its role in the DNA base damage response, ASCIZ has separate developmental functions as an essential regulator of respiratory organogenesis.
    PLoS Genetics 01/2010; 6(10):e1001170. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rad51 plays a crucial role in homologous recombination and recombinational DNA repair. Its activity is regulated by phosphorylation by the c-Abl kinase. Either Tyr54 or Tyr315 have been reported as the target of phosphorylation but the interconnection between their phosphorylation is not known. We prepared two specific antibodies that selectively detected the Tyr54 or Tyr315 phosphorylation site of Rad51. By co-transfection of HeLa cells with c-Abl and Rad51, we clearly showed that both Tyr54 and Tyr315 of Rad51 are phosphorylated by c-Abl. Furthermore, we showed that the phosphorylation of Tyr315 stimulates that of Tyr54, which indicates that the phosphorylation of Rad51 by the c-Abl kinase is a sequential process.
    FEBS letters 06/2009; 583(12):1867-72. · 3.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The assembly of RAD51 recombinase on DNA substrates at sites of breakage is essential for their repair by homologous recombination repair (HRR). The signaling pathway that triggers RAD51 assembly at damage sites to form subnuclear foci is unclear. Here, we provide evidence that c-ABL, a tyrosine kinase activated by DNA damage which phosphorylates RAD51 on Tyr-315, works at a previously unrecognized, proximal step to initiate RAD51 assembly. We first show that c-ABL associates with chromatin after DNA damage in a manner dependent on its kinase activity. Using RAD51 mutants that are unable to oligomerize to form a nucleoprotein filament, we separate RAD51 assembly on DNA to form foci into two steps: stable chromatin association followed by oligomerization. We show that phosphorylation on Tyr-315 by c-ABL is required for chromatin association of oligomerization-defective RAD51 mutants, but is insufficient to restore oligomerization. Our findings suggest a new model for the regulation of early steps of HRR.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 06/2009; 382(2):286-91. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Replication checkpoint protein Rad17 senses DNA lesions during DNA replication and halts progression of replication fork. The cells derived from Bloom syndrome individuals show some defects in DNA replication. In order to investigate the functional relationship between the replication checkpoint protein Rad17 and BLM, which is the product of the causative gene of Bloom syndrome, we generated BLM/RAD17 double knockout (blm/rad17) cells using chicken DT40 cells. The blm/rad17 cells showed exaggerated growth defects as determined by analysis of their growth curves and plating efficiency compared to those of either of the single gene mutants. These defects seem to be due to an increase in DNA lesions that cause spontaneous cell death, suggesting that Rad17 and BLM execute different functions in the progression of replication forks. We also demonstrate that targeting integration was dramatically compromised by a lack of Rad17. In addition, the elevated frequency of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) due to homologous recombination in BLM knockout (blm) cells was greatly reduced by disruption of the RAD17 gene. Thus, in addition to its role in the replication checkpoint, Rad17 appears to play a role in homologous recombination.
    Genes & Genetic Systems 11/2008; 83(5):427-31. · 1.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human Rad51 is a key element of recombinational DNA repair and is related to the resistance of cancer cells to chemo- and radiotherapies. The protein is thus a potential target of anti-cancer treatment. The crystallographic analysis shows that the BRC-motif of the BRCA2 tumor suppressor is in contact with the subunit-subunit interface of Rad51 and could thus prevent filament formation of Rad51. However, biochemical analysis indicates that a BRC-motif peptide of 69 amino acids preferentially binds to the N-terminal part of Rad51. We show experimentally that a short peptide of 28 amino acids derived from the BRC4 motif binds to the subunit-subunit interface and dissociates its filament, both in the presence and absence of DNA, certainly by binding to dissociated monomers. The inhibition is efficient and specific for Rad51: the peptide does not even interact with Rad51 homologs or prevent their interaction with DNA. Neither the N-terminal nor the C-terminal half of the peptide interacts with human Rad51, indicating that both parts are involved in the interaction, as expected from the crystal structure. These results suggest the possibility of developing inhibitors of human Rad51 based on this peptide.
    Genes to Cells 06/2008; 13(5):471-81. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: DDB1 was originally identified as a heterodimeric complex with DDB2 and plays an accessory role in nucleotide excision repair. DDB1 also constitutes an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex together with Cul4A and Roc1 and acts as an adaptor, suggesting its multiple roles beyond DNA repair. We have generated a conditional DDB1-knockout mutant using a chicken B lymphocyte line DT40. Doxycycline-induced DDB1 depletion caused a severe growth defect followed by apoptotic cell death. Flow cytometric analyses revealed that cell cycle progression is initially retarded at all phases and subsequently impaired at S phase along with the appearance of sub-G1 population. Similarly, DDB1-knockdown in human U2OS cells by small interfering RNA exhibited a loss of clonogenic activity and perturbed cell cycle progression. These results demonstrate that the DDB1 gene is indispensable for cell viability in higher vertebrates and this conditional DDB1-knockout clone would be highly useful for the functional analysis of DDB1.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 01/2008; 364(4):771-7. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Ran GTPase system regulates the direction and timing of several cellular events, such as nuclear-cytosolic transport, centrosome formation, and nuclear envelope assembly in telophase. To gain insight into the Ran system's involvement in chromatin formation, we investigated gene silencing at the telomere in several mutants of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which had defects in genes involved in the Ran system. A mutation of the RanGAP gene, rna1-1, caused reduced silencing at the telomere, and partial disruption of the nuclear Ran binding factor, yrb2-delta2, increased this silencing. The reduced telomere silencing in rna1-1 cells was suppressed by a high dosage of the SIR3 gene or the SIT4 gene. Furthermore, hyperphosphorylated Sir3 protein accumulated in the rna1-1 mutant. These results suggest that RanGAP is required for the heterochromatin structure at the telomere in budding yeast.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2007; 363(3):788-94. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: DNA replication stress triggers the activation of Checkpoint Kinase 1 (Chk1) in a pathway that requires the independent chromatin loading of the ATRIP-ATR (ATR-interacting protein/ATM [ataxia-telangiectasia mutated]-Rad3-related kinase) complex and the Rad9-Hus1-Rad1 (9-1-1) clamp. We show that Rad9's role in Chk1 activation is to bind TopBP1, which stimulates ATR-mediated Chk1 phosphorylation via TopBP1's activation domain (AD), a domain that binds and activates ATR. Notably, fusion of the AD to proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) or histone H2B bypasses the requirement for the 9-1-1 clamp, indicating that the 9-1-1 clamp's primary role in activating Chk1 is to localize the AD to a stalled replication fork.
    Genes & Development 07/2007; 21(12):1472-7. · 12.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: RanGTPase is involved in many cellular processes. It functions in nuclear-cytosolic transport and centrosome formation. Ran also localizes to chromatin as RCC1 does, its guanine nucleotide exchange factor, but Ran's function on chromatin is not known. We found that gsp1, a temperature-sensitive mutant of GSP1, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ran homologue, suppressed the hydroxyurea (HU) and ultra violet (UV) sensitivities of the mec1 mutant. In UV-irradiated mec1 gsp1 cells, Rad53 was phosphorylated despite the lack of Mec1. This suppression depended on the TEL1 gene, given that the triple mutant, mec1 gsp1 tel1, was unable to grow. The gsp1 mutations also suppressed the HU sensitivity of the rad9 mutant in a Tel1-dependent manner, but not the HU sensitivity of the rad53 mutant. These results indicated that Rad53 was activated by the Tel1 pathway in mec1 gsp1 cells, suggesting that Gsp1 helps regulate the role switching the ATM family kinases Mec1 and Tel1.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 03/2007; 353(2):330-6. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies suggest that human RAD9 (hRad9), encoding a DNA damage checkpoint molecule, which is frequently amplified in epithelial tumor cells of breast, lung, head and neck cancer, participates in regulation of the tumor suppressor p53-dependent transactivation of pro-survival P21WAF1. This study examined the exact mechanism of the hRad9 function, especially through the phosphorylation of the C-terminus, in the transcription regulation of P21WAF1. The transfection of phosphorylation-defective hRAD9 mutants of C-terminus resulted in reduction of the p53-dependent P21WAF1 transactivation; the knockdown of total hRad9 elicited an increased P21WAF1 mRNA expression. Immunoprecipitation and a ChIP assay showed that hRad9 and p53 formed a complex and both were associated with two p53-consensus DNA-binding sequences in the 5' region of P21WAF1 gene. The association was reduced in the experiment of phosphorylation-defective hRAD9 mutants. The present study indicates the direct involvement of hRad9 in the p53-dependent P21WAF1 transcriptional mechanism, presumably via the phosphorylation sites, and alterations of the hRad9 pathway might therefore contribute to the perturbation of checkpoint activation in cancer cells.
    BMC Molecular Biology 02/2007; 8:37. · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background Previous studies suggest that human RAD9 (hRad9), encoding a DNA damage checkpoint molecule, which is frequently amplified in epithelial tumor cells of breast, lung, head and neck cancer, participates in regulation of the tumor suppressor p53-dependent transactivation of pro-survival P21 <sup> WAF1 </sup>. This study examined the exact mechanism of the hRad9 function, especially through the phosphorylation of the C-terminus, in the transcription regulation of P21 <sup> WAF1 </sup>. Results The transfection of phosphorylation-defective hRAD9 mutants of C-terminus resulted in reduction of the p53-dependent P21 <sup> WAF1 </sup>transactivation; the knockdown of total hRad9 elicited an increased P21 <sup> WAF1 </sup>mRNA expression. Immunoprecipitation and a ChIP assay showed that hRad9 and p53 formed a complex and both were associated with two p53-consensus DNA-binding sequences in the 5' region of P21 <sup> WAF1 </sup>gene. The association was reduced in the experiment of phosphorylation-defective hRAD9 mutants. Conclusion The present study indicates the direct involvement of hRad9 in the p53-dependent P21 <sup> WAF1 </sup>transcriptional mechanism, presumably via the phosphorylation sites, and alterations of the hRad9 pathway might therefore contribute to the perturbation of checkpoint activation in cancer cells.
    BMC Molecular Biology. 01/2007;
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    ABSTRACT: Ionizing radiation (IR) induces a variety of DNA lesions. The most significant lesion is a DNA double-strand break (DSB), which is repaired by homologous recombination or nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway. Since we previously demonstrated that IR-responsive protein 53BP1 specifically enhances activity of DNA ligase IV, a DNA ligase required for NHEJ, we investigated responses of 53BP1-deficient chicken DT40 cells to IR. 53BP1-deficient cells showed increased sensitivity to X-rays during G1 phase. Although intra-S and G2/M checkpoints were intact, the frequency of isochromatid-type chromosomal aberrations was elevated after irradiation in 53BP1-deficient cells. Furthermore, the disappearance of X-ray-induced gamma-H2AX foci, a marker of DNA DSBs, was prolonged in 53BP1-deficient cells. Thus, the elevated X-ray sensitivity in G1 phase cells was attributable to repair defect for IR-induced DNA-damage. Epistasis analysis revealed that 53BP1 plays a role in a pathway distinct from the Ku-dependent and Artemis-dependent NHEJ pathways, but requires DNA ligase IV. Strikingly, disruption of the 53BP1 gene together with inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase family by wortmannin completely abolished colony formation by cells irradiated during G1 phase. These results demonstrate that the 53BP1-dependent repair pathway is important for survival of cells irradiated with IR during the G1 phase of the cell cycle.
    Genes to Cells 09/2006; 11(8):935-48. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) is activated by a variety of noxious agent, including oxidative stress, and ATM deficiency results in an anomalous cellular response to oxidative stress. However, the mechanisms for ATM activation by oxidative stress remain to be established. Furthermore, it is not clear whether ATM responds to oxidative DNA damage or to a change in the intracellular redox state, independent of DNA damage. We found that ATM is activated by N-methyl-N'-nitro-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)), in NBS1- or MSH6-deficient cells. We further found that ATM is activated by treating chromatin-free immunoprecipitated ATM with MNNG or 15d-PGJ(2), which modifies free sulfhydryl (SH) groups, and that 15d-PGJ(2) binds covalently to ATM. Interestingly, 15d-PGJ(2)-induced ATM activation leads to p53 activation and apoptosis, but not to Chk2 or H2AX phosphorylation. These results indicate that ATM is activated through the direct modification of its SH groups, independent of DNA damage, and this activation leads, downstream, to apoptosis.
    Genes to Cells 08/2006; 11(7):779-89. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pierisin-1 identified from the cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae, is a novel mono-ADP-ribosylating toxin that transfers the ADP-ribose moiety of NAD at N(2) of dG in DNA. Resulting mono-ADP-ribosylated DNA adducts cause mutations and the induction of apoptosis. However, little is known about checkpoint responses elicited in mammalian cells by the formation of such bulky DNA adducts. In the present study, it was shown that DNA polymerases were blocked at the specific site of mono-ADP-ribosylated dG, which might lead to the replication stress. Pierisin-1 treatment of HeLa cells was found to induce an intra-S-phase arrest through both ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and Rad3-related (ATR) and ATM pathways, and ATR pathway also contributes to a G(2)-M-phase delay. In the colony survival assays, Rad17(-/-) DT40 cells showed greater sensitivity to pierisin-1-induced cytotoxicity than wild-type and ATM(-/-) DT40 cells, possibly due to defects of checkpoint responses, such as the Chk1 activation. Furthermore, apoptotic 50-kb DNA fragmentation was observed in the HeLa cells, which was well correlated with occurrence of phosphorylation of Chk2. These results thus suggest that pierisin-1 treatment primarily activates ATR pathway and eventually activates ATM pathway as a result of the induction of apoptosis. From these findings, it is suggested that mono-ADP-ribosylation of DNA causes a specific type of fork blockage that induces checkpoint activation and signaling.
    Molecular Cancer Research 03/2006; 4(2):125-33. · 4.35 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

539 Citations
89 Downloads
2k Views
112.18 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2000–2013
    • Kanazawa University
      • • Division of Molecular Pathology
      • • Cancer Research Institute
      Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan
  • 2011
    • Musashino University
      • Faculty of Pharmacy
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2004–2008
    • Tohoku University
      • • Department of Molecular and Cell Biology
      • • Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Sendai, Kagoshima-ken, Japan
  • 1999
    • Kitasato University
      • Department of Biosciences
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan