[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A diverse collection of 40 derivatives of benzohydroxamic acid (BHAs) of various structural groups were synthesized and tested against hepatitis C virus (HCV) in full-genome replicon assay. Some of these compounds demonstrated an exceptional activity, suppressing viral replication at sub-micromolar concentrations. The compounds were inactive against key viral enzymes NS3, and NS5B in vitro assays, suggesting host cell inhibition target(s). The testing results were consistent with metal coordination by the BHAs hydroxamic group in complex with a target(s). Remarkably, this class of compounds did not suppress poliomyelitis virus (PV) propagation in RD cells indicating a specific antiviral activity of BHAs against HCV.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: First time p53 was found in the complex with viral large T-antigene in the cells transformed by small DNA virus SV40. The cloning of p53 cDNA was done in the beginning of eighties and soon after that the whole p53 gene was cloned. The p53 family is comprised of three genes: TP53,TP63 and TP73, each of which is expressed as a set of structurally and functionally different isoforms. All of them intensively interact with each other forming a united functional network of proteins. In this review we discuss evolution of the p53 family and significance of all its members in embryonic development, reproduction, regeneration, regulation of aging and life span, as well as in the body's defense against cancer. With special attention we review the role of less studied members of the p53 family: p63 and p73, in oncogenesis and tumor progression and show that different isoforms of these proteins might exert a contrary effect on these processes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Novel mutation in CYP21A2 gene causing the steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency - C to G substitution in 7-position ofintron 2 acceptor splice site (c.290-7C>G) was identified. The effect of the mutation on splicing was checked in the system of CYP21A minigene expression in the cultured mammalian cells. The mutation impairs the usage of intron 2 acceptor splice site resulting in intron retention.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperexpression of oncogene c-kit is found in 80% patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The transgenic model cell line expressing the oncogene c-kit was obtained by transduction with recombinant retrovirus. We have designed small interfering RNAs (siRNA) efficiently suppressing the expression of activated oncogene c-kit. Further small hairpin RNAs (shRNA) targeting c-kit mRNA were designed and expressed in lentiviral vectors. We report a stable reduction in c-kit expression following the introduction of shRNAs into model cells as well as Kasumi-1 cells from the patient with AML.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study we have applied the siRNA approach for substantial reduction of AML1-ETO and RUNX1 (K83N) expression, which are frequently found in the leukemic cells. We have designed small hairpin RNAs (shRNA) for targeting AML1-ETO oncogene and a region close to the 5'-untranslated region of mRNA for the mutant RUNX1 (K83N) oncogene and expressed the shRNAs in lentiviral vectors. We report a stable reduction in expression of the oncogenes following the introduction of shRNAs into cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Baculovirus expression vectors are extensively used for the delivery of foreign genes and expression of recombinant proteins
in insect and mammalian cells. Modified baculoviruses containing mammalian promoter elements (BacMam viruses) for an efficient
transient and stable transduction of diverse mammalian cells ensure a high level of heterologous protein expression both in
vitro and in vivo. Recombinant baculovirus vectors containing mammalian expression cassette with cytomegalovirus promoter,
green or red fluorescent protein gene, SV40pA polyadenylation signal, and polylinker MCS were constructed for the delivery
of genes encoding hepatitis C virus structural proteins into mammalian cells. In HEK293T and Huh7 cells, formation of glycoprotein
complexes and HCV4ike particles was observed. A high efficiency of the baculovirus-medi-ated gene transfer and expression
of the virus envelope proteins in mammalian cells was demonstrated using fluorescence, flow cytometry, and immunoblot techniques.
Key wordsbaculovirus AcMNPV-BacMam virus-hepatitis C virus (HCV)-HCV structural proteins-HCV-like particles-mammalian cells HEK293T-COS-7 and Huh7-Sf9 insect cells
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our aim was to investigate how replication protein A (RPA) in a wide range of concentration can regulate the activity of human telomerase. We used an in vitro system based on human cell extracts with or without RPA. It has been shown that removal of RPA leads to loss of telomerase activity and addition of RPA restores telomerase activity and at the same time promotes telomerase processivity. However, high excess of RPA inhibited telomerase processivity and caused the synthesis of relatively short DNA fragments (about 50-100 nucleotides). We assume that, together with other telomere-binding proteins, RPA may take part in activation of telomere overhang elongation by telomerase at a certain stage of a cell cycle as well as in regulation of telomere length.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor-specific expression downregulation may be indicative of a gene’s involvement in tumor suppression. For instance, SEMA3B mRNA levels are decreased in many cell lines of small-cell and non-small cell lung cancer, and SEMA3B was shown to suppress the growth of the NSCLC cell line NCI-H1299 and tumor formation in immunodeficient mice. In this work,
SEMA3B expression levels were determined in epithelial tumors of different localizations. In cell lines of renal, breast, and ovarian
cancer, SEMA3B mRNA levels were frequently (4/11, 36%) decreased as much as 10–250-fold according to semiquantitative RT-PCR assay. SEMA3B expression levels were also determined in primary tumor extracts of kidney, lung, breast, ovarian, and colorectal cancer.
In clear cell renal cell carcinoma, SEMA3B expression was decreased 5–1000-fold in 25 of 51 extracts (49%) compared to 5/51 (10%) extracts with increased mRNA levels;
the result was highly significant: P < 0.0001 by Fisher’s exact test. SEMA3B was frequently downregulated in ovarian (5/16, 31% vs. 2/16, 12%) and colorectal cancer (6/11, 54% vs. 2/11, 18%). These
results suggest that SEMA3B is involved in the suppression of kidney, ovarian, and colon tumor growth.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An enzymatic assay system was developed to quantify the distribution of recombinant proteins over various cell structures.
The system takes advantage of α-complementation of β-galactosidase. The large ω fragment of β-galactosidase is expressed in
predefined cell structures with the aid of attached protein localization signals. The resulting reporter cell lines are infected
with a second construct expressing a target protein fused with the shorter α fragment of β-galactosidase. The physical proximity
of the two recombinant proteins carrying the β-galactosidase fragments results in the reconstitution of an active enzyme,
and its activity is measured with a plate reader. The recombinant constructs are based on lentiviral vectors and can be rapidly
and efficiently introduced into cells by infection with stocks of lentivirus particles. The efficiency of the system was demonstrated
with the FOXO3A transcription factor, which shuttles between the cytoplasm and nucleus in the model colon carcinoma cell line
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bicyclic furano[2,3-d]pyrimidine ribonucleosides were synthesized by Pd(0)- and CuI-catalyzed coupling of 5-iodouridine with terminal alkynes. The treatment of the resulting nucleosides with ammonia or methylamine solution in aqueous alcohol resulted in pyrrolo- and N(7)-methylpyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine nucleosides. 5'-O-Triphosphates of bicyclic nucleosides were obtained by the treatment of the nucleosides with POCl3 in the presence of a "proton sponge." The 5'-O-triphosphates are not substrates for HCV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, but are effective substrates for HCV RNA helicase/NTPase and did not inhibit ATP hydrolysis. Only 3-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-6-decyl-2,3-dihydrofuro-[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2-one showed a moderate anti-HCV activity in the HCV replicon system and efficiently inhibited replication of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in KCT-cells, other compounds being inactive. None of the compounds were cytotoxic within the tested range of concentrations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The long 5-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of the human retrotransposon L1 harbors a unique internal promoter which ensures new copies of this mobile element to be much less dependent on an integration site at the level of transcription. The mechanism of this promoter's action still remains unclear, but due to some early studies the opinion has been -formed that the most important part for its function ("minimal promoter") is the first 100-150 nts of the 5'-UTR. In this paper we show that activity of the "minimal promoter" is rather poor in comparison with the entire 5'-UTR. The absolutely crucial part which is indispensable for the effective transcription is the internal region of the 5'-UTR (+390...+662) containing multiple binding sites for various transcription factors. This region may be considered as a transcriptional enhancer. Deletion of this segment leads to a dramatic lost of transcription level irrespectively of cell type, while deletion of the first 100 nt decreases the transcription efficiency no more than 1.5 to 2-fold. Thus, the organization of the L1 regulatory region may be much more similar to that of well-studied invertebrate LINE elements than it was thought before. Also we suggest a possible existence of an alternative sense promoter within the internal part of the L1 5'-UTR driving the synthesis of a 5'-truncated mRNA of the retrotransposon.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human gene RFP2 is a candidate tumor suppressor located at 13q14.3 and deleted in multiple tumor types. To explore regulation of RFP2, we determined structure of the 5'-untranslated region of RFP2 gene and its promoter. RFP2 promoter area is TATA-less, highly enriched in G and C nucleotides, and contains multiple quadruplex forming GGGGA-repeats. Deletion analysis of 5'-flanking sequences demonstrated that repeat containing fragment possesses activity seven times exceeding that of the combined SV40 promoter/enhancer. Other unusual features of the RFP2 promoter include anomalously high electrostatic fields induced by sequence-dependent dipoles and very low nucleosome forming potential. A "minimized" version of the RFP2 promoter could be used for overexpression of the various transgenes in the mammalian cells.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 05/2006; 342(3):859-66. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new set of eukaryotic expression vectors was constructed on the basis of baculoviruses. EcoRI fragments S, J, and P with the genes for late viral proteins p35 (polyhedrin), p39, and p10 were cloned from genomic DNA
of the nuclear polyhedrosis virus. The promoter regions of these genes were used to construct double-and triple-promoter expression
vectors. Baculovirus vectors containing an expression cassette with the cytomegalovirus promoter and the green fluorescent
protein reporter gene were designed to express the cloned genes in cultured mammalian cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: RNA interference (RNAi) is among the most particular mechanisms of gene expression regulation. Besides, small interfering RNAs are significant players in cell defence either from viral infection or retrotransposons. Medical utilization of RNAi gives a handful of ways to cure viral and oncological illnesses. RNA interference, also, represents a useful tool for research, because it allows quick production of monogene functional knockouts. In this review we describe the most recent conceptions about RNAi mechanisms and actual approaches for it's usage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously it was shown that thiol antioxidants are potent inhibitors of the NO-dependent induction of heme oxygenase 1 (HOX-1) gene. However, the mechanism of HOX-1 gene down-regulation by thiol antioxidants and underlying signaling pathway remain unclear. In this study we have examined, whether the scavenging of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) is the major cause for thiol-mediated suppression of the HOX-1 induction by NO. Further, to identify the ROS family members implicated in the HOX-1 induction, we also exposed cells to various non-thiol antioxidants: dimethyl sulfoxide, dimetylthiourea, sodium salicylate, sodium formate, uric acid, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. A partial inhibition of HOX-1 induction occurred in the presence of non-polar hydroxyl radical scavengers, dimethyl sulfoxide and dimetylthiourea. The other non-thiol antioxidants were ineffective towards HOX-1 expression. Then, in order to determine, whether RNS scavenging is implicated in the HOX-1 down-regulation by thiol antioxidants, we took advantage of the capacity of suboptimal concentrations of the NO scavenger PTIO (2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazole-1-oxyl-3-oxide) to oxidize NO to nitrosating species. We showed that simultaneous cell treatment with NO donor and PTIO significantly enhanced the rate of the HOX-1 gene NO-dependent induction indicating that RNS are mediators of HOX-1 gene transcriptional activation. Thiol antioxidants completely suppressed PTIO stimulatory action. These findings imply that inhibitory action of thiol antioxidants is mediated by RNS scavenging. The study provides an approach for pharmacologycal modulation of cell response to NO and its derivatives through the use of antioxidants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thiol antioxidants are known to inhibit the nitric oxide-dependent induction of the hemoxygenase-1 gene (HOX-1). To estimate the degree to which the inhibitory effect of thiol antioxidants is accounted for by them scavenging oxidized NO derivatives or their precursors, the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS), we studied the inhibitory effect of nonthiol antioxidants: dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethylthiourea, sodium salicylate, sodium formate, uric acid, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. Partial inhibition of NO-dependent HOX-1 induction was observed in the presence of the nonpolar HO scavengers dimethyl sulfoxide and dimethylthiourea. The antioxidants which selectively bind other ROS had no effect on HOX-1 expression. To reveal the role of RNS in NO-dependent HOX-1 induction, cells were treated with the NO-generating compound DPTA-NO in the presence of 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5,-tetramethylimidazole-1-oxyl 3 oxide (PTIO), which oxidizes NO to NO2. PTIO proved to significantly enhance NO-dependent HOX-1 induction. Thiol antioxidants completely inhibited the stimulating effect of PTIO, which is evidence that their inhibitory effect is explained by RNS scavenging. The results of this study indicate that antioxidants can be used to modulate the cell response to NO.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular diseases represent the major cause of mortality in industrially developed countries. Among the cardiovascular diseases, those related to the atherosclerotic damage to coronary and peripheral arteries are the most prevalent; coronary heart disease alone accounts for more than 59% of the total mortality and morbidity (in persons over 75 years of age, 75%). Today, if antiischemic therapy fails to improve the patients' condition, various surgical and endovascular interventions are the main methods of treatment. However, a large proportion of patients with atherosclerotic vessel damage are unfit for standard revascularization procedures, or a complete revascularization is impossible because of diffuse damage [1, 2]. Moreover, in many patients, recurrent stenoses and occlusions of shunts develop after initially successful surgery, with signs of stenocardia or heart failure recurring without the possibility of a second operation or angioplastic. Hopes are placed on recent advances in gene engineering and gene therapy, namely, a new therapeutic strategy termed therapeutic angiogenesis, which is aimed at improving blood supply to tissues. Therapeutic angiogenesis is based on the stimulation of natural adaptive mechanisms by administering growth factors or their genes into the region affected with ischemia [3, 4]. This line of research is expected to permit the treatment of coronary heart disease and myocardial infarc