Joshua J Field

La Jolla Institute for Allergy & Immunology, La Jolla, California, United States

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Publications (42)161.74 Total impact

  • Joshua J Field, David G Nathan, Joel Linden
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    ABSTRACT: Data suggest a role for adenosine signaling in the pathogenesis of sickle cell disease (SCD). Signaling through the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) has demonstrated beneficial effects. Activation of A2ARs decreases inflammation with SCD by blocking activation of invariant natural killer T cells. Decreased inflammation may reduce the severity of vasoocclusive crises. Adenosine signaling through the adenosine A2B receptor (A2BR) may be detrimental in SCD. Whether adenosine signaling predominantly occurs through A2ARs or A2BRs may depend on differing levels of adenosine and disease state (steady state versus crisis). There may be opportunities to develop novel therapeutic approaches targeting A2ARs and/or A2BRs for patients with SCD.
    Hematology/oncology clinics of North America 04/2014; 28(2):287-299. · 2.05 Impact Factor
  • American Journal of Hematology 05/2013; · 4.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The contribution of environmental tobacco smoke exposure (ETS) to pulmonary morbidity in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that children with SCA and ETS would have an increased prevalence of obstructive lung disease and respiratory symptoms compared to children with SCA but without ETS. METHODS: Parent-report of ETS and respiratory symptom frequency were obtained for 245 children with SCA as part of a multi-center prospective cohort study. 196 children completed pulmonary function testing. Multivariable regression models evaluated the associations between ETS exposures at different time points [prenatal, infant (birth-2 years), preschool (2 years -first grade) and current], and lung function and respiratory symptoms. RESULTS: Among 245 participants, a high prevalence of prior (44%) and current (29%) ETS was reported. Of the 196 children who completed pulmonary function testing, those with parent-reported infant and current ETS were more likely to have airway obstruction (defined as Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second /Forced Vital Capacity ratio (FEV1/FVC) below the lower limit normal) compared to unexposed children (22.0% vs. 3.1%, p<0.001). Those with ETS also had a lower FEF25-75/FVC ratio (0.82 vs. 0.97, p=0.001) and were more likely to have evidence of bronchodilator responsiveness(23% vs. 11%, p=0.03). Current and prior ETS and in utero exposure were associated with increased frequency of respiratory symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: ETS exposure is associated with evidence of lower airway obstruction and increased respiratory symptoms in SCA.
    Chest 05/2013; · 7.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adenosine A(2A) receptor (A(2A)R) agonists reduce iNKT cell activation and decrease inflammation in sickle cell disease (SCD) mice. We conducted a phase 1 trial of the A(2A)R agonist regadenoson in adults with SCD. Target dose was 1.44 mcg/kg/hour. iNKT cell activation was evaluated using antibodies targeting the p65 subunit of nuclear factor-kappa B (phospho-NF-κB p65), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and A(2A)R. Regadenoson was administered to 27 adults with SCD. Twenty-one patients were examined at steady state and 6 during painful vaso-occlusive crises (pVOC). iNKT cell activation was also measured in 14 African-American controls. During pVOC, the fraction of iNKT cells demonstrating increased phospho-NF-κB p65 and A(2A)R expression was significantly higher compared to controls (p<0.01) and steady state patients (p<0.05). IFN-γ expression was also significantly higher compared to controls (p=0.02). After a 24 hour infusion of regadenoson during pVOC, phospho-NF-κB p65 activation in iNKT cells decreased compared to pre-drug by a median of 48% (p=0.03) to levels similar to controls and steady state SCD. No toxicities were identified. Infusional regadenoson administered to adults with SCD at 1.44 mcg/kg/hour during pVOC decreases activation of iNKT cells to levels observed in controls and steady state patients without toxicity. (Registered at clinicaltrials.gov #NCT01085201).
    Blood 02/2013; · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sickle cell disease can lead to hepatic complications ranging from acute hepatic crises to chronic liver disease including intrahepatic cholestasis, and iron overload. Although uncommon, intrahepatic cholestasis may be severe and medical treatment of this complication is often ineffective. We report a case of a 37 year-old male patient with sickle cell anemia, who developed liver failure and underwent successful orthotopic liver transplantation. Both pre and post-operatively, he was maintained on red cell transfusions. He remains stable with improved liver function 42 months post transplant. The role for orthotopic liver transplantation is not well defined in patients with sickle cell disease, and the experience remains limited. Although considerable challenges of post-transplant graft complications remain, orthotopic liver transplantation should be considered as a treatment option for sickle cell disease patients with end-stage liver disease who have progressed despite conventional medical therapy. An extended period of red cell transfusion support may lessen the post-operative complications.
    Hematology reports. 01/2013; 5(1):1-4.
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    ABSTRACT: Reperfusion injury following tissue ischemia occurs as a consequence of vaso-occlusion that is initiated by activation of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells. Sickle cell disease (SDC) results in widely disseminated microvascular ischemia and reperfusion injury as a result of vaso-occlusion by rigid and adhesive sickle red blood cells. In mice, iNKT cell activation requires NF-κB signaling and can be inhibited by the activation of anti-inflammatory adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs). Human iNKT cells are divided into subsets of CD4+ and CD4- cells. In this study we found that human CD4+ iNKT cells, but not CD4- cells undergo rapid NF-κB activation (phosphorylation of NF-κB on p65) and induction of A2ARs (detected with a monoclonal antibody 7F6-G5-A2) during SCD painful vaso-occlusive crises. These findings indicate that SCD primarily activates the CD4+ subset of iNKT cells. Activation of NF-κB and induction of A2ARs is concordant, i.e. only CD4+ iNKT cells with activated NF-κB expressed high levels of A2ARs. iNKT cells that are not activated during pVOC express low levels of A2AR immunoreactivity. These finding suggest that A2AR transcription may be induced in CD4+ iNKT cells as a result of NF-κB activation in SCD. In order to test this hypothesis further we examined cultured human iNKT cells. In cultured cells, blockade of NF-κB with Bay 11-7082 or IKK inhibitor VII prevented rapid induction of A2AR mRNA and protein upon iNKT activation. In conclusion, NF-κB-mediated induction of A2ARs in iNKT cells may serve as a counter-regulatory mechanism to limit the extent and duration of inflammatory immune responses. As activated iNKT cells express high levels of A2ARs following their activation, they may become highly sensitive to inhibition by A2AR agonists.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(10):e74664. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Alan E Mast, Joshua J Field
    Transfusion 10/2012; 52(10):2078-80. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Autopsy and biopsy studies have shown that there is significantly more fibrosis in hearts of patients with hypertensive heart disease compared to normal hearts. Fibrocytes, a population of circulating bone marrow-derived cells, have been shown to home to tissues and promote scar formation in several diseases, but their role in human hypertensive heart disease has not been investigated to date. Our objective was to determine whether fibrocyte levels are elevated in individuals with hypertensive heart disease. We measured peripheral blood fibrocyte levels and their activated phenotypes in 12 individuals with hypertensive heart disease as determined by increased left ventricular mass on noninvasive imaging and compared them to fibrocyte levels from 19 healthy normal controls and correlated them to cardiac MRI findings. Compared to normal controls, individuals with hypertensive heart disease had significantly higher circulating levels of total fibrocytes [median (interquartile range); 149000 (62200-220000) vs. 564500 (321000-1.2900e(+006)), P < 0.0001, respectively] as well as activated fibrocytes [15700 (6380-19800) vs. 478500 (116500-1.2360e(+006)) P < 0.0001]. Moreover, the fibrocyte subsets expressing the chemokine markers CXCR4 (P < 0.0001), CCR2 (P < 0.0001), CCR7 (P < 0.0001) and coexpression of both CXCR4 and CCR2 (P < 0.0001) were significantly elevated in patients with hypertensive heart disease compared to controls. Lastly, in patients with hypertensive heart disease there was a strong correlation between left ventricular mass index and total fibrocytes (r = 0.65, P = 0.037) and activated fibrocytes (r = 0.70, P = 0.016). Our data suggest that bone marrow-derived circulating fibrocytes are associated with the presence and extent of left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with hypertensive heart disease.
    Journal of Hypertension 07/2012; 30(9):1856-61. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interstitial lung disease is a frequent complication in sickle cell disease and is characterized by vascular remodeling and interstitial fibrosis. Bone marrow-derived fibrocytes have been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of other interstitial lung diseases. The goal of this study was to define the contribution of fibrocytes to the pathogenesis of sickle cell lung disease. Fibrocytes were quantified and characterized in subjects with sickle cell disease or healthy controls, and in a model of sickle cell disease, the NY1DD mouse. The role of the chemokine ligand CXCL12 in trafficking of fibrocytes and phenotype of lung disease was examined in the animal model. We found elevated concentration of activated fibrocytes in the peripheral blood of subjects with sickle cell disease, which increased further during vaso-occlusive crises. There was a similar elevations in the numbers and activation phenotype of fibrocytes in the bone marrow, blood, and lungs of the NY1DD mouse, both at baseline and under conditions of hypoxia/re-oxygenation. In both subjects with sickle cell disease and the mouse model, fibrocytes expressed a hierarchy of chemokine receptors, with CXCR4 expressed on most fibrocytes, and CCR2 and CCR7 expressed on a smaller subset of cells. Depletion of the CXCR4 ligand, CXCL12, in the mouse model resulted in a marked reduction of fibrocyte trafficking into the lungs, reduced lung collagen content and improved lung compliance and histology. These data support the notion that activated fibrocytes play a significant role in the pathogenesis of sickle cell lung disease.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(3):e33702. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A humanized murine sickle cell-disease (SCD) model (NY1DD) has been used to study ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) in sickle cell anemia, and iNKT cells (a very small subset of murine and human T cells) have been found to instigate such injury in this model. Furthermore, levels of activated iNKT cells are generally elevated in the circulation of patients with SCD. Because activated iNKT cells are rich in adenosine A2A receptors which, when agonized, down-regulate the inflammatory cytokine expression that characterizes the cells, we have conducted a phase 1 trial of a constant infusion of low-dose regadenoson (an adenosine analogue with high A2A receptor specificity) to determine its safety and the capacity of a safe dose to down-regulate circulating iNKT cells in patients with SCD. We have found two dose rates that are both safe and effective and now plan a controlled Phase 2B clinical trial to determine whether our highest dose, administered as a 48-hour constant infusion, will induce faster remission in both painful vaso-occlusive crisis (pVOC) and acute chest syndrome (ACS).
    Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association 01/2012; 123:312-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Prior studies of asthma in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) were based on reports of a doctor-diagnosis of asthma with limited description of asthma features. Doctor-diagnoses of asthma may represent asthma or wheezing unrelated to asthma. Objectives of this study were to determine if asthma characteristics are present in adults with a doctor-diagnosis of asthma and/or wheezing, and to examine the relationship between doctor-diagnosis of asthma, wheezing and SCD morbidity. This was an observational cohort study of 114 adults with SCD who completed respiratory symptom questionnaires and had serum IgE measurements. A subset of 79 participants completed pulmonary function testing. Survival analysis was based on a mean prospective follow-up of 28 months and data were censored at the time of death or loss to follow-up. Adults reporting a doctor-diagnosis of asthma (N = 34) were more likely to have features of asthma including wheeze, eczema, family history of asthma, and an elevated IgE level (all P < 0.05). However, there was no difference in pain or ACS rate, lung function, or risk of death between adults with and without a doctor-diagnosis of asthma. In contrast, adults who reported recurrent, severe episodes of wheezing (N = 34), regardless of asthma, had twice the rates of pain and ACS, decreased lung function and increased risk of death compared with adults without recurrent, severe wheezing. Asthma features were not associated with recurrent, severe wheezing. Our data suggest that wheezing in SCD may occur independently of asthma and is a marker of disease severity.
    American Journal of Hematology 09/2011; 86(9):756-61. · 4.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In sickle cell disease (SCD), pulmonary hypertension (assessed by tricuspid regurgitant jet [TRJ] velocity ≥ 2.5 m/sec) is associated with increased mortality. The relationships among TRJ velocity and left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) systolic and diastolic function (i.e., relaxation and compliance) have not been well characterized in SCD. A prospective study was conducted in 53 ambulatory adults with SCD (mean age, 34 years; range, 21-65 years) and 33 African American controls to define the relationship between LV and RV function and TRJ velocity using echocardiography. Subjects with SCD had larger left and right atrial volumes and increased LV mass compared with controls. When patients with SCD were compared with controls, LV and RV relaxation (i.e., E') were similar. Among subjects with SCD, pulmonary hypertension (TRJ ≥ 2.5 m/sec) was present in 40%. Higher TRJ velocity was correlated with larger left atrial volumes in patients with SCD. Additionally, some measures of LV (peak A, lateral and septal annular E/E' ratio) and RV (tricuspid valve E/E' ratio) compliance were correlated with TRJ velocity. No other measures of LV and RV systolic function or LV diastolic function (i.e., relaxation and compliance) were associated with TRJ velocity. Ambulatory adults with SCD exhibited structural (i.e., LV and RV chamber enlargement) and functional (i.e., higher surrogate measures of LV and RV filling pressure) abnormalities compared with the control group. In subjects with SCD, few abnormalities of LV and RV structure and function were associated with TRJ velocity.
    Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography: official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 08/2011; 24(11):1285-90. · 2.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The high prevalence of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) among children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) remains unexplained. To determine the relationship between AHR, features of asthma, and clinical characteristics of SCA, we conducted a multicenter, prospective cohort study of children with SCA. Dose response slope (DRS) was calculated to describe methacholine responsiveness, because 30% of participants did not achieve a 20% decrease in FEV1 after inhalation of the highest methacholine concentration, 25 mg/mL. Multiple linear regression analysis was done to identify independent predictors of DRS. Methacholine challenge was performed in 99 children with SCA aged 5.6 to 19.9 years (median, 12.8 years). Fifty-four (55%) children had a provocative concentration of methacholine producing a 20% decrease in FEV1<4 mg/mL. In a multivariate analysis, independent associations were found between increased methacholine responsiveness and age (P<.001), IgE (P=.009), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels (P=.005). There was no association between methacholine responsiveness and a parent report of a doctor diagnosis of asthma (P=.986). Other characteristics of asthma were not associated with methacholine responsiveness, including positive skin tests to aeroallergens, exhaled nitric oxide, peripheral blood eosinophil count, and pulmonary function measures indicating airflow obstruction. In children with SCA, AHR to methacholine is prevalent. Younger age, serum IgE concentration, and LDH level, a marker of hemolysis, are associated with AHR. With the exception of serum IgE, no signs or symptoms of an allergic diathesis are associated with AHR. Although the relationship between methacholine responsiveness and LDH suggests that factors related to SCA may contribute to AHR, these results will need to be validated in future studies.
    Chest 03/2011; 139(3):563-8. · 7.13 Impact Factor
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    Joshua J Field, David G Nathan, Joel Linden
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    ABSTRACT: Sickle cell disease (SCD) causes widely disseminated vaso-occlusive episodes. Building on evidence implicating invariant NKT (iNKT) cells in the pathogenesis of ischemia/reperfusion injury, recent studies demonstrate that blockade of iNKT cell activation in mice with SCD reduces pulmonary inflammation and injury. In patients with SCD, iNKT cells in blood are increased in absolute number and activated in comparison to healthy controls. iNKT cell activation is reduced by agonists of adenosine 2A receptors (A(2A)Rs) such as the clinically approved coronary vasodilator, regadenoson. An ongoing multi-center, dose-finding and safety trial of infused regadenoson, has been initiated and is providing preliminary data about its safety and efficacy to treat SCD. Very high accumulation of adenosine may have deleterious effects in SCD through activation of adenosine 2B receptors that are insensitive to regadenoson. Future possible therapeutic approaches for treating SCD include selective A(2B)R antagonists and antibodies that deplete iNKT cells.
    Clinical Immunology 03/2011; 140(2):177-83. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In one prospective cohort study, a diagnosis of asthma was associated with an increased risk of mortality in individuals with sickle cell anemia or HbSS. However, a direct relationship between death and asthma exacerbation could not be documented. This report examines two adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD) who died during worsening symptoms consistent with asthma. Autopsies in both individuals demonstrated pulmonary airway smooth muscle hyperplasia, basement membrane thickening, and eosinophilia, consistent with bronchial asthma. Individuals with SCD and asthma warrant ongoing education, treatment, and surveillance for life-threatening complications of asthma. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2011;56:454–457. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 02/2011; 56(3):454 - 457. · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the role of platelets in stimulating mouse and human neutrophil activation and pulmonary injury in sickle cell disease (SCD). Both platelet and neutrophil activation occur in SCD, but the interdependence of these events is unknown. Platelet activation and binding to leukocytes were measured in mice and patients with SCD and in controls. Relative to controls, blood obtained from mice or patients with SCD contained significantly elevated platelet-neutrophil aggregates (PNAs). Both platelets and neutrophils found in sickle PNAs were activated. Multispectral imaging (ImageStream) and conventional flow cytometry revealed a subpopulation of activated neutrophils with multiple adhered platelets that expressed significantly more CD11b and exhibited greater oxidative activity than single neutrophils. On average, wild-type and sickle PNAs contained 1.1 and 2.6 platelets per neutrophil, respectively. Hypoxia/reoxygenation induced a further increase in PNAs in mice with SCD and additional activation of both platelets and neutrophils. The pretreatment of mice with SCD with clopidogrel or P-selectin antibody reduced the formation of PNAs and neutrophil activation and decreased lung vascular permeability. Our findings suggest that platelet binding activates neutrophils and contributes to a chronic inflammatory state and pulmonary dysfunction in SCD. The inhibition of platelet activation may be useful to decrease tissue injury in SCD, particularly during the early stages of vaso-occlusive crises.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 11/2010; 30(12):2392-9. · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    Blood 05/2010; 115(18):3852-4. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    American Journal of Hematology 12/2009; · 4.00 Impact Factor
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    American Journal of Hematology 08/2009; 84(10):686-8. · 4.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Asthma is associated with increases in sickle cell disease (SCD)-related morbidity and mortality. A thorough evaluation for asthma in children with SCD is important and may involve methacholine challenge (MCh). In this report, we present a 14-year-old male with SCD who was admitted for an acute painful episode following MCh. Pain events after MCh have not been previously reported in children with SCD. The risk-benefit ratio should be strongly considered prior to performance of MCh in this patient population, and all possible complications, including an acute painful episode, should be openly discussed with the parents and pediatric patient.
    Pediatric Pulmonology 07/2009; 44(7):728-30. · 2.38 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

436 Citations
161.74 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • La Jolla Institute for Allergy & Immunology
      La Jolla, California, United States
    • Medical College of Wisconsin
      • Department of Medicine
      Milwaukee, WI, United States
  • 2011–2013
    • BloodCenter of Wisconsin
      • Blood Research Institute
      Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States
    • Drexel University College of Medicine
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
  • 2011–2012
    • Blood Systems Research Institute
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 2006–2011
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Department of Laboratory Medicine
      • • Division of Hematology
      Seattle, WA, United States
  • 2009–2010
    • University of Virginia
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Microbiology, Immunology and Cancer Biology (MIC)
      Charlottesville, VA, United States
  • 2006–2010
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • General Surgery Residency
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      San Luis, Missouri, United States