[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: According to the traditional understanding of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) physiology, the majority of CSF is produced by the choroid plexus, circulates through the ventricles, the cisterns, and the subarachnoid space to be absorbed into the blood by the arachnoid villi. This review surveys key developments leading to the traditional concept. Challenging this concept are novel insights utilizing molecular and cellular biology as well as neuroimaging, which indicate that CSF physiology may be much more complex than previously believed. The CSF circulation comprises not only a directed flow of CSF, but in addition a pulsatile to and fro movement throughout the entire brain with local fluid exchange between blood, interstitial fluid, and CSF. Astrocytes, aquaporins, and other membrane transporters are key elements in brain water and CSF homeostasis. A continuous bidirectional fluid exchange at the blood brain barrier produces flow rates, which exceed the choroidal CSF production rate by far. The CSF circulation around blood vessels penetrating from the subarachnoid space into the Virchow Robin spaces provides both a drainage pathway for the clearance of waste molecules from the brain and a site for the interaction of the systemic immune system with that of the brain. Important physiological functions, for example the regeneration of the brain during sleep, may depend on CSF circulation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amyloid accumulation in the brain parenchyma is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is seen in normal aging. Alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics are also associated with normal aging and AD. This study analyzed CSF volume, production and turnover rate in relation to amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) accumulation in the aging rat brain.
Aging Fischer 344/Brown-Norway hybrid rats at 3, 12, 20, and 30 months were studied. CSF production was measured by ventriculo-cisternal perfusion with blue dextran in artificial CSF; CSF volume by MRI; and CSF turnover rate by dividing the CSF production rate by the volume of the CSF space. Aβ40 and Aβ42 concentrations in the cortex and hippocampus were measured by ELISA.
There was a significant linear increase in total cranial CSF volume with age: 3-20 months (p < 0.01); 3-30 months (p < 0.001). CSF production rate increased from 3-12 months (p < 0.01) and decreased from 12-30 months (p < 0.05). CSF turnover showed an initial increase from 3 months (9.40 day-1) to 12 months (11.30 day-1) and then a decrease to 20 months (10.23 day-1) and 30 months (6.62 day-1). Aβ40 and Aβ42 concentrations in brain increased from 3-30 months (p < 0.001). Both Aβ42 and Aβ40 concentrations approached a steady state level by 30 months.
In young rats there is no correlation between CSF turnover and Aβ brain concentrations. After 12 months, CSF turnover decreases as brain Aβ continues to accumulate. This decrease in CSF turnover rate may be one of several clearance pathway alterations that influence age-related accumulation of brain amyloid.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As pharmacological therapies have largely failed so far, stem cell therapy has recently come into the focus of ALS research. Neuroprotective potential was shown for several types of stem and progenitor cells, mainly due to release of trophic factors. In the present study, we assessed the effects of intracerebroventricular injection of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) releasing mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) in mutant SOD1 (G93A) transgenic mice.
To improve the neuroprotective effects of native MSC, they had been transfected with a plasmid vector encoding a GLP-1 fusion gene prior to the injection, as GLP-1 was shown to exhibit neuroprotective properties before. Cells were encapsulated and therefore protected against rejection. After intracerebroventricular injection of these GLP-1 MSC capsules in presymptomatic SOD1 (G93A) mice, we assessed possible protective effects by survival analysis, measurement of body weight, daily monitoring and evaluation of motor performance by rotarod and footprint analyses. Motor neuron numbers in the spinal cord as well as the amount of astrocytosis, microglial activation, heat shock response and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) expression were analyzed by immunohistological methods. Treatment with GLP-1 producing MSC capsules significantly prolonged survival by 13 days, delayed symptom onset by 15 days and weight loss by 14 days and led to significant improvements in motor performance tests compared to vehicle treated controls. Histological data are mainly in favour of anti-inflammatory effects of GLP-1 producing MSC capsules with reduced detection of inflammatory markers and a significant heat shock protein increase.
Intracerebroventricular injection of GLP-1 MSC capsules shows neuroprotective potential in the SOD1 (G93A) mouse model.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(6):e36857. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemotherapeutic drug-eluting beads (DEBs) are microspheres that are in clinical use for intraarterial chemoembolisation of liver cancer. Here we report on the biocompatibility and anti-tumour efficacy of DEBs after intratumoral application in a rat BT4Ca glioma model.
Doxorubicin and irinotecan-eluting DEBs were suspended in a Ca(2+)-free aqueous alginate solution that provides a sol-gel transition when injected into the Ca(2+) rich brain tissue. In this way the DEBs are immobilised at the implantation site. Forced elution studies in vitro using a USP-4 flow-through apparatus demonstrated that the alginate excipient helped to reduce the burst effect and rate the elution from the beads. From the in vivo evaluation, doxorubicin DEBs demonstrated a significant local toxicity, while irinotecan-loaded DEBs showed good local tissue compatibility. Doxorubicin at higher concentrations and irinotecan-loaded DEBs were found to decrease tumour volume, increase survival time and decrease the Ki67 proliferation index of the tumour. Doxorubicin was shown by fluorescent microscopy to diffuse into the peritumoral tissue, but also penetrates along white matter tracts, to more distant areas.
We conclude that the alginate suspension of irinotecan DEBs can be considered safe and effective in a clinical setting.
Clinical and Translational Oncology 01/2012; 14(1):50-9. · 1.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE Previous research in a rat glioma model has shown that the local intratumoral application of polymerbased drug-eluting beads (DEBs) loaded with doxorubicin or irinotecan suppress tumour growth and prolong survival. For translation into a clinical setting, the present experiment investigates in the healthy cat brain the local and systemic toxicity of a multiple injection shot technique. METHODS Three injection shots were placed, each at a 1 cm distance in the frontal lobe. The DEBs were suspended in an aqueous alginate excipient solution, which becomes subject to a sol-gel transition when injected into the Ca(2+)- rich brain tissue environment. Systemic and local side effects were monitored over a period of two weeks. Injection sites were histologically investigated. RESULTS Gelling of the alginate results in the permanent immobilisation of the microspheres at the implantation site. A distinct local cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin was found with intracerebral and intraventricular haemorrhages, and signs of brain tissue necrosis. In cats injected with irinotecan DEBs, such local adverse side effects did not occur. No signs of systemic toxicity were found with both chemotherapeutics. DISCUSSION We conclude that the multiple injection shot technique with irinotecan DEBs meets feasibility criteria and safety requirements for a clinical application.
Clinical and Translational Oncology 10/2011; 13(10):742-6. · 1.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are promising candidates for cell therapy of neurological diseases. However, co-transplantation of MSC with tumour cell lines has been reported to promote tumour growth. In this study, we co-transplant glioma cells together with alginate-encapsulated MSC. Immunocompetent BD-IX rats were inoculated with syngeneic BT4Ca glioma cells. Encapsulated unmodified MSC, endostatin producing (endoMSC) or cell-free alginate capsules were stereotactically implanted into the tumour bed. After 12 days, tumour volumes were significantly diminished in the MSC-treated group. The decrease in tumour volume found with endoMSC was statistically not significant, despite significantly reduced tumour vascularization. We conclude that, under syngeneic conditions in the immunocompetent animal, (1) the intracranial, orthotopic co-transplantation of MSC with glioma cells leads to a suppression in tumour growth and (2) the tumour can escape the antiangiogenic treatment with endostatin. Our finding may facilitate the clinical translation of encapsulated cell therapy.
Journal of Microencapsulation 07/2011; 28(7):621-7. · 1.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Encapsulated human mesenchymal stem cells(MSC) are studied in a double transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) after intraventricular implantation at 3 months of age. Abeta 40/42 deposition, and glial (GFAP) and microglial (CD11b) immunoreactivity were investigated 2 months after transplantation of either native MSC or MSC transfected with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). CD11b immunostaining in the frontal lobes was significantly decreased in the GLP-1 MSC group compared to the untreated controls. Also, the plaque associated GFAP immunoreactivity was only observed in one of four animals in the GLP-1 MSC group. Abeta 40 whole brain ELISA was decreased in the MSC group: 86.06±5.2 pg/ml (untreated control) vs. 78.67±11.2 pg/ml (GLP-1 MSC group) vs.70.9±11.1 pg/ml (MSC group, p<0.05). Intraventricular transplantation of native and GLP-1 transfected MSC has been shown effective. Decreased amyloid deposition or suppression of glial and microglial responses were observed. However, encapsulation of MSC may alter their biological activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuropeptides may have considerable potential in the treatment of acute and chronic neurological diseases. Encapsulated genetically engineered cells have been suggested as a means for sustained local delivery of such peptides to the brain. In our experiments, we studied human mesenchymal stem cells which were transfected to produce glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1).
Cells were packed in a water-permeable mesh bag containing 400 polymeric microcapsules, each containing 3000 cells. The mesh bags were either transplanted into the subdural space, into the brain parenchyma or into the cerebral ventricles of the cat brain. Mesh bags were explanted after two weeks, and cell viability, as well as GLP-1 concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), was measured.
Viability of cells did not significantly differ between the three implantation sites. However, CSF concentration of GLP-1 was significantly elevated only after ventricular transplantation with a maximum concentration of 73 pM (binding constant = 70 pM).
This study showed that ventricular cell-based delivery of soluble factors has the capability to achieve concentrations in the CSF which may become pharmacologically active. Despite the controversy about the pharmacokinetic limitations of ventricular drug delivery, there might be a niche in this for encapsulated cell biodelivery of soluble, highly biologically-effective neuropeptides of low molecular weight like GLP-1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury remains a major cause of death and disability; it is estimated that annually 10 million people are affected. Preclinical studies have shown the potential therapeutic value of stem cell therapies. Neuroprotective as well as regenerative properties of stem cells have been suggested to be the mechanism of action in preclinical studies. However, up to now stem cell therapy has not been studied extensively in clinical trials. This article summarizes the current experimental evidence and points out hurdles for clinical application. Focusing on a cell therapy in the acute stage of head injury, the potential of encapsulated cell biodelivery as a novel cell-therapeutic approach will also be discussed.
Dialogues in clinical neuroscience 01/2011; 13(3):279-86.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite some progress in therapy, the prognosis of patients with malignant gliomas remains poor. Local delivery of cytostatics to the tumour has been proven to be an efficacious therapeutic approach but which nevertheless needs further improvements. Drug Eluting Beads (DEB), have been developed as drug delivery embolisation systems for use in trans-arterial chemoembolisation. We tested in a rat model of malignant glioma, whether DEB, loaded with doxorubicin or irinotecan, may be used for local treatment of brain tumours. Unloaded and drug loaded DEB were implanted into the brains of healthy and tumour bearing BD IX rats followed by histological investigations and survival assessment. Intracerebral implantation of unloaded DEB caused no significant local tissue damage, whilst both doxorubicin and irinotecan DEB improved survival time significantly. However, a significant local toxicity was found after the implantation of doxorubicin DEB but not with irinotecan DEB. We concluded that irinotecan appears to be superior in terms of the risk-benefit ratio and that DEB may be used for local treatment of brain tumours.
Journal of Materials Science Materials in Medicine 02/2010; 21(4):1393-402. · 2.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: "Naked" human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are neuro-protective in experimental brain injury (TBI). In a controlled cortical impact (CCI) rat model, we investigated whether encapsulated MSC (eMSC) act similarly, and whether efficacy is augmented using cells transfected to produce the neuro-protective substance glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1).
Thirty two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to five groups: controls (no CCI), CCI-only, CCI+eMSC, CCI+GLP-1 eMSC, and CCI+empty capsules. On day 14, cisternal cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) was sampled for measurement of GLP-1 concentration. Brains were immuno-histochemically assessed using specific antibody staining for NeuN, MAP-2 and GFAP. In another nine healthy rats, in vitro.
GLP-1 production rates were measured from cells explanted after 2, 7 and 14 days. GLP-1 production rate in transfected cells, before implantation, was 7.03 fmol/capsule/h. Cells were still secreting GLP-1 at a rate of 3.68+/-0.49, 2.85+/-0.45 and 3.53+/-0.55 after 2, 7 and 14 days, respectively. In both of the stem cell treated CCI groups, hippocampal cell loss was reduced, along with an attenuation of cortical neuronal and glial abnormalities, as measured by MAP-2 and GFAP expression. The effects were more pronounced in animals treated with GLP-1 secreting eMSC. This group displayed an increased CSF level of GLP-1 (17.3+/-3.4pM).
Hippocampal neuronal cell loss, and cortical glial and neuronal cyto-skeletal abnormalities, after CCI are reduced following transplantation of encapsulated eMSC. These effects were augmented by GLP-1 transfected eMSC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As a neuroprotective drug, cyclosporin A (CsA) has been subject of multiple experimental works in traumatic brain injury (TBI) research. It is well known that CsA inhibits calcium (Ca2+) induced mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT). The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of CsA on the alteration of Ca2+ homeostasis after experimental brain injury.
Sprague-Dawley male rats (n = 36) with a mean weight of 330 g (280-350 g) were general anesthetized with isofluran through gas mask. The anesthetized animals (n = 24) were subjected to a controlled cortical impact (CCI) over the left parietotemporal cortex using round-tip impounder with a 5 mm diameter at a velocity of approximately 3.7 m/s and a penetration depth of 2 mm. The sham group (n = 12) underwent anesthesia and craniotomy without CCI. In the CCI groups, CsA (n = 12) or vehicle (n = 12) was administered 15 minutes post-injury with a subsequent i.p. injection after 24 hours. Thirty-three hours after injury or sham craniotomy, 45calcium (45Ca) suspended in physiologic saline solution was injected in the left femoral vein. Five hours after isotope administration, animals were killed and the brain was quickly removed and placed in powdered dry ice. Coronal plane sections (20 microm thick) taken every 400 microm from the frontal cortex through the occipital cortex, were exposed to cyclotron films for 14 days at -18 degrees C. Relative optical density was utilized to provide a relative measure of 45Ca accumulation within seven different structures.
The difference of 45Ca accumulation (measured by relative optical density) in the CsA group was greater by 30-70% in the following structures compared to vehicle treated traumatized animals: temporal cortex, CA1, anteromedial and posteromedial thalamus (p < 0.05).
Post-traumatic 45Ca accumulation is modified under CsA. The crucial neuroprotective effect of CsA might be unrelated to a reduction of post-traumatic Ca2+ accumulation, especially with regard to the importance of Ca2+ as an intracellular messenger governing a large number of cellular functions.
Neurological Research 06/2008; 30(5):476-9. · 1.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Findings in local cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) have always been challenged by the variable and inconsistent relation to clinical symptoms before and after shunt treatment. [(15)O]H(2)O PET data from a consecutive cohort of 65 idiopathic NPH patients were retrospectively analyzed questioning whether the functional status before and after shunt treatment might correlate with local blood flow.
Using statistical parametric mapping (SPM99, Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, London), the [(15)O]H(2)O uptake was correlated with the preoperative clinical scores, graded according to a modified Stein and Langfitt score. Furthermore, differences in the uptake in the pre-and post-shunt treatment study after seven to 10 days in patients with and without clinical improvement were studied.
A higher clinical score significantly correlated with a reduced tracer uptake in mesial frontal (k=1,239 voxel, Z=4.41) and anterior temporal (k=469, Z=4.07) areas. In the mesial frontal areas, tracer uptake showed significant reciprocal changes in the clinically improved vs. the unimproved patients.
Matched with the existing literature, the regional blood flow alterations are suggested relevant to the NPH syndrome and to post-treatment functional changes. The present rCBF findings warrant prospective studies on the accuracy of neuroimaging studies as they may provide a more specific insight into disease mechanisms.
Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery 05/2008; 110(4):369-75. · 1.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This review integrates eight aspects of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulatory dynamics: formation rate, pressure, flow, volume, turnover rate, composition, recycling and reabsorption. Novel ways to modulate CSF formation emanate from recent analyses of choroid plexus transcription factors (E2F5), ion transporters (NaHCO3 cotransport), transport enzymes (isoforms of carbonic anhydrase), aquaporin 1 regulation, and plasticity of receptors for fluid-regulating neuropeptides. A greater appreciation of CSF pressure (CSFP) is being generated by fresh insights on peptidergic regulatory servomechanisms, the role of dysfunctional ependyma and circumventricular organs in causing congenital hydrocephalus, and the clinical use of algorithms to delineate CSFP waveforms for diagnostic and prognostic utility. Increasing attention focuses on CSF flow: how it impacts cerebral metabolism and hemodynamics, neural stem cell progression in the subventricular zone, and catabolite/peptide clearance from the CNS. The pathophysiological significance of changes in CSF volume is assessed from the respective viewpoints of hemodynamics (choroid plexus blood flow and pulsatility), hydrodynamics (choroidal hypo- and hypersecretion) and neuroendocrine factors (i.e., coordinated regulation by atrial natriuretic peptide, arginine vasopressin and basic fibroblast growth factor). In aging, normal pressure hydrocephalus and Alzheimer's disease, the expanding CSF space reduces the CSF turnover rate, thus compromising the CSF sink action to clear harmful metabolites (e.g., amyloid) from the CNS. Dwindling CSF dynamics greatly harms the interstitial environment of neurons. Accordingly the altered CSF composition in neurodegenerative diseases and senescence, because of adverse effects on neural processes and cognition, needs more effective clinical management. CSF recycling between subarachnoid space, brain and ventricles promotes interstitial fluid (ISF) convection with both trophic and excretory benefits. Finally, CSF reabsorption via multiple pathways (olfactory and spinal arachnoidal bulk flow) is likely complemented by fluid clearance across capillary walls (aquaporin 4) and arachnoid villi when CSFP and fluid retention are markedly elevated. A model is presented that links CSF and ISF homeostasis to coordinated fluxes of water and solutes at both the blood-CSF and blood-brain transport interfaces. OUTLINE: 1 Overview2 CSF formation2.1 Transcription factors2.2 Ion transporters2.3 Enzymes that modulate transport2.4 Aquaporins or water channels2.5 Receptors for neuropeptides3 CSF pressure3.1 Servomechanism regulatory hypothesis3.2 Ontogeny of CSF pressure generation3.3 Congenital hydrocephalus and periventricular regions3.4 Brain response to elevated CSF pressure3.5 Advances in measuring CSF waveforms4 CSF flow4.1 CSF flow and brain metabolism4.2 Flow effects on fetal germinal matrix4.3 Decreasing CSF flow in aging CNS4.4 Refinement of non-invasive flow measurements5 CSF volume5.1 Hemodynamic factors5.2 Hydrodynamic factors5.3 Neuroendocrine factors6 CSF turnover rate6.1 Adverse effect of ventriculomegaly6.2 Attenuated CSF sink action7 CSF composition7.1 Kidney-like action of CP-CSF system7.2 Altered CSF biochemistry in aging and disease7.3 Importance of clearance transport7.4 Therapeutic manipulation of composition8 CSF recycling in relation to ISF dynamics8.1 CSF exchange with brain interstitium8.2 Components of ISF movement in brain8.3 Compromised ISF/CSF dynamics and amyloid retention9 CSF reabsorption9.1 Arachnoidal outflow resistance9.2 Arachnoid villi vs. olfactory drainage routes9.3 Fluid reabsorption along spinal nerves9.4 Reabsorption across capillary aquaporin channels10 Developing translationally effective models for restoring CSF balance11 Conclusion.
Cerebrospinal Fluid Research 02/2008; 5:10. · 1.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage is a common finding following traumatic brain injury. Clinical studies revealed a positive influence of Nimodipine. However, till now no experimental studies have been performed. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of early Nimodipine administration on outcome and histological findings in the rat:
Diffuse brain injury was produced in Sprague-Dawley rats using a brass weight falling from a predetermined height. Traumatic subarachnoidal hemorrhage was produced by administration of heparin before the injury. A total number of 52 animals were divided in 4 groups.
Mortality increased following administration of heparin. Mortality was not reduced following administration of Nimodipine. The histological investigation revealed less cell loss in animals with administration of Nimodipine as well as increased GFAP immunoexpression.
Administration of Heparin results in a marked traumatic subrachnoidal hemorrhage following diffuse traumatic brain injury. Administration of Nimodipine does not reduce overall mortality. However, histological investigations indicate a positive effect of Nimodipine on cell loss.