Kamlesh Khunti

University of Leicester, Leiscester, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (346)1355.28 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To collate and evaluate the current literature reporting the prevalence and incidence of hypoglycaemia in population based studies of type 2 diabetes. Medline, Embase and Cochrane were searched up to February 2014 to identify population based studies reporting the proportion of people with type 2 diabetes experiencing hypoglycaemia or rate of events experienced. Two reviewers independently screened studies for eligibility and extracted data for included studies. Random effects meta-analyses were carried out to calculate the prevalence and incidence of hypoglycaemia. 46 studies (n = 532,542) met the inclusion criteria. Prevalence of hypoglycaemia was 45% (95%CI 0.34,0.57) for mild/moderate and 6% (95%CI, 0.05,0.07) for severe. Incidence of hypoglycaemic episodes per person-year for mild/moderate and for severe was 19 (95%CI 0.00, 51.08) and 0.80 (95%CI 0.00,2.15), respectively. Hypoglycaemia was prevalent amongst those on insulin; for mild/moderate episodes the prevalence was 50% and incidence 23 events per person-year, and for severe episodes the prevalence was 21% and incidence 1 event per person-year. For treatment regimes that included a sulphonylurea, mild/moderate prevalence was 30% and incidence 2 events per person-year, and severe prevalence was 5% and incidence 0.01 events per person-year. A similar prevalence of 5% was found for treatment regimes that did not include sulphonylureas. Current evidence shows hypoglycaemia is considerably prevalent amongst people with type 2 diabetes, particularly for those on insulin, yet still fairly common for other treatment regimens. This highlights the subsequent need for educational interventions and individualisation of therapies to reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia.
    PLoS ONE 06/2015; 10(6):e0126427. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0126427
  • Sachin Khunti, Melanie J Davies, Kamlesh Khunti
    The British Journal of Diabetes & Vascular Disease 06/2015; 15(2). DOI:10.15277/bjdvd.2015.019
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    Annual Meeting of the International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, Edinburgh; 06/2015
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    ABSTRACT: To determine coverage of NHS Health Check, a national cardiovascular risk assessment programme in England, in the first four years after implementation, and to examine prevalence of high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and uptake of statins in high risk patients. Study sample was 95,571 patients in England aged 40-74 years continuously registered with 509 practices in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink between April 2009 and March 2013. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to assess predictors of Health Check attendance; elevated CVD risk factors and statin prescribing among attendees. Programme coverage was 21.4% over four years, with large variations between practices (0%-72.7%) and regions (9.4%-30.7%). Coverage was higher in older patients (adjusted odds ratio 2.88, 95% confidence interval 2.49-3.31 for patients 70-74 years) and in patients with a family history of premature coronary heart disease (2.37, 2.22-2.53), but lower in Black Africans (0.75, 0.61-0.92) and Chinese (0.68, 0.47-0.96) compared with White British. Coverage was similar in patients living in deprived and affluent areas. Prevalence of high CVD risk (QRISK2≥20%) among attendees was 4.6% One third (33.6%) of attendees at high risk were prescribed a statin after Health Checks. Coverage of the programme and statin prescribing in high risk individuals was low. Coverage was similar in deprived and affluent groups but lower in some ethnic minority groups, possibly widening inequalities. These findings raise a question about whether recommendations by WHO to develop CVD risk assessment programmes internationally will deliver anticipated health benefits. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Preventive Medicine 06/2015; 78. DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.05.022
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    ABSTRACT: Background Despite the health benefits of physical activity, data from the UK suggest that a large proportion of adolescents do not meet the recommended levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). This is particularly evident in girls, who are less active than boys across all ages and may display a faster rate of decline in physical activity throughout adolescence. The ‘Girls Active’ intervention has been designed by the Youth Sport Trust to target the lower participation rates observed in adolescent girls. ‘Girls Active’ uses peer leadership and marketing to empower girls to influence decision making in their school, develop as role models and promote physical activity to other girls. Schools are provided with training and resources to review their physical activity, sport and PE provision, culture and practices to ensure they are relevant and attractive to adolescent girls. Methods/Design This study is a two-arm cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) aiming to recruit 20 secondary schools. Clusters will be randomised at the school level (stratified by school size and proportion of Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) pupils) to receive either the ‘Girls Active’ intervention or carry on with usual practice (1:1). The 20 secondary schools will be recruited from state secondary schools within the Midlands area. We aim to recruit 80 girls aged 11–14 years in each school. Data will be collected at three time points; baseline and seven and 14 months after baseline. Our primary aim is to investigate whether ‘Girls Active’ leads to higher objectively measured (GENEActiv) moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in adolescent girls at 14 months after baseline assessment compared to the control group. Secondary outcomes include other objectively measured physical activity variables, adiposity, physical activity-related psychological factors and the cost-effectiveness of the ‘Girls Active’ intervention. A thorough process evaluation will be conducted during the course of the intervention delivery. Discussion The findings of this study will provide valuable information on whether this type of school-based approach to increasing physical activity in adolescent girls is both effective and cost-effective in the UK. Trial registration ISRCTN10688342. Registered 12 January 2015.
    BMC Public Health 06/2015; 15(1). DOI:10.1186/s12889-015-1886-z
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    ABSTRACT: In nondiabetic individuals, low values of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Identification of the potential mechanisms behind this association could help to elucidate the relationship between glycaemia and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the association between FPG and ventricular arrhythmias. FPG and other cardiometabolic risk factors were measured in a population-based cohort of 2,482 men without a known history of type 2 diabetes mellitus at baseline. Associations between FPG levels and incident cases of ventricular arrhythmias (ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation events ascertained using the National Hospital Discharge Register) were estimated using Cox regression analysis adjusted for potential confounders. During a median follow-up of 23.3 (interquartile range 18.5-25.3) years, 74 (2.9%) incident events were recorded. In a multivariable analysis adjusted for age, systolic BP, smoking status, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, and C-reactive protein, the HR for ventricular arrhythmia per 1 mmol/l higher baseline FPG was 0.58 (95% CI 0.34, 0.98); this estimate did not materially change after further adjustment for BMI, alcohol consumption, triacylglycerols and history of ischaemic heart disease (0.50 [95% CI 0.28, 0.89]). In this nondiabetic male population, FPG was inversely associated with incident risk of ventricular arrhythmias. While our results could help clarify the relationship between low glucose levels and cardiovascular risk, further studies are required to confirm these findings in other populations.
    Diabetologia 06/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00125-015-3646-0
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    ABSTRACT: To estimate the benefits of screening and early treatment of type 2 diabetes compared with no screening and late treatment using a simulation model with data from the ADDITION-Europe study. We used the Michigan Model, a validated computer simulation model, and data from the ADDITION-Europe study to estimate the absolute risk of cardiovascular outcomes and the relative risk reduction associated with screening and intensive treatment, screening and routine treatment, and no screening with a 3- or 6-year delay in the diagnosis and routine treatment of diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors. When the computer simulation model was programmed with the baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of the ADDITION-Europe population, it accurately predicted the empiric results of the trial. The simulated absolute risk reduction and relative risk reduction were substantially greater at 5 years with screening, early diagnosis, and routine treatment compared with scenarios in which there was a 3-year (3.3% absolute risk reduction [ARR], 29% relative risk reduction [RRR]) or a 6-year (4.9% ARR, 38% RRR) delay in diagnosis and routine treatment of diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors. Major benefits are likely to accrue from the early diagnosis and treatment of glycemia and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes. The intensity of glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol treatment after diagnosis is less important than the time of its initiation. Screening for type 2 diabetes to reduce the lead time between diabetes onset and clinical diagnosis and to allow for prompt multifactorial treatment is warranted. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
    Diabetes care 05/2015; DOI:10.2337/dc14-2459
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    ABSTRACT: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is an important regulator of metabolic health and a common polymorphism in the PPAR-γ2 gene (PPARG2) may modify associations between lifestyle behaviour and health. To investigate whether the PPARG2 Pro12Ala genotype modifies the associations of sedentary behaviour and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) with common measures of insulin sensitivity. Participants with a high risk of impaired glucose regulation were recruited, United Kingdom, 2010-2011. Sedentary and MVPA time were objectively measured using accelerometers. Fasting and 2-hour post-challenge insulin and glucose were assessed; insulin sensitivity was calculated using Matsuda-ISI and HOMA-IS. DNA was extracted from whole blood. Linear regression examined associations of sedentary time and MVPA with insulin sensitivity and examined interactions by PPARG2 Pro12Ala genotype. 541 subjects were included (average age = 65 years, female = 33%); 18% carried the Ala12 allele. Both sedentary time and MVPA were strongly associated with HOMA-IS and Matsuda-ISI after adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, medication, smoking status and accelerometer wear time. After further adjustment for each other and BMI, only associations with Matsuda-ISI were maintained. Every 30 minute difference in sedentary time was inversely associated with a 4% (0, 8%; p = 0.043) difference in Matsuda-ISI, whereas every 30 minutes in MVPA was positively associated with a 13% (0, 26%; p = 0.048) difference. The association of MVPA with Matsuda-ISI was modified by genotype (p = 0.005) and only maintained in Ala12 allele carriers. Conversely, sedentary time was not modified by genotype and remained inversely associated with insulin sensitivity in Pro12 allele homozygotes. The association of MVPA with Matsuda-ISI was modified by PPARG2 Pro12Ala genotype with significant associations only observed in the 18% of the population who carried the Ala12 allele, whereas associations with sedentary time were unaffected.
    PLoS ONE 05/2015; 10(5):e0124062. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0124062
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    ABSTRACT: An estimated 850,000 people have diabetes without knowing it and as many as 7 million more are at high risk of developing it. Within the NHS Health Checks programme, blood glucose testing can be undertaken using a fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or a glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) test but the relative cost-effectiveness of these is unknown. To estimate and compare the cost-effectiveness of screening for type 2 diabetes using a HbA1c test versus a FPG test. In addition, to compare the use of a random capillary glucose (RCG) test versus a non-invasive risk score to prioritise individuals who should undertake a HbA1c or FPG test. Cost-effectiveness analysis using the Sheffield Type 2 Diabetes Model to model lifetime incidence of complications, costs and health benefits of screening. England; population in the 40-74-years age range eligible for a NHS health check. The Leicester Ethnic Atherosclerosis and Diabetes Risk (LEADER) data set was used to analyse prevalence and screening outcomes for a multiethnic population. Alternative prevalence rates were obtained from the literature or through personal communication. (1) Modelling of screening pathways to determine the cost per case detected followed by long-term modelling of glucose progression and complications associated with hyperglycaemia; and (2) calculation of the costs and health-related quality of life arising from complications and calculation of overall cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), net monetary benefit and the likelihood of cost-effectiveness. Based on the LEADER data set from a multiethnic population, the results indicate that screening using a HbA1c test is more cost-effective than using a FPG. For National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)-recommended screening strategies, HbA1c leads to a cost saving of £12 and a QALY gain of 0.0220 per person when a risk score is used as a prescreen. With no prescreen, the cost saving is £30 with a QALY gain of 0.0224. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis indicates that the likelihood of HbA1c being more cost-effective than FPG is 98% and 95% with and without a risk score, respectively. One-way sensitivity analyses indicate that the results based on prevalence in the LEADER data set are insensitive to a variety of alternative assumptions. However, where a region of the country has a very different joint HbA1c and FPG distribution from the LEADER data set such that a FPG test yields a much higher prevalence of high-risk cases relative to HbA1c, FPG may be more cost-effective. The degree to which the FPG-based prevalence would have to be higher depends very much on the uncertain relative uptake rates of the two tests. Using a risk score such as the Leicester Practice Database Score (LPDS) appears to be more cost-effective than using a RCG test to identify individuals with the highest risk of diabetes who should undergo blood testing. We did not include rescreening because there was an absence of required relevant evidence. Based on the multiethnic LEADER population, among individuals currently attending NHS Health Checks, it is more cost-effective to screen for diabetes using a HbA1c test than using a FPG test. However, in some localities, the prevalence of diabetes and high risk of diabetes may be higher for FPG relative to HbA1c than in the LEADER cohort. In such cases, whether or not it still holds that HbA1c is likely to be more cost-effective than FPG depends on the relative uptake rates for HbA1c and FPG. Use of the LPDS appears to be more cost-effective than a RCG test for prescreening. The National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme.
    05/2015; 19(33):1-80. DOI:10.3310/hta19330
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    ABSTRACT: To develop and pilot-test the feasibility and effectiveness of an interactive DVD about misconceptions within South Asian communities regarding insulin treatment in type 2 diabetes, for educating patients and community members and training healthcare providers. The project setting was a South Asian (mainly Indian) community in Leicester, UK. Qualitative evidence from our previous studies was used to inform the content of the DVD script and accompanying resources. The intervention involved three components: facilitating DVD viewings for people with/without diabetes in community settings; training healthcare providers involved in managing South Asian patients with diabetes in primary care; and using the DVD and resources in primary care patient consultations. Evaluation involved a range of approaches including face-to-face interviews, telephone feedback and questionnaires. Analysis of questionnaires and qualitative feedback from community participants showed some significant changes in attitudes and understanding about insulin and high acceptability of the DVD. Healthcare providers who attended the training found it informative and perceived the DVD and visual resources as potentially useful for facilitating acceptance of insulin. Primary care patient recruitment was challenging, but participants described the DVD as an acceptable and informative way of learning about insulin therapy. The DVD intervention was effective and feasible at community and healthcare provider levels. Although based on a small sample, at patient level our findings suggested that the DVD worked at different levels helping some to accept the need for insulin and others to consolidate a decision to commence this treatment. Consideration needs to be given to patient engagement strategies for implementation in primary care consultations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Patient Education and Counseling 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pec.2015.04.018
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    ABSTRACT: The cardiovascular and mortality risk in patients with incident type 2 diabetes in relation to smoking status and concurrent use of metformin is not well known. The risks of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke and mortality in incident type 2 diabetes patients were evaluated in relation to their smoking status with and without concurrent use of metformin. Cohort study in 82205 incident type 2 diabetes patients from the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink. During 5.4 years of median follow-up, among patients without cardiovascular disease (CVD) history before diagnosis of diabetes (n=63166), compared to non-smokers without metformin treatment, current smokers with and without metformin had 8% (HR: 1.08; 95% CI: 0.81, 1.45) and 32% (HR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.65) increased risk of MI or stroke respectively. The respective HR (95% CI) for mortality in these patients were 0.96 (0.83, 1.11) and 1.86 (1.68, 2.07). The HR for mortality among ex-smokers with and without concurrent metformin treatment were 0.92 (0.83, 1.11) and 1.19 (1.10, 1.30) respectively. Ex-smokers did not have elevated risk of MI or stroke, irrespective of metformin treatment. Similar beneficial modifiable effects of metformin among ex- and current smokers were observed in patients with cardiovascular disease before diagnosis of diabetes (n=19039). In type 2 diabetes patients, concurrent treatment with metformin attenuates the observed higher cardiovascular and mortality risk in ex- and current smokers. In addition to smoking cessation support, treatment with metformin, particularly in ex- and current smokers, should be encouraged. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Diabetes 04/2015; DOI:10.1111/1753-0407.12302
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    ABSTRACT: To quantify associations between objectively measured sedentary time and markers of insulin sensitivity by considering allocation into light-intensity physical activity or moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). Participants with an increased risk of impaired glucose regulation (IGR) were recruited (Leicestershire, United Kingdom, 2010-2011). Sedentary, light-intensity physical activity and MVPA time were measured using accelerometers. Fasting and 2-hour post-challenge insulin and glucose were assessed; insulin sensitivity was calculated by HOMA-IS and Matsuda-ISI. Isotemporal substitution regression models were used. Data were analysed in 2014. 508 participants were included (average age = 65 years, female = 34%). Reallocating 30 minutes of sedentary time into light-intensity physical activity was associated a 5% (95% CI 1, 9%; p = 0.024) difference in Matsuda-ISI after adjustment for measured confounding variables. Reallocation into MVPA was associated with a 15% (7, 25%; p < 0.001) difference in HOMA-IS and 18% (8, 28%; p <0.001) difference in Matsuda-ISI. Results for light-intensity physical activity were modified by IGR status with stronger associations seen in those with IGR. Reallocating sedentary time into light-intensity physical activity or MVPA was associated with differences in insulin sensitivity, with stronger and more consistent associations seen for MVPA. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Preventive Medicine 04/2015; 76. DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.04.005
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    ABSTRACT: To understand the phenotypic presentation of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) of different ethnicities and at different ages. Cross-sectional, retrospective data analysis (1988 - 2009) SETTING: Specialist clinic in a University Hospital, Leicestershire, UK PARTICIPANTS: Women with PCOS; n=1310 (mean age 26.2 years), 70.9% white and 29.1% South Asian (SA) attending a speciality clinic in Leicester UK. Clinical and demographic characteristics of women with PCOS including age at first clinic appointment, signs and symptoms, body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure (BP). Compared to white women, the SA were younger (24.3 vs. 27.1 years, p<0.001), less likely to smoke (3.7% vs. 17.9% p<0.001) and had a higher prevalence of Acanthosis Nigricans (AN) (16.8% vs. 3.1% p<0.001), type 2 diabetes (T2DM) (8.1% vs. 5.6%, p<0.01), and hirsutism (88.5% vs. 77.4%, P<0.001), with lower systolic(126.5 vs. 133.0 mmHg, p<0.001),diastolic BP (71.8 vs. 75.1 mmHg p=0.008) and BMI (29.3 vs. 31.5 kg/m(2) p=0.002).Differences in body weight remained when participants were classified as obese, overweight and normal according to ethnicity specific cut-off points (P=0.048).In both ethnicities those aged ≥30 years old had higher rates of obesity, T2DM, hypertension and infertility, and less acne, and oligomenorrhoea. Obesity was associated with increased T2DM, AN, systolic/diastolic BP, hirsutism and infertility. The phenotypic and metabolic presentations of women with PCOS appear to be significantly different depending on ethnicity, obesity and age. This has implications for management strategies in these groups. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Clinical Endocrinology 03/2015; DOI:10.1111/cen.12784
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    03/2015; 22(2):255-264. DOI:10.14236/jhi.v22i2.79
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    Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care East Midlands, Annual Meeting.; 03/2015
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    ABSTRACT: To determine which non-insulin glucose lowering treatment regimens are most appropriate in people with type 2 diabetes who choose to fast during Ramadan. Electronic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials (RCT) and observational studies comparing non-insulin glucose lowering agents in people with type 2 diabetes fasting during Ramadan reporting hypoglycaemia, weight and HbA1c change were included. Data were pooled using random effects models. Sixteen studies included; nine RCTs and seven observational studies. There was evidence that DPP-4 inhibitors led to less hypoglycaemic events compared to sulphonylureas. Sitagliptin significantly reduced the number of patients ≥1 hypoglycaemic episodes during Ramadan (RR 0.48, 95%CI 0.36, 0.64, p > 0.0001), this was not replicated in the RCTs of vildagliptin but a significant reduction was found in the observational studies (RR 0.28, 95%CI 0.10, 0.75, p = 0.01) with high heterogeneity (I(2) =86.7%). Significant reductions in HbA1c and weight were seen in the observational studies of vildagliptin vs. sulfonylureas. The use of liraglutide led to significant weight loss (-1.81 kg, 95%CI -2.91, -0.71, p = 0.001) compared to sulfonylureas. Pioglitazone significantly increased weight compared to placebo (3.48 kg, 95%CI 2.82, 4.14, p < 0.0001). The analysis supports the use of DPP-4 inhibitors during Ramadan over sulfonylureas for reduction in hypoglycaemic episodes without a cost to diabetes control and weight. The GLP-1 agonist liraglutide provides clinical benefits, but more studies are required. RCTs of DPP-4 inhibitors against GLP-1 agonists and novel therapies including the SGLT-2 and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors are needed to inform evidence based guidelines. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Diabetes Obesity and Metabolism 03/2015; DOI:10.1111/dom.12462
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    ABSTRACT: Previous prospective studies showing a positive association between serum calcium and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have relied on total calcium or an indirect estimate of active, ionized calcium (iCa). We aimed to assess this relationship using a direct measurement of iCa. iCa and cardiometabolic risk factors were measured in a population-based sample of 2350 men without a known history of T2DM at baseline. Associations between iCa levels and incident cases of T2DM (self-reported, ascertained with a glucose tolerance test, or determined by record linkage to national registers) were estimated using Cox regression analyses adjusted for potential confounders. At baseline, mean (standard deviation) age was 53 (5) years and mean iCa 1.18 (0.05) mmol/L. During a median follow-up of 23.1 years, 140 new cases of T2DM were recorded. In a multivariable analysis adjusted for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, serum HDL-cholesterol, and family history of T2DM, there was no association comparing second (hazard ratio 0.84; 95% confidence interval 0.59-1.18), third (0.77; 0.52-1.14), or fourth (0.98; 0.69-1.39) vs first quartile of iCa (p for trend 0.538); further adjustment for C-reactive protein, physical activity level, and triglycerides did not change the estimates (p for trend 0.389). In this study, we did not find evidence of an association between direct measurement of active calcium and risk of T2DM. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings and define the relationship between factors influencing indirect calcium estimation and incident T2DM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD 03/2015; 25(6). DOI:10.1016/j.numecd.2015.02.013
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the association between ethnicity and survival following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in White European (WE) and South Asian (SA) patients from a multiethnic UK population. Retrospective, cohort study of 4111 (N=730, 17.8% of SA ethnicity) hospitalised patients, with AMI from a tertiary coronary care centre in the UK, admitted between October 2002 and September 2008. The primary end point was all-cause mortality. The association of ethnicity with survival post AMI was assessed using the Cox regression analysis. Compared with WE patients, SA patients were on average younger (62.0 years vs 67.3 years) and had higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors including diabetes (39.7% vs 16.1%). During follow-up (median 912, range 1-2556, days), crude mortality rate was 22.6% in SA patients and 26.0% in WE patients (p=0.061). SA ethnicity did not show univariate (HR 0.85 (0.72 to 1.01)) or multivariate (HR, 1.12 (0.94 to 1.34)) association with mortality. Findings were similar for mortality during 0-30 days (1.30 (0.99 to 1.70)), >30 days-1 year (0.97 (0.67 to 1.40)), >1 year-3 years (1.21 (0.83 to 1.76)), >3 years (0.82 (0.47 to 1.41)), and for long-term mortality in survivors from 30 days (1.02 (0.81 to 1.29)). When adjusted for differing prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in the two ethnic groups, survival following AMI was similar for SA and WE patients in the UK. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
    Heart (British Cardiac Society) 02/2015; 101(8). DOI:10.1136/heartjnl-2014-305730
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the short- and long-term cost-effectiveness of intensive multifactorial treatment compared with routine care among people with screen-detected Type 2 diabetes. Cost-utility analysis in ADDITION-UK, a cluster-randomized controlled trial of early intensive treatment in people with screen-detected diabetes in 69 UK general practices. Unit treatment costs and utility decrement data were taken from published literature. Accumulated costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were calculated using ADDITION-UK data from 1 to 5 years (short-term analysis, n = 1024); trial data were extrapolated to 30 years using the UKPDS outcomes model (version 1.3) (long-term analysis; n = 999). All costs were transformed to the UK 2009/10 price level. Adjusted incremental costs to the NHS were £285, £935, £1190 and £1745 over a 1-, 5-, 10- and 30-year time horizon, respectively (discounted at 3.5%). Adjusted incremental QALYs were 0.0000, -0.0040, 0.0140 and 0.0465 over the same time horizons. Point estimate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) suggested that the intervention was not cost-effective although the ratio improved over time: the ICER over 10 years was £82 250, falling to £37 500 over 30 years. The ICER fell below £30 000 only when the intervention cost was below £631 per patient: we estimated the cost at £981. Given conventional thresholds of cost-effectiveness, the intensive treatment delivered in ADDITION was not cost-effective compared with routine care for individuals with screen-detected diabetes in the UK. The intervention may be cost-effective if it can be delivered at reduced cost. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Diabetic Medicine 02/2015; DOI:10.1111/dme.12711
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: Individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) have an increased risk of progression to Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The objective of this review was to quantify the effectiveness of lifestyle, pharmacological and surgical interventions in reducing the progression to Type 2 diabetes mellitus in people with IFG or IGT. Methods: A systematic review was carried out. A network meta-analysis (NMA) of log-hazard ratios was performed. Results are presented as hazard ratios and the probabilities of treatment rankings. Results: 30 studies were included in the NMA. There was a reduced hazard of progression to Type 2 diabetes mellitus associated with all interventions versus standard lifestyle advice; glipizide, diet plus pioglitazone, diet plus exercise plus metformin plus rosiglitazone, diet plus exercise plus orlistat, diet plus exercise plus pedometer, rosiglitazone, orlistat and diet plus exercise plus voglibose produced the greatest effects. Conclusions: Lifestyle and some pharmacological interventions are beneficial in reducing the risk of progression to Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Lifestyle interventions require significant behaviour changes that may be achieved through incentives such as the use of pedometers. Adverse events and cost of pharmacological interventions should be taken into account when considering potential risks and benefits.
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 01/2015; 107(3). DOI:10.1016/j.diabres.2015.01.027

Publication Stats

5k Citations
1,355.28 Total Impact Points


  • 1997–2015
    • University of Leicester
      • Department of Health Sciences
      Leiscester, England, United Kingdom
  • 2012–2013
    • University of Surrey
      • Department of Health Care Management and Policy
      Guilford, England, United Kingdom
  • 2008–2013
    • University Hospitals Of Leicester NHS Trust
      • Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology
      Leiscester, England, United Kingdom
    • Imperial College London
      • Department of Primary Care and Public Health
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2010
    • The University of Sheffield
      • School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR)
      Sheffield, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2008–2009
    • The University of Warwick
      Coventry, England, United Kingdom
  • 2004
    • Office for National Statistics
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2002
    • University College London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom