[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive brain disorder that causes gradual and irreversible loss of higher brain functions and is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly,, as assessed by autopsy and clinical series. Furthermore, it has an annual incidence of approximately 3% in the 65-74 age group. This incidence rate doubles with every increment of 5 years above the age of 65. In Morocco, AD affects almost 30,000 individuals and this number will possibly increase to 75,000 by 2020 (projections of the World Health Organization (WHO)). Genetically, Alzheimer disease is caused by a mutation in one of at least 3 genes: presenilin 1 (PS1), presenilin 2 (PS2) and amyloid precursor protein(APP). Most cases are late onset and apparently sporadic, most likely as a result of a combination of environmental and non-dominant genetic factors. In Morocco, the genes predisposing individuals to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and predicting disease incidence remain elusive. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the genetic contribution of mutations in the PS1 and PS2 genes to familial early-onset AD cases and sporadic late-onset AD cases. Seventeen sporadic late-onset AD cases and eight familial early-onset AD cases were seen at the memory clinic of the University of Casablanca Neurology Department. These patients underwent standard somatic neurological examination, cognitive function assessment, brain imaging and laboratory tests. Direct sequencing of each exon in PS1 and PS2 genes was performed on genomic DNA of AD patients. Further, we identified 1 novel frameshift mutation in the PS1 gene and 2 novel frameshift mutations in the PS2 gene. Our mutational analysis reports a correlation between clinical symptoms and genetic factors in our cases of Early Onset Alzheimer's Disease (EOAD). These putative mutations cosegregate with affected family members suggesting a direct mutagenic effect.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Morocco, Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects almost 30,000 individuals, and this number could increase to 75,000 by 2020. To our knowledge, the genes predisposing individuals to AD and predicting disease incidence remain elusive. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the genetic contribution of mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene exons 16 and 17 to familial and sporadic AD cases. Seventeen sporadic cases and eight family cases were seen at the memory clinic of the University of Casablanca Neurology Department. These patients underwent standard somatic neurological examination, cognitive function assessment, brain imaging, and laboratory tests. Direct sequencing of exons 16 and 17 of the APP gene was performed on genomic DNA of AD patients. In this original Moroccan study, we identified seven novel frameshift mutations in exons 16 and 17 of the APP gene. Interestingly, only one novel splice mutation was detected in a family case. There is a strong correlation between clinical symptoms and genetic factors in Moroccan patients with a family history of AD. Therefore, mutations in APP gene exons 16 and 17 may eventually become genetic markers for AD predisposition.
Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 03/2014; · 2.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide plays a major role in the regulation of cerebral blood flow and loss of its function leads to alteration of the vascular relaxation given its central role in the physiology of the vascular system. G894T eNOS polymorphism could have adverse effects on the expression and activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, which can result in functional impairment of the endothelium and contribute to the development of ischemic stroke in the different models of transmission.
In this study, genotyping with PCR-RFLP and HRM (high resolution melting) methods were conducted on 165 ischemic stroke patients as well as 182 controls. The goal here was to compare genotyping with PCR-RLFP primer sequences of eNOS gene (size < 300 bp) to HRM.
Our data suggests a statistically significant association between G894T eNOS polymorphism and ischemic stroke in recessive, dominant and additive models with P < 0.05 and odds ratio of 2.68 (1.08–6.70), 1.78 (1.16–2.73), and 1.71 (1.21–2.43) respectively.
In sum, although the sample size is relatively small, it suggests that G894T eNOS polymorphism could be a potentially important genetic marker of ischemic stroke in the Moroccan population. Future studies should be conducted in this direction taking into consideration the functional activity of eNOS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Movement disorders are uncommon in multiple sclerosis, except for tremor. Patients rarely have paroxysmal dystonia (or tonic spasm), which can be the presenting manifestation of the disease.
Two videotaped observations are presented. The first patient was a 27-year-old woman, treated for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, who presented daily several short (<1minute) paroxysms of right hemibody dystonia. Brain MRI revealed several areas of cerebral demyelination, including the posterior limb of the left internal capsule with gadolinium enhancement. These events disappeared 7 days after corticosteroid infusion. The second patient was a 62-year-old man who presented brief episodes (<1minute) of daily painful left hemibody dystonia. Three months later, similar paroxysms affecting the right hemibody including the face occurred. At times, the two hemibodies were affected simultaneously. The brain MRI showed multiple areas of white matter hyperintensity, including two symmetrical areas in the posterior limb of the internal capsules. Multiple sclerosis was diagnosed on clinical, MRI and biological data. Four days after starting corticosteroids, these paroxysmal phenomena disappeared totally.
Dystonia is an under-recognized aspect of paroxysmal events during multiple sclerosis. It might involve ephaptic transmission among abnormal demyelinated neurons; this ectopic excitation can arise at variable levels of the corticospinal tract, but the analysis of reported cases and those described in this study shows that impairment of the posterior limb of the internal capsule seems to be a prevalent topography. Inflammation is likely to play a role because steroids often improve these phenomena. In this article, we review the clinical aspects, pathophysiology and outcome of paroxysmal dystonia in multiple sclerosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease is a degenerative brain disorder, which concerns memory, cognition and behavior pattern. Its etiology is unknown, it is characterized by typical histological lesions: senile plaques and neuro-fibrillary tangles. Alzheimer's disease is a multifactorial pathology, characterized by interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Genetic factors concern first of all the exceptional monogenic forms, characterized by early onset (<60 years), autosomal dominant forms. Mutations of the genes coding for amyloid-ß precursor protein or preselinins 1 and 2 are involved. The much more frequent sporadic forms also have genetic factors, the best studied being the apolipoprotein E4 coding allele and some more recent genotypes which will be mentioned. No causal, only symptomatic treatments are available.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chorea paralytica (or chorea mollis) is a very rare variant of Sydenham's chorea, characterized by a profound hypotonia, resulting in severe disability. Given the rarity of this condition, data on its prognosis are lacking. Most reports suggest that the delay from onset to recover total autonomy is long, usually several weeks to months which strongly affects the quality of life of these children. We report a videotape case of a 14-year-old girl, who became rapidly bedridden because of severe generalized chorea paralytica. Her clinical picture was totally improved 7 days only after initiation of an "aggressive" treatment, combining steroid pulse, haloperidol and long-term penicillin G, with no relapse after 4-year follow-up. We believe that the best care of this rare and severe form of Sydenham's chorea, should combine pathophysiological treatment with corticosteroids, preferably by pulse-therapy, symptomatic antichoreic treatment by neuroleptics, associated with a long-term antibiotic use to reduce recurrence risk.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The respective roles of hypocalcemia and intracerebral calcifications in the occurrence of various neurological manifestations in hypoparathyroidism is not entirely clear. Nevertheless, therapeutic and prognostic implications are important. OBJECTIVES: We analyze the neurological clinical aspects observed in hypoparathyroidism and correlate them to the biological calcium abnormality and radiological CT scan findings. We also compare these results with data reported in the idiopathic form of striatopallidodentate calcinosis. PATIENTS: The neurological clinical, CT scan findings and outcome have been retrospectively studied in patients recruited during 13years (2000-2012) for neurological features associated with hypoparathyroidism or pseudohypoparathyroidism. RESULTS: Twelve patients with primary hypoparathyroidism (n=5), secondary to thyroidectomy (n=4) and pseudohypoparathyroidism (n=3) were studied. The sex-ratio was 1 and mean age was 39years. All patients had a tetany, 60% had epilepsy, associated in one patient with "benign" intracranial hypertension; 50% had behavioral changes. Response to calcium therapy was excellent for all these events. Moderate cognitive deficit was noted in three patients (25%), parkinsonism in two patients and hyperkinetic movement disorders in one other. These events were not responsive to calcium therapy and were more common in cases of extensive brain calcifications and in patients who had pseudohypoparathroidism. COMMENTS: This study suggests that, in patients with hypoparathyroidism, epilepsy and psychiatric disorders are induced by hypocalcemia and reversible after its correction. Cognitive and extrapyramidal impairment seem to be related to the progressive extension of intracerebral calcification, particularly in patients with a late diagnosis. In patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism, this finding is different because of the contribution of other factors, specific to this disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the commonest of the muscular dystrophies. The DMD gene (DMD) is the biggest human gene and the most common molecular defect in the DMD gene, accounting for approximately 65 % of cases of DMD, is the deletion of one or more exons. The most basic method still in regular use involves multiplex PCR of the exons, known to be most commonly deleted. The multiplex is relatively simple. Quantitative analysis of all exons of the gene and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification have brought about an improvement in mutation detection rate, as they will detect all exon scale deletions as well as duplications, widely used to detect exonic and intronic mutations. As a sensitive and discriminative tool, MLPA can be used for prenatal testing. A more recent development in quantitative analysis is the use of oligonucleotide-based array comparative genomic hybridization.
Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 02/2013; · 2.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The sickle-cell disease is a group of chronic hemolytic diseases which associates three types of injuries: severe anemia, severe infections, and ischemic vaso-occlusive crisis that are secondary to conflicts between small vessels and red blood cells too deformable. Thus, organic various complications may arise. Its prevalence in Europe is estimated to be about 1/150 and reaches15 % in the Mediterranean areas. Clinical manifestations vary widely from one person to another and from one moment to another. In addition to anemia and bacterial infections, vaso-occlusive crisis may manifest by focal ischemia. In the long term, the VOC may compromise the function of a particular tissue or organ. The transmission is autosomal recessive. The sickle-cell diseases are determined by combinations of two abnormal alleles of beta globin gene including at least one which carries the mutation beta 6 glu-val (Hb S). We report the case of a girl aged 11 years, who presented two strokes in the interval of 8 months, which manifested by a complete right hemiplegia and aphasia confirmed by head CT scan; the electrophoresis of the hemoglobin and the molecular test had confirmed the diagnosis of sickle-cell disease, and we were allowed to spread better reflection on the prevention of stroke, which remains a frequent and serious complication of sickle-cell disease.
Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 01/2013; · 2.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
Fahr syndrome (FS), defined by the presence of striatal and pallidal non-arteriosclerotic calcifications, is a rare entity characterized by its clinical polymorphism. Dysparathyroidism is the predominant etiology.
Objectives and methods
We report retrospectively seven patients with Fahr's syndrome and basal ganglia calcifications on CT scan observed over a period of thirteen years.
The mean age was 35 years. These were four men and three women. A family history of FS was found in two cases. The clinical manifestations included psychiatric disorders (n = 2), cognitive impairment (n = 2), extrapyramidal symptoms (n = 3), epilepsy (n = 2) and tetany (n = 2). Serum calcium and phosphate was abnormal in all cases. Patients were given calcium and vitamin D together with symptomatic treatment and had a favorable outcome.
At the histological level, FS corresponds to mineral deposits in vessel walls of basal ganglia. The underlying mechanism remains unclear. FS is generally difficult to suspect clinically because it may remain asymptomatic or result in a polymorphic presentation with no specific manifestations. Dysparathyroidism is the predominant etiology, mainly hypoparathyroidism. FS can be genetic or sporadic.
Clinicians should look for dysparathyroidism in patients with FS in order to initiate appropriate treatment. A family survey is especially important when assessment remains negative.
Feuillets de Radiologie 01/2013; · 0.17 Impact Factor