Are you Aziz Karim?

Claim your profile

Publications (11)18.58 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This double-blind, randomized, placebo- and positive-controlled, parallel-group study evaluated the effect of vortioxetine (Lu AA21004), an investigational multimodal antidepressant, on QT interval in accordance with current guidelines of the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH-E14). A total of 340 healthy men were randomized to receive 1 of 4 treatments for 14 days: (1) vortioxetine 10 mg once daily (QD), (2) vortioxetine 40 mg QD, (3) placebo QD, or (4) placebo QD on Days 1 through 13 followed by a single dose of moxifloxacin 400 mg (positive control). The primary endpoint was the largest time-matched, baseline-adjusted least-squares (LS) mean difference for the individual-corrected QT interval (QTcNi [linear]) between vortioxetine and placebo. Alternative QT correction formulas (i.e., Fredericia [QTcF], Bazett [QTcB], Framingham [QTcFm], and QTcNi [nonlinear]) were used as secondary endpoints. The upper bound of the 2-sided 90% confidence interval around the LS mean difference from placebo for baseline-adjusted QTcNi (linear), QTcF, QTcB, QTcFm, and QTcNi (nonlinear) did not exceed 10 ms at any time point after multiple doses of vortioxetine 10 mg (therapeutic) or 40 mg (supratherapeutic). Overall, the study results indicate that vortioxetine is unlikely to affect cardiac repolarization in healthy subjects.
    10/2013; 2(4). DOI:10.1002/cpdd.51
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor alogliptin, under development for treatment of Type 2 diabetes, primarily is excreted renally. This study investigated (1) the effect of food on alogliptin pharmacokinetics and tolerability and (2) pharmacokinetic interactions between alogliptin and metformin or cimetidine and tolerability of alogliptin when administered with either drug. This randomized, open-label, two-phase, crossover study recruited healthy adults. In the single-dose phase, 36 subjects received an oral dose of alogliptin 100 mg under fed or fasted conditions. In the multiple-dose phase, subjects in one arm (n = 17) received 6 days each of alogliptin 100 mg once daily (q.d.), metformin 1,000 mg twice daily (b.i.d), and alogliptin q.d. + metformin b.i.d; subjects in the other arm (n = 18) received 6 days each of alogliptin 100 mg q.d., cimetidine 400 mg q.d., and alogliptin q.d. + cimetidine b.i.d. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined after the last dose in each period. Tolerability was assessed through adverse events and clinical findings. Food had no effect on alogliptin area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) from 0 h to infinity and a small, clinically insignificant effect on maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) (fed/fasted least squares (LS) geometric mean ratio, 0.856; 90% confidence interval (CI), 0.798 - 0.917). Metformin and cimetidine did not affect alogliptin pharmacokinetics. Alogliptin had no effect on metformin C(max) and a small, clinically insignificant effect on AUC over the dosing interval ((alogliptin + metformin)/metformin LS geometric mean ratio, 1.19; 90% CI, 1.095 - 1.291). Alogliptin did not affect cimetidine pharmacokinetics. Alogliptin tolerability was similar under all conditions. Alogliptin can be administered without regard to meals and with metformin or cimetidine without the need for dose adjustment.
    International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 01/2010; 48(1):46-58. DOI:10.5414/CPP48046 · 1.04 Impact Factor
  • Ronald Christopher, Aziz Karim
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alogliptin is a new, potent, highly selective, orally available inhibitor of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) enzyme developed for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Inhibition of the DPP-4 enzyme, prevents the inactivation of the incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), both of which have very short half-lives. GLP-1 and GIP are released in response to food ingestion; they enhance nutrient-induced insulin secretion and inhibit postprandial glucagon secretion. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of alogliptin are suitable for once-daily dosing. In two Phase I clinical trials, one in healthy subjects and one in early-diagnosed patients with T2DM, alogliptin has been shown to be safe and well tolerated. In a Phase II clinical trial, alogliptin was shown to be safe and demonstrated efficacy in patients with T2DM with a dose-response profile suitable for Phase III dose selection.
    Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology 11/2009; 2(6):589-600. DOI:10.1586/ecp.09.45
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alogliptin is a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor under investigation for treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Potential pharmacokinetic (PK) drug-drug interactions of alogliptin with pioglitazone or glyburide were evaluated in healthy adults. In a randomized, 6-sequence, 3-period crossover study (study I), participants (n = 30 enrolled; n = 27 completed) received monotherapy with pioglitazone 45 mg once daily (qd), alogliptin 25 mg qd, or coadministration of the 2 agents. The 12-day treatment periods were separated by a > or =10-day washout interval. In a nonrandomized, single-sequence study (study II), participants (n = 24 completed) received a single 5-mg dose of the sulfonylurea glyburide, alone and after 8 days of dosing with alogliptin 25 mg qd. Sequential samples of blood (both studies) and urine (first study) were obtained for determination of PK parameters for alogliptin, pioglitazone, their metabolites, and glyburide. Minor changes in PK parameters between combination therapy and monotherapy were obtained but not judged to be clinically relevant. The combination treatments were well tolerated, although glyburide frequently caused hypoglycemia. Most adverse events were of mild intensity and occurred with a frequency similar to that with monotherapy. It is concluded that pioglitazone or glyburide can be administered with alogliptin without dose adjustment to any component of the combination therapy.
    The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 08/2009; 49(10):1210-9. DOI:10.1177/0091270009338938 · 2.47 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alogliptin is a highly selective dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor that is under development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetic (PK), pharmacodynamic (PD), and tolerability profiles and explore the efficacy of multiple oral doses of alogliptin in patients with T2D. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study, patients with T2D between the ages of 18 and 75 years were assigned to receive a single oral dose of alogliptin 25, 100, or 400 mg or placebo (4:4:4:3 ratio) once daily for 14 days. PK profiles and plasma DPP-4 inhibition were assessed on days 1 and 14. Tolerability was monitored based on adverse events (AEs) and clinical assessments. Efficacy end points included 4-hour postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) and insulin concentrations, and fasting glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)), C-peptide, and fructosamine values. Of 56 enrolled patients (57% women; 93% white; mean age, 55.6 years; mean weight, 89.8 kg; mean body mass index, 31.7 kg/m(2)), 54 completed the study. On day 14, the median T(max) was ~1 hour and the mean t(1/2) was 12.5 to 21.1 hours across all alogliptin doses. Alogliptin was primarily excreted renally (mean fraction of drug excreted in urine from 0 to 72 hours after dosing, 60.8%-63.4%). On day 14, mean peak DPP-4 inhibition ranged from 94% to 99%, and mean inhibition at 24 hours after dosing ranged from 82% to 97% across all alogliptin doses. Significant decreases from baseline to day 14 were observed in mean 4-hour PPG after breakfast with alogliptin 25 mg (-32.5 mg/dL; P=0.008), 100 mg (-37.2; P=0.002), and 400 mg (-65.6 mg/dL; P<0.001) compared with placebo (+8.2 mg/dL). Significant decreases in mean 4-hour PPG were also observed for alogliptin 25, 100, and 400 mg compared with placebo after lunch (-15.8 mg/dL [P=0.030]; -29.2 mg/dL [P=0.002]; -27.1 mg/dL [P=0.009]; and +14.3 mg/dL, respectively) and after dinner (-21.9 mg/dL [P=0.017]; -39.7 mg/dL [P<0.001]; -35.3 mg/dL [P=0.003]; and +12.8 mg/dL). Significant decreases in mean HbA(1c) from baseline to day 15 were observed for alogliptin 25 mg (-0.22%; P=0.044), 100 mg (-0.40%; P<0.001), and 400 mg (-0.28%; P=0.018) compared with placebo (+0.05%). Significant decreases in mean fructosamine concentrations from baseline to day 15 were observed for alogliptin 100 mg (-25.6 micromol/L; P=0.001) and 400 mg (-19.9 micromol/L; P=0.010) compared with placebo (+15.0 micromol/L). No statistically significant changes were noted in mean 4-hour postprandial insulin or mean fasting C-peptide. No serious AEs were reported, and no patients discontinued the study because of an AE. The most commonly reported AEs for alogliptin 400 mg were headache in 6 of 16 patients (compared with 0/15 for alogliptin 25 mg, 1/14 for alogliptin 100 mg, and 3/11 for placebo), dizziness in 4 of 16 patients (compared with 1/15, 2/14, and 1/11, respectively), and constipation in 3 of 16 patients (compared with no patients in any other group). No other individual AE was reported by >2 patients receiving the 400-mg dose. Apart from dizziness, no individual AE was reported by >1 patient receiving either the 25- or 100-mg dose. In these adult patients with T2D, alogliptin inhibited plasma DPP-4 activity and significantly decreased PPG levels. The PK and PD profiles of multiple doses of alogliptin in this study supported use of a once-daily dosing regimen. Alogliptin was generally well tolerated, with no dose-limiting toxicity.
    Clinical Therapeutics 04/2008; 30(3):499-512. DOI:10.1016/j.clinthera.2008.03.004 · 2.59 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alogliptin is a highly selective dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor that is under development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. This study was conducted to characterize the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of single oral doses of alogliptin in healthy male subjects. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in which healthy, nonobese male subjects between the ages of 18 and 55 years were assigned to 1 of 6 cohorts: alogliptin 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, or 800 mg. One subject in each cohort received placebo. An ascending-dose strategy was used, in which each cohort received its assigned dose only after review of the safety data from the previous cohort. Blood and urine were collected over 72 hours after dosing for pharmacokinetic analysis and determination of plasma DPP-4 inhibition and active glucagon-like peptide -1(GLP-1) concentrations. Thirty-six subjects (66 per cohort) were enrolled and completed the study (29/36 [81% ] white; mean age, 26.6 years; mean weight, 76.0 kg). Alogliptin was rapidly absorbed (median T(max), 1-2 hours) and eliminated slowly (mean t(1/2), 12.4-21.4 hours), primarily via urinary excretion (mean fraction of drug excreted in urine from 0 to 72 hours after dosing, 60%-71%). C(max) and AUC(0-infinity) increased dose proportionally over the range from 25 to 100 mg. The metabolites M-I (N-demethylated) and M-II (N-acetylated) accounted for <2% and <6%, respectively, of alogliptin concentrations in plasma and urine. Across alogliptin doses, mean peak DPP-4 inhibition ranged from 93% to 99%, and mean inhibition at 24 hours after dosing ranged from 74% to 97%. Exposure to active GLP-1 was 2- to 4-fold greater for all alogliptin doses compared with placebo; no dose response was apparent. Hypoglycemia (asymptomatic) was reported in 5 subjects (11 receiving alogliptin 50 mg, 2 receiving alogliptin 200 mg, 1 receiving alogliptin 400 mg, 1 receiving placebo). Other adverse events were reported in 1 subject each: dizziness (alogliptin 100 mg), syncope (alogliptin 200 mg), constipation (alogliptin 200 mg), viral infection (alogliptin 400 mg), hot flush (placebo), and nausea (placebo). In these healthy male subjects, alogliptin at single doses up to 800 mg inhibited plasma DPP-4 activity, increased active GLP-1, and was generally well tolerated, with no dose-limiting toxicity.
    Clinical Therapeutics 04/2008; 30(3):513-27. DOI:10.1016/j.clinthera.2008.03.005 · 2.59 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An open-label, randomized, 2-sequence, 4-period crossover (7-day washout period between treatment), replicate design study was conducted in 37 healthy subjects to assess intersubject and intrasubject variabilities in the peak (Cmax) and total (AUC) exposures to 2 oral antidiabetic drugs, pioglitazone and glimepiride, after single doses of 30 mg pioglitazone and 4 mg glimepiride, given under fasted state, as commercial tablets coadministered or as a single fixed-dose combination tablet. Variabilities for AUC(infinity) for coadministered and fixed-dose combination treatments were similar: 16% to 19% (intra) and 23% to 25% (inter) for pioglitazone and 18% to 19% (intra) and 29% to 30% for glimepiride (inter, excluding 1 poor metabolizer). Fixed-dose combination/coadministered least squares mean ratios of >or=0.86 and the 90% confidence intervals of these ratios for pioglitazone and glimepiride of between 0.80 and 1.25 for Cmax, AUC(lqc), and AUC(infinity) met the bioequivalency standards. Gender analysis showed that women showed mean of 16% and 30% higher exposure than men for glimepiride (excluding 1 poor metabolizer) and pioglitazone, respectively. There was considerable overlapping in the AUC(infinity) values, making gender-dependent dosing unnecessary. Patients taking pioglitazone and glimepiride as cotherapy may replace their medication with a single fixed-dose combination tablet containing these 2 oral antidiabetic drugs.
    The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 07/2007; 47(7):806-16. DOI:10.1177/0091270007300954 · 2.47 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bioavailability of pioglitazone and metformin, in 2 dose strengths, given either as a fixed-dose combination tablet or as coadministration of commercial tablets (coad), was studied in young healthy subjects in 2 separate studies. In study I (n = 63), single oral doses of 15-mg pioglitazone/500-mg metformin fixed-dose combination tablets or equivalent doses of commercial tablets were administered, in a fasting state, in an open-label, randomized, crossover study with a 7-day washout period between treatments. Study II (n = 61) was similar in design to study I, except the 15/850-mg fixed-dose combination tablet and coad treatments were evaluated. Least squares mean (fixed-dose combination/coad) ratios and 90% confidence intervals of the ratios for the 15/500-mg dose strength for the maximum observed serum concentration (Cmax) and area under the serum concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC(infinity)) were 0.95 (0.86-1.05) and 1.02 (0.98-1.08), respectively, for pioglitazone and 0.99 (0.95-1.03) and 1.03 (0.98-1.08), respectively, for metformin. Bioequivalency for pioglitazone and metformin between fixed-dose combination tablets and coad treatments was met for both strengths of fixed-dose combination tablets. In a post hoc meta-analysis of combined data from the 2 studies (n = 124), there was considerable overlapping in AUC(infinity) values between gender and race (Caucasians, Blacks, and Hispanics), making neither gender- nor racial-based dosing of pioglitazone or metformin necessary.
    The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 02/2007; 47(1):37-47. DOI:10.1177/0091270006293755 · 2.47 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An open-label, randomized, crossover study involving 28 healthy subjects was conducted to compare the peak (Cmax) and total (AUC(lqc), AUC(infinity)) exposures to pioglitazone and metformin after single-dose administration of a fixed-dose combination tablet containing 15 mg of pioglitazone plus 850 mg metformin when given under fasted versus fed states, with a washout period of 7 days between treatments. Two different fixed-dose combination formulations (bilayer and pioglitazone-micronized fixed-dose combination tablets) were tested. The pioglitazone-micronized fixed-dose combination formulation was selected for clinical development and regulatory approval; the present study describes food effect results with this formulation. For pioglitazone, least squares mean ratios (fed/fasted) and the 90% confidence intervals of these ratios were 1.05 (0.93-1.18) for Cmax, 1.13 (1.02-1.25) for AUC(lqc), and 1.11 (1.01-1.22) for AUC(infinity). For metformin, these values were 0.72 (0.65-0.79) for Cmax, 0.87 (0.81-0.94) for AUC(lqc), and 0.87 (0.81-0.94) for AUC(infinity). Dosing with food resulted in median prolongation of tmax values by 1.5 hours for metformin and 2.0 hours for pioglitazone. Because bioequivalency criteria were met (fed/fasted 90% confidence interval between 0.80 and 1.25) for both pioglitazone and metformin AUC, fixed-dose combination tablets can be taken with or without food, but to minimize gastrointestinal adverse effects of metformin, the fixed-dose combination tablets are recommended to be taken with food.
    The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 02/2007; 47(1):48-55. DOI:10.1177/0091270006293756 · 2.47 Impact Factor
  • Aziz Karim, Dwain Tolbert, Charlie Cao
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ramelteon is a selective MT(1)/MT(2) receptor agonist, indicated for insomnia treatment. Safety, tolerance, pharmacokinetics, and cognitive performance were evaluated following increasing ramelteon doses. Healthy adults (35-65 years) were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 5 oral ramelteon doses (4, 8, 16, 32, or 64 mg; n = 8 per group) or placebo (n = 20). C(max) and AUC(infinity) (mean [%CV]) increased with each dose: C(max) = 1.15 (109), 5.73 (97), 6.92 (77), 17.4 (76), and 25.9 (77) ng/mL, respectively, and AUC(infinity) = 1.71 (114), 6.95 (108), 9.88 (78), 22.5 (80), and 36.1 (71 n x h/mL), respectively. Mean T(max) values of 0.75 to 0.94 hours and mean elimination half-life of 0.83 to 1.90 hours remained relatively constant. Ramelteon was extensively metabolized. Besides ramelteon, 4 metabolites, M-I, M-II, M-III, and M-IV, were measured in serum. Metabolite M-II, which has shown weak ramelteon-like activity in vitro, was the major metabolite in serum. Digit Symbol Substitution Test and visual analog scale alertness scores were similar across all dose groups and did not differ from placebo. All adverse events were mild or moderate and resolved before study completion.
    The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 03/2006; 46(2):140-8. DOI:10.1177/0091270005283461 · 2.47 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To evaluate the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD) to assess celecoxib pharmacokinetics (PK) and its effects on pharmacodynamic (PD) outcome measures, prostaglandin (PG) synthesis, inflammation processes, and protein markers for AD progression and cognition. Methods: This was a 4‐week, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled trial evaluating 3 dose levels of celecoxib (50, 200 and 400 mg BID), placebo, or 1 dose level of celecoxib 400 mg BID in age‐matched controls in concurrent panels of 5 subjects each. Results: 21 subjects with AD and 5 age‐matched controls were controlled. The mean concentration of celecoxib in CSF gradually increased and peaked at 4 hours post‐dose on Day 28 for all groups, and decreased to near or below the 30‐minute pre‐dose levels by 12 hours post‐dose. Mean peak celecoxib plasma concentration peaked at 2 hours post dose on Day 28 and was not dose dependent. PD analysis revealed that Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels in the CSF indicated COX‐2 inhibition at Day 28, however other inflammatory markers (Interleukin‐6) and markers for disease progression (Aβ1–42 and tau protein) were unaffected by celecoxib treatment. Cognitive performance on the ADAS‐COG improved in all treatment groups except for 50 mg BID group. The mean MMSE (Mini‐Mental Status Exam) score improved in the 50 mg BID and 400 mg BID groups, worsened in the 200 mg BID and age‐matched control groups, and remained unchanged in placebo. Computerized Neuropsychological Test Battery (CNTB) scores showed a varied response by parameter. All reported AEs were mild or moderate in intensity. The most frequently reported AEs were headache, dizziness, back pain and abdominal pain. Conclusion: Celecoxib penetrates the blood brain barrier. The PK profile is similar in AD and age‐matched control subjects. The PD analysis was inconclusive. None of the markers tested represented a useful surrogate for any effect of celecoxib. Tests of cognitive ability did not show notable or consistent improvements during celecoxib administration. Oral doses of celecoxib 50, 200, 400 mg BID were well tolerated in patient with AD and the age‐matched control subjects.
    Clinical Research and Regulatory Affairs 10/2004; 21(1):49-66. DOI:10.1081/CRP-120030034