[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate risk factors for sporadic Cryptosporidium infection in a paediatric population in Nigeria. Of 692 children, 134 (19·4%) were infected with Cryptosporidium oocysts. Cryptosporidium spp. were identified in 49 positive samples using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and direct sequencing of the glycoprotein60 (GP60) gene. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to identify risk factors for all Cryptosporidium infections, as well as for C. hominis and C. parvum both together and separately. Risk factors identified for all Cryptosporidium infections included malaria infection and a lack of Ascaris infection. For C. hominis infections, stunting and younger age were highlighted as risk factors, while stunting and malaria infection were identified as risk factors for C. parvum infection.
Epidemiology and Infection 06/2011; 139(6):946-54. · 2.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analyzed 1,042 Cryptosporidium oocyst-positive slides (456 from raw waters and 586 from drinking waters) of which 55.7% contained 1 or 2 oocysts, to determine species/genotypes present in Scottish waters. Two nested PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assays targeting different loci (1 and 2) of the hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA gene were used for species identification, and 62.4% of samples were amplified with at least one of the PCR assays. More samples (577 slides; 48.7% from raw water and 51.3% from drinking water) were amplified at locus 1 than at locus 2 (419 slides; 50.1% from raw water and 49.9% from drinking water). PCR at loci 1 and 2 amplified 45.4% and 31.7% of samples containing 1 or 2 oocysts, respectively. We detected both human-infectious and non-human-infectious species/genotype oocysts in Scottish raw and drinking waters. Cryptosporidium andersoni, Cryptosporidium parvum, and the Cryptosporidium cervine genotype (now Cryptosporidium ubiquitum) were most commonly detected in both raw and drinking waters, with C. ubiquitum being most common in drinking waters (12.5%) followed by C. parvum (4.2%) and C. andersoni (4.0%). Numerous samples (16.6% total; 18.9% from drinking water) contained mixtures of two or more species/genotypes, and we describe strategies for unraveling their identity. Repetitive analysis for discriminating mixtures proved useful, but both template concentration and PCR assay influenced outcomes. Five novel Cryptosporidium spp. (SW1 to SW5) were identified by RFLP/sequencing, and Cryptosporidium sp. SW1 was the fourth most common contaminant of Scottish drinking water (3%).
Applied and Environmental Microbiology 09/2010; 76(17):5977-86. · 3.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Samples of fresh vegetables and soft fruit were collected from farmers' markets in the Lublin Area of Poland during 2006-2007; the produce was grown in areas of high to moderate livestock production. Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were eluted from food surfaces, separated from residual food materials by IMS and identified by immunofluorescence and Nomarski differential interference contrast microscopy. Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were detected in 6 of 128 vegetable samples (range 1-47 oocysts), but not in any of 35 fruit samples. Both empty and intact oocysts were detected. Species identity of oocyst-positive samples was performed by molecular analysis at four genetic loci. One of two 18S rRNA loci amplified DNA from 5 of the 6 oocyst-positive samples, but insufficient DNA for RFLP or sequencing analysis was available from 4 of these samples. An oocyst-positive celery sample generated an RFLP pattern consistent with C. parvum at two loci, but insufficient DNA was available for subtyping (GP60 sequencing) this isolate. Oocyst-contaminated foods originated from districts with the highest numbers of homesteads possessing cattle herds and no contaminated produce was detected from districts containing lower numbers of cattle-owning homesteads, strengthening the assumption that the origin of the contamination was livestock. The results of this study strengthen the evidence for the potential for zoonotic foodborne transmission of Cryptosporidium.
International journal of food microbiology 01/2010; 139(1-2):96-101. · 3.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Of 1346 faecal samples from the Chikwawa and Thyolo districts of Malawi, analysed for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts between October 2001 and May 2003, 61.3% were from cattle (29.8% of these were from calves <6 months old). Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected during all three seasons studied in Chikwawa and Thyolo. In Chikwawa, 13.6% of adult cattle and 11.7% of calves were infected, compared to 28.9% of adult cattle and 36.7% of calves in Thyolo. Dependent on season, between 7.8% and 37.7% (Chikwawa) and 16.7% and 39.3% (Thyolo) of cattle samples contained oocysts. In Chikwawa, the highest percentage of infections occurred in the cool season, whereas in Thyolo, the highest percentage of infections occurred in the dry season. Faecal samples from goats [n=225], pigs [n=92], sheep [n=6]), rabbits, guinea pigs, chickens, ducks, turkeys, doves and guinea fowls were also analysed. Up to 5.6% of goat samples contained oocysts in Chikwawa, compared to between 16.7% and 39.3% in Thyolo. Again, in Chikwawa, the highest percentage of infections occurred in the cool season and the lowest in the rainy season, whereas, in Thyolo, the highest percentage of infections occurred in the dry season and the lowest in the cool season. In pigs, more infections were detected in the dry season in Chikwawa, but infections in the cool season were similar (17.7%), whereas in Thyolo, infections occurred in all three seasons (17.9% in the rainy season, 25% in the cool season and 60% in the dry season). Of ten diarrhoeic, oocyst positive cattle faecal samples collected from Chikwawa and subjected to PCR-RFLP, four oocyst positive samples (two from heifers, one from a cow and one unknown) were amplified at an 18S rRNA and Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) loci. RFLP of the 18S rRNA locus indicated that Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium hominis, Cryptosporidium bovis and/or Cryptosporidium ryanae DNA, or a mixture of them was present. Cryptosporidium parvum DNA was identified in one sample that amplified at the COWP locus, indicating the presence of the major zoonotic Cryptosporidium species in Malawi.
The Onderstepoort journal of veterinary research 12/2009; 76(4):363-75. · 0.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The spatial and temporal epidemiology of human cryptosporidiosis was described by analysing sporadic cases reported in Scotland from 2005 to 2007. Measures of livestock density and human population density were explored as indicators of the geographical variation in prevalence. Cryptosporidium parvum was more common in areas with lower human population densities, with a higher ratio of the number of farms to human inhabitants and with a higher ratio of the number of private water supplies to human inhabitants. Cryptosporidium parvum caused disease in humans in rural areas and in areas with high ruminant livestock density, whereas Cryptosporidium hominis was more common in the more densely human populated areas of Scotland. The association of private water supplies and increased Cryptosporidium reports merits further public health efforts.
Zoonoses and Public Health 08/2009; 57(7-8):487-92. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) in children aged 0-25 months and to identify the associated risk factors for Ascaris lumbricoides infections. The study was conducted in three villages outside Ile-Ife, Osun state, Nigeria in May/June 2005. Stool samples (369) were processed by formol-ether concentration. Ascaris lumbricoides (12.2%) was the dominant infection. Age, father's occupation and dog ownership were identified as the significant risk factors in the minimal adequate model for A. lumbricoides. The odds of being infected with A. lumbricoides increased as the children got older. Children aged 12-17 months and 18-25 months were 8.8 and 12.4 times, respectively, more likely to harbour Ascaris than those aged 7-11 months. The odds of harbouring Ascaris for children whose families owned a dog were 3.5 times that of children whose families did not own a dog. Children whose fathers were businessmen were 0.4 times less likely to be infected with Ascaris than those whose fathers were farmers. The findings from this study suggest that many of these young children, who are at a critical stage of development, are infected with Ascaris and that the prevalence of infection with this parasite increases with age. This study has highlighted the need to incorporate preschool children into deworming programmes in endemic regions and to investigate innovative ways of delivering cost-effective deworming treatment to this high-risk age group.
Journal of Helminthology 05/2009; 83(3):261-6. · 1.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite frequent reports on the presence of Blastocystis hominis in human intestinal tract, its pathogenicity remains a matter of intense debate. These discrepancies may be due to the varying pathogenic potential or virulence of the isolates studied. The present study represents the first to investigate both phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of B. hominis obtained from symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. Symptomatic isolates had a significantly greater size range and lower growth rate in Jones' medium than asymptomatic isolates. The parasite cells of symptomatic isolates exhibited rougher surface topography and greater binding affinity to Canavalia ensiformis (ConA) and Helix pomatia (HPA). The present study also identifies further phenotypic characteristics, which aided in differentiating the pathogenic forms from the non-pathogenic forms of B. hominis. Blastocystis subtype 3 was found to be correlated well with the disease.
Parasitology Research 10/2008; 104(1):85-93. · 2.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We determined the incidence of cryptosporidiosis in children aged <5 years presenting with diarrhoea in an urban and rural hospital-based setting in Malawi. Stools were collected over a 22-month period during both rainy and dry seasons. A range of microscopic methods were used to determine the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts. Species determination was by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of oocyst-extracted DNA using 18S rRNA and COWP gene loci. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were seen in 5.9% (50/848) of samples, of which 43 amplified by PCR-RFLP indicated the following species: C. hominis, C. parvum, C. hominis/C. parvum, C. meleagridis and C. andersoni. Seven samples could not be amplified by PCR. Wider species diversity was found in the rural setting, and may be a result of increased malnutrition and zoonotic exposure in this area. Improvements in water, sanitation, household hygiene and animal control are required to reduce the incidence of infection in this population.
Epidemiology and Infection 12/2007; 135(8):1307-15. · 2.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a method for detecting Giardia duodenalis cysts on lettuce, which we subsequently use to examine salad products for the presence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts. The method is based on four basic steps: extraction of cysts from the foodstuffs, concentration of the extract and separation of the cysts from food materials, staining of the cysts to allow their visualization, and identification of cysts by microscopy. The concentration and separation steps are performed by centrifugation, followed by immunomagnetic separation using proprietary kits. Cyst staining is also performed using proprietary reagents. The method recovered 46.0% +/- 19.0% (n = 30) of artificially contaminating cysts in 30 g of lettuce. We tested the method on a variety of commercially available natural foods, which we also seeded with a commercially available internal control, immediately prior to concentration of the extract. Recoveries of the Texas Red-stained Giardia cyst and Cryptosporidium oocyst internal controls were 36.5% +/- 14.3% and 36.2% +/- 19.7% (n = 20), respectively. One natural food sample of organic watercress, spinach, and rocket salad contained one Giardia cyst 50 g(-1) of sample as an indigenous surface contaminant.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology 12/2007; 73(22):7388-91. · 3.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cryptosporidium and Giardia are major causes of diarrhoeal disease in humans, worldwide and are major causes of protozoan waterborne diseases. Both Cryptosporidium and Giardia have life cycles which are suited to waterborne and foodborne transmission. There are 16 'valid'Cryptosporidium species and a further 33+ genotypes described. Parasites which infect humans belong to the Giardia duodenalis "type", and at least seven G. duodenalis assemblages are recognised. Cryptosporidium parvum is the major zoonotic Cryptosporidium species, while G. duodenalis assemblages A and B have been found in humans and most mammalian orders. In depth studies to determine the role of non-human hosts in the transmission of Cryptosporidium and Giardia to humans are required. The use of harmonised methodology and standardised and validated molecular markers, together with sampling strategies that provide sufficient information about all contributors to the environmental (oo)cyst pool that cause contamination of food and water, are recommended. Standardised methods for detecting (oo)cysts in water are available, as are optimised, validated methods for detecting Cryptosporidium in soft fruit and salad vegetables. These provide valuable data on (oo)cyst occurrence, and can be used for species and subspecies typing using appropriate molecular tools. Given the zoonotic potential of these organisms, epidemiological, source and disease tracking investigations involve multidisciplinary teams. Here, the role of the veterinarian is paramount, particularly in understanding the requirement for adopting comprehensive sampling strategies for analysing both sporadic and outbreak samples from all potential non-human contributors. Comprehensive sampling strategies increase our understanding of parasite population biology and structure and this knowledge can be used to determine what level of discrimination is required between isolates. Genetic exchange is frequent in C. parvum populations, leading to recombination between alleles at different loci, the generation of a very large number of different genotypes and a high level of resolution between isolates. In contrast, genetic exchange appears rare in Cryptosporidium hominis and populations are essentially clonal with far fewer combinations of alleles at different loci, resulting in a much lower resolution between isolates with many being of the same genotype. Clearly, more markers provide more resolution and high throughput sequencing of a variety of genes, as in multilocus sequence typing, is a way forward. Sub-genotyping tools offer increased discrimination, specificity and sensitivity, which can be exploited for investigating the epidemiology of disease, the role of asymptomatic carriers and contaminated fomites and for source and disease tracking for food and water contaminated with small numbers of (oo)cysts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The protozoan parasites Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium parvum are common causes of diarrhoea, worldwide. Effective drug treatment is available for G. duodenalis, but with anecdotal evidence of resistance or reduced compliance. There is no effective specific chemotherapeutic intervention for Cryptosporidium. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the antimicrobial properties of berries and their phenolic compounds but little work has been done on their antiparasitic actions. The effect of various preparations of blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) extract on G. duodenalis trophozoites and C. parvum oocysts were investigated. Pressed blueberry extract, a polyphenolic-rich blueberry extract, and a commercially produced blueberry drink (Bouvrage) all demonstrated antigiardial activity. The polyphenol-rich blueberry extract reduced trophozoite viability in a dose dependent manner. At 167 microgml(-1), this extract performed as well as all dilutions of pressed blueberry extract and the Bouvrage beverage (9.6+/-2.8% live trophozoites remaining after 24h incubation). The lowest dilution of blueberry extract tested (12.5% v/v) contained >167 microgml(-1) of polyphenolic compounds suggesting that polyphenols are responsible for the reduced survival of G. duodenalis trophozoites. The pressed blueberry extract, Bouvrage beverage and the polyphenolic-rich blueberry extract increased the spontaneous excystation of C. parvum oocysts at 37 degrees C, compared to controls, but only at a dilution of 50% Bouvrage beverage, equivalent to 213 microgml(-1) gallic acid equivalents in the polyphenolic-rich blueberry extract. Above this level, spontaneous excystation is decreased. We conclude that water soluble extracts of blueberries can kill G. duodenalis trophozoites and modify the morphology of G. duodenalis and C. parvum.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The occurrence of Giardia cysts in Scottish raw and potable waters was investigated. Giardia cysts were detected in 49% of raw waters, with concentrations of up to 1.05 cysts per litre, and in 19% of final waters, with concentrations of up to 1.67 cysts per litre. In some of the positive water samples the viability of the cysts was assessed by viewing the cyst morphology and inclusion/exclusion of propidium iodide. Viable cysts were detected in a proportion of both raw waters and positive final waters studied. Further investigations at 21 water-treatment plants revealed cysts in 9 (43%) of the raw waters, and in 4 (19%) of the final waters. Cysts were only detected in the final waters of plants in which cysts were also detected in the raw water. These data indicate that viable Giardia cysts may be ingested with potable water in Scotland.
Water and Environment Journal 07/2007; 7(6):632 - 635. · 0.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the effect of UV light on Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis oocysts in vitro, we exposed intact oocysts to 4-, 10-, 20-, and 40-mJ x cm-2 doses of UV irradiation. Thymine dimers were detected by immunofluorescence microscopy using a monoclonal antibody against cyclobutyl thymine dimers (anti-TDmAb). Dimer-specific fluorescence within sporozoite nuclei was confirmed by colocalization with the nuclear fluorogen 4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). Oocyst walls were visualized using either commercial fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled anti-Cryptosporidium oocyst antibodies (FITC-CmAb) or Texas Red-labeled anti-Cryptosporidium oocyst antibodies (TR-CmAb). The use of FITC-CmAb interfered with TD detection at doses below 40 mJ x cm-2. With the combination of anti-TDmAb, TR-CmAb, and DAPI, dimer-specific fluorescence was detected in sporozoite nuclei within oocysts exposed to 10 to 40 mJ x cm-2 of UV light. Similar results were obtained with C. hominis. C. parvum oocysts exposed to 10 to 40 mJ x cm-2 of UV light failed to infect neonatal mice, confirming that results of our anti-TD immunofluorescence assay paralleled the outcomes of our neonatal mouse infectivity assay. These results suggest that our immunofluorescence assay is suitable for detecting DNA damage in C. parvum and C. hominis oocysts induced following exposure to UV light.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology 03/2007; 73(3):947-55. · 3.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We used the fluorescent dye monochlorobimane (MCB) which binds glutathione (GSH) to localize between 2 and 6 distinctly labelled nuclear and cytoplasmic GSH foci in recently excreted and aged, intact Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and sporozoites. Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), a potent and specific inhibitor of GSH, was used to determine whether GSH is synthesized in BSO-treated C. parvum oocysts, by labelling treated oocysts with MCB. Both visual and electronic quantifications were performed. At 5 mM BSO, a significant inhibition of MCB fluorescence, reflecting reduced MCB uptake, was observed in GSH-depleted oocysts (mean +/- S.D. 35 +/- 3.7) compared with controls (3.3 +/- 1.2, P = 0). This clear reduction occurred only in viable oocysts. 1 mM BSO-treated oocysts exhibited weak or no MCB fluorescence, although they were viable (excluded propidium iodide, PI)), and intact and contained sporozoites by differential interference contrast microscopy (DIC). MCB was used in conjunction with PI to determine C. parvum oocyst viability. Oocysts labelled with MCB/PI or 4'6-diamidino-2-phenyl indole (DAPI)/PI produced comparable labelling patterns. Viable oocysts were labelled with MCB or DAPI whereas dead oocysts were labelled with PI only. The localization of GSH in viable, intact oocysts and excysted sporozoites and UV light-irradiated oocysts and sporozoites revealed no changes in MCB uptake at levels up to 40 mJ.cm(-2) irradiation. Although GSH can be detected following MCB localization in both the nucleus and cytoplasm of sporozoites, and can be specifically depleted by BSO treatment, MCB is unlikely to be useful as a surrogate for detecting UV damage in UV-treated Cryptosporidium oocysts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genomic DNA from 16 Blastocystis hominis isolates comprising of eight asymptomatic isolates (A1-A8) and eight symptomatic isolates (S1-S8) was amplified by arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR) using 38 arbitrary 10-mer primers. Six primers (A10, B5, C20, D1, F6, and F10) generated reproducible DNA fingerprints. AP-PCR amplification revealed similar DNA fingerprints among all symptomatic isolates (S1-S8) with common bands at 850 bp using primer A10, 920 bp using primer B5, and 1.3 kbp using primer D1. Isolates A1, A3, A4, A5, A6, and A7 showed similar DNA banding patterns and all asymptomatic isolates (A1-A8) shared a major band at 1 kbp using primer B5. Isolates A2 and A8 showed distinct DNA banding patterns that differed from the remainder of the isolates. The results of the phylogenetic analyses showed that all symptomatic isolates (S1-S8) formed a clade with >70% similarity among the isolates and which were clearly separate from asymptomatic isolates A1, A3, A4, A5, A6, and A7. Asymptomatic isolates A2 and A8 formed two distinct and separate clades. AP-PCR revealed higher genetic variability within the asymptomatic isolates than within the symptomatic isolates. The present study suggests that AP-PCR can be a valuable method for differentiating between isolates of B. hominis and our results support the hypothesis that our asymptomatic and symptomatic B. hominis isolates may represent two different strains/species with varying pathogenic potential.
Parasitology Research 10/2006; 99(4):459-65. · 2.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the results of interlaboratory collaborative trials of methods to detect oocysts of the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum on lettuce and raspberries. The trials involved eight expert laboratories in the United Kingdom. Samples comprised 30 g lettuce, and 60 g raspberries. Lettuce samples were artificially contaminated at three levels: low (8.5-14.2 oocysts), medium (53.5-62.6 oocysts), and high (111.3-135.0 oocysts). Non-contaminated lettuce samples were also tested. The method had an overall sensitivity (correct identification of all artificially contaminated lettuce samples) of 89.6%, and a specificity (correct identification of non-contaminated samples) of 85.4%. The total median percentage recovery (from all artificially contaminated samples) produced by the method was 30.4%. The method was just as reproducible between laboratories, as repeatable within a laboratory. Raspberry samples were artificially contaminated at three levels: low (8.5-26.8 oocysts), medium (29.7-65.7 oocysts), and high (53.9-131.3 oocysts). Non-contaminated raspberry samples were also tested. The method had an overall sensitivity (correct identification of all artificially contaminated raspberry samples) of 95.8%, and a specificity (correct identification of non-contaminated samples) of 83.3%. The total median percentage recovery (from all artificially contaminated samples) produced by the method was 44.3%. The method was just as reproducible between laboratories, as repeatable within a laboratory. The results of the collaborative trial indicate that these assays can be used effectively in analytical microbiological laboratories.
International Journal of Food Microbiology 07/2006; 109(3):222-8. · 3.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: No standard method is available for detecting protozoan parasites on foods such as soft fruit and salad vegetables. We report on optimizing methods for detecting Cryptosporidium parvum on lettuce and raspberries. These methods are based on four basic stages: extraction of oocysts from the foodstuffs, concentration of the extract and separation of the oocysts from food materials, staining of the oocysts to allow their visualization, and identification of oocysts by microscopy. The concentration and separation steps are performed by centrifugation, followed by immunomagnetic separation using proprietary kits. Oocyst staining is also performed using proprietary reagents. The performance parameters of the extraction steps were extensively optimized, using artificially contaminated samples. The fully developed methods were tested several times to determine their reliability. The method to detect C. parvum on lettuce recovered 59.0+/-12.0% (n=30) of artificially contaminated oocysts. The method to detect C. parvum on raspberries recovered 41.0+/-13.0% (n=30) of artificially contaminated oocysts.
International Journal of Food Microbiology 07/2006; 109(3):215-21. · 3.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Electrorotation is a non-invasive technique that is capable of detecting changes in the morphology and physicochemical properties of microorganisms. The first detailed electrorotation study of the egg (ovum) of a parasitic nematode, namely Ascaris suum is described to show that electrorotation can rapidly differentiate between fertilized and non-fertilized eggs. Support for this conclusion is by optical microscopy of egg morphology, and also from modelling of the electrorotational response. Modelling was used to determine differences in the dielectric properties of the unfertilized and fertilized eggs, and also to investigate specific differences in the spectra of fertilized eggs only, potentially reflecting embryogenesis. The potential of electrorotation as an investigative tool is shown, as undamaged eggs can be subjected to further non-destructive and destructive techniques, which could provide further insight into parasite biology and epidemiology.
Journal of Helminthology 04/2006; 80(1):25-31. · 1.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Blastocystis cysts were detected in 38% (47/123) (37 Scottish, 17 Malaysian) of sewage treatment works. Fifty percent of influents (29% Scottish, 76% Malaysian) and 28% of effluents (9% Scottish, 60% Malaysian) contained viable cysts. Viable cysts, discharged in effluent, provide further evidence for the potential for waterborne transmission of Blastocystis.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology 10/2005; 71(9):5619-20. · 3.95 Impact Factor