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Publications (5)30.62 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Our previous study found cancer detection rates were equivalent for direct radiography compared to screen-film mammography, while rates for computed radiography were significantly lower. This study compares prognostic features of invasive breast cancers by type of mammography. Approved by the University of Toronto Research Ethics Board, this study identified invasive breast cancers diagnosed among concurrent cohorts of women aged 50-74 screened by direct radiography, computed radiography, or screen-film mammography from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2009. During the study period, 816,232 mammograms were performed on 668,418 women, and 3,323 invasive breast cancers were diagnosed. Of 2,642 eligible women contacted, 2,041 participated (77.3 %). The final sample size for analysis included 1,405 screen-detected and 418 interval cancers (diagnosed within 24 months of a negative screening mammogram). Polytomous logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between tumour characteristics and type of mammography, and between tumour characteristics and detection method. Odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were recorded. Cancers detected by computed radiography compared to screen-film mammography were significantly more likely to be lymph node positive (OR 1.94, 95 %CI 1.01-3.73) and have higher stage (II:I, OR 2.14, 95 %CI 1.11-4.13 and III/IV:I, OR 2.97, 95 %CI 1.02-8.59). Compared to screen-film mammography, significantly more cancers detected by direct radiography (OR 1.64, 95 %CI 1.12-2.38) were lymph node positive. Interval cancers had worse prognostic features compared to screen-detected cancers, irrespective of mammography type. Screening with computed radiography may lead to the detection of cancers with a less favourable stage distribution compared to screen-film mammography that may reflect a delayed diagnosis. Screening programs should re-evaluate their use of computed radiography for breast screening.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 08/2014; · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose:To evaluate the performance of digital direct radiography (DR) and computed radiography (CR) compared with that of screen-film mammography (SFM) in large concurrent cohorts.Materials and Methods:This study was approved by the University of Toronto Research Ethics Board and did not require informed consent. Concurrent cohorts of women aged 50-74 years screened with DR (n = 220 520), CR (n = 64 210), or SFM (n = 403 688) between 2008 and 2009 were identified and followed for 12 months. Performance was compared between cohorts, with SFM as the referent cohort. Associations were examined by using mixed-effect logistic regression.Results:The cancer detection rate was similar for DR (4.9 per 1000; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.7, 5.2) and SFM (4.8 per 1000; 95% CI: 4.7, 5.0); however, the rate was significantly lower for CR (3.4 per 1000; 95% CI: 3.0, 3.9) (odds ratio, 0.79; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.93). Recall rates were higher for DR (7.7%; 95% CI: 7.6%, 7.8%) and lower for CR (6.6%; 95% CI: 6.5%, 6.7%) than for SFM (7.4%; 95% CI: 7.3%, 7.5%). Positive predictive value was lower for CR (5.2%; 95% CI: 4.7%, 5.8%) than for SFM (6.6%; 95% CI: 6.4%, 6.8%); however, the adjusted odds were not significant.Conclusion:Although DR is equivalent to SFM for breast screening among women aged 50-74 years, the cancer detection rate was lower for CR. Screening programs should monitor the performance of CR separately and may consider informing women of the potentially lower cancer detection rates.© RSNA, 2013.
    Radiology 05/2013; · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence from breast screening trials has shown that a significant reduction in breast cancer mortality from screening can be achieved by regular attendance. Few studies have evaluated the influence of nurses on compliance with breast screening recommendations. The cohort included 157,788 women ages 50 to 69 years who were screened at 1 of 9 regional cancer centers or 57 affiliated centers with nurses or 26 affiliated centers without nurses between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2002, within the Ontario Breast Screening Program. These women were followed up prospectively for at least 30 months to compare compliance for annual and biennial screening recommendations among women who attended centers with and without nurses. The associations between type of screening center and the odds of compliance were modeled using mixed-effect logistic regression models. All P values are two-sided. Women attending a regional cancer center [odds ratios (OR), 1.96; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.07-3.58] or affiliated center with nurses (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.38-2.22) were significantly more likely to return within 18 months of their annual screening recommendation than women attending affiliated centers without nurses. In addition, women attending regional cancer centers (OR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.34-3.89) or affiliated centers with nurses (OR, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.86-2.83) were significantly more likely to make a timely return within the recommended biennial screening interval of between 18 and 30 months. Breast screening programs should consider methods of integrating educational activities as provided by the nurses to improve compliance with screening.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers &amp Prevention 02/2010; 19(3):697-706. · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is controversy about whether adding clinical breast examination (CBE) to mammography improves the accuracy of breast screening. We compared the accuracy of screening among centers that offered CBE in addition to mammography with that among centers that offered only mammography. The cohort included 290 230 women aged 50-69 years who were screened at regional cancer centers or affiliated centers within the Ontario Breast Screening Program between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2003, and were followed up for 12 months. The regional cancer centers offer screening mammography and CBE performed by a nurse. All affiliated centers provide mammography but not all provide CBE. Performance measures for 232 515 women who were screened by mammography and CBE at the nine regional cancer centers or 59 affiliated centers that provided CBE were compared with those for 57 715 women who were screened by mammography alone at 34 affiliated centers that did not provide CBE. Sensitivity of referrals was higher for women who were screened at regional cancer centers or affiliated centers that offered CBE in addition to mammography than for women screened at affiliated centers that did not offer CBE (initial screen: 94.9% and 94.6%, respectively, vs 88.6%; subsequent screen: 94.9% and 91.7%, respectively, vs 85.3%). Mammography sensitivity was similar between centers that offered CBE and those that did not. However, women without cancer who were screened at regional cancer centers or affiliated centers that offered CBE had a higher false-positive rate than women screened at affiliated centers that offered only mammography (initial screen: 12.5% and 12.4%, respectively, vs 7.4%; subsequent screen: 6.3% and 8.3%, respectively, vs 5.4%). Women should be informed of the benefits and risks of having a CBE in addition to mammography for breast screening.
    CancerSpectrum Knowledge Environment 09/2009; 101(18):1236-43. · 14.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine factors that influence awareness of, and readiness to undergo, fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Validated survey designed to ascertain respondents' stages of decision making regarding CRC screening using FOBT. Ontario. A total of 1013 people 50 years old and older drawn from all regions of the province using a random-digit dialing telephone protocol. Awareness of FOBT and readiness to undergo it for screening for CRC. Response rate was 69%. Results indicated that 54% of women and 45% of men had "heard of" FOBT, and 26% of women and 17% of men had heard of it but were still "not considering" FOBT screening. Only 17% of all respondents had "decided to have" FOBT screening. Demographic factors associated with having heard of FOBT were female sex, completion of college or higher education, and being married or living as married. Demographic factors associated with active consideration of FOBT among those who reported awareness of it were male sex and being married or living as married. Many people seemed uninformed about FOBT and not ready to undertake this type of screening. Results of this survey could help guide strategies and develop programs to make eligible people aware of CRC screening using FOBT and to motivate them to undergo testing.
    Canadian family physician Medecin de famille canadien 03/2009; 55(2):176-177.e4. · 1.19 Impact Factor