Xiangbin Xu

Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, United States

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Publications (21)137.06 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The G-protein-coupled receptor kinase interacting protein-1 (GIT1) is a scaffold protein that is important for phospholipase Cγ and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling induced by angiotensin II and epidermal growth factor. Because GIT1 regulates signaling by several vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) growth factors, we hypothesized that intima formation would be inhibited by GIT1 depletion.Approach and Results-Complete carotid ligation was performed on GIT1 wild-type and knockout (KO) mice. We compared changes between GIT1 wild-type and KO mice in carotid vascular remodeling, VSMC proliferation, and apoptosis in vivo and in vitro. Our data demonstrated that GIT1 deficiency significantly decreased intima formation after carotid ligation as a result of both reduced VSMC proliferation and enhanced apoptosis. To confirm the effects of GIT1 in vitro, we performed proliferation and apoptosis assays in VSMC. In mouse aortic smooth muscle cells (MASM), we found that the growth rate and [3H]-thymidine incorporation of the GIT1 KO MASM were significantly decreased compared with the wild-type MASM. Cyclin D1, which is a key cell cycle regulator, was significantly decreased in GIT1 KO cells. Serum deprivation of GIT1 KO MASM increased apoptosis 3-fold compared with wild-type MASM. Treatment of rat aortic smooth muscle cells with GIT1 small interfering RNA impaired cell migration. Both phospholipase Cγ and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling were required for GIT1-dependent VSMC proliferation and migration, whereas only phospholipase Cγ was involved in GIT1-mediated VSMC apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: GIT1 is a novel mediator of vascular remodeling by regulating VSMC proliferation, migration, and apoptosis through phospholipase Cγ and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling pathways.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 02/2013; · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac fibrosis is a hallmark of heart disease and plays a vital role in cardiac remodeling during heart diseases, including hypertensive heart disease. Hexarelin is one of a series of synthetic growth hormone secretagogues (GHSs) possessing a variety of cardiovascular effects via action on GHS receptors (GHS-Rs). However, the role of hexarelin in cardiac fibrosis in vivo has not yet been investigated. In the present study, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were treated with hexarelin alone or in combination with a GHS-R antagonist for 5 wk from an age of 16 wk. Hexarelin treatment significantly reduced cardiac fibrosis in SHRs by decreasing interstitial and perivascular myocardial collagen deposition and myocardial hydroxyproline content and reducing mRNA and protein expression of collagen I and III in SHR hearts. Hexarelin treatment also increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 activities and decreased myocardial mRNA expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 in SHRs. In addition, hexarelin treatment significantly attenuated left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, LV diastolic dysfunction, and high blood pressure in SHRs. The effect of hexarelin on cardiac fibrosis, blood pressure, and cardiac function was mediated by its receptor, GHS-R, since a selective GHS-R antagonist abolished these effects and expression of GHS-Rs was upregulated by hexarelin treatment. In summary, our data demonstrate that hexarelin reduces cardiac fibrosis in SHRs, perhaps by decreasing collagen synthesis and accelerating collagen degradation via regulation of MMPs/TIMP. Hexarelin-reduced systolic blood pressure may also contribute to this reduced cardiac fibrosis in SHRs. The present findings provided novel insights and underscore the therapeutic potential of hexarelin as an antifibrotic agent for the treatment of cardiac fibrosis.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 07/2012; 303(6):H703-11. · 4.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inflammation is a hallmark of many important human diseases. Appropriate inflammation is critical for host defense; however, an overactive response is detrimental to the host. Thus, inflammation must be tightly regulated. The molecular mechanisms underlying the tight regulation of inflammation remain largely unknown. Ecotropic viral integration site 1 (EVI1), a proto-oncogene and zinc finger transcription factor, plays important roles in normal development and leukemogenesis. However, its role in regulating NF-κB-dependent inflammation remains unknown. In this article, we show that EVI1 negatively regulates nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae- and TNF-α-induced NF-κB-dependent inflammation in vitro and in vivo. EVI1 directly binds to the NF-κB p65 subunit and inhibits its acetylation at lysine 310, thereby inhibiting its DNA-binding activity. Moreover, expression of EVI1 itself is induced by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and TNF-α in an NF-κB-dependent manner, thereby unveiling a novel inducible negative feedback loop to tightly control NF-κB-dependent inflammation. Thus, our study provides important insights into the novel role for EVI1 in negatively regulating NF-κB-dependent inflammation, and it may also shed light on the future development of novel anti-inflammatory strategies.
    The Journal of Immunology 05/2012; 188(12):6371-80. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lung injury, whether induced by infection or caustic chemicals, initiates a series of complex wound-healing responses. If uncontrolled, these responses may lead to fibrotic lung diseases and loss of function. Thus, resolution of lung injury must be tightly regulated. The key regulatory proteins required for tightly controlling the resolution of lung injury have yet to be identified. Here we show that loss of deubiquitinase CYLD led to the development of lung fibrosis in mice after infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae. CYLD inhibited transforming growth factor-β-signalling and prevented lung fibrosis by decreasing the stability of Smad3 in an E3 ligase carboxy terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein-dependent manner. Moreover, CYLD decreases Smad3 stability by deubiquitinating K63-polyubiquitinated Akt. Together, our results unveil a role for CYLD in tightly regulating the resolution of lung injury and preventing fibrosis by deubiquitinating Akt. These studies may help develop new therapeutic strategies for preventing lung fibrosis.
    Nature Communications 01/2012; 3:771. · 10.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-kinase interacting protein-1 (GIT1) is a multi-function scaffold protein. However, little is known about its physiological role in the heart. Here we sought to identify the cardiac function of GIT1. Global GIT1 knockout (KO) mice were generated and exhibited significant cardiac hypertrophy that progressed to heart failure. Electron microscopy revealed that the hearts of GIT1 KO mice demonstrated significant morphological abnormities in mitochondria, including decreased mitochondrial volume density, cristae density and increased vacuoles. Moreover, mitochondrial biogenesis-related gene peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) co-activator-1α (PGC-1α), PGC-1β, mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) expression, and total mitochondrial DNA were remarkably decreased in hearts of GIT1 KO mice. These animals also had impaired mitochondrial function, as evidenced by reduced ATP production and dissipated mitochondrial membrane potential (Ψ(m)) in adult cardiomyocytes. Concordant with these mitochondrial observations, GIT1 KO mice showed enhanced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and cardiac dysfunction. In conclusion, our findings identify GIT1 as a new regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and function, which is necessary for postnatal cardiac maturation.
    Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 07/2011; 51(5):769-76. · 5.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inflammation is a hallmark of many serious human diseases. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is an important human pathogen causing respiratory tract infections in both adults and children. NTHi infections are characterized by inflammation, which is mainly mediated by nuclear transcription factor-kappa B (NF-κB)-dependent production of proinflammatory mediators. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been shown to play important roles in regulating diverse biological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, adhesion, and migration. Its role in regulating NF-κB activation and inflammation, however, remains largely unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that EGFR plays a vital role in NTHi-induced NF-κB activation and the subsequent induction of proinflammatory mediators in human middle ear epithelial cells and other cell types. Importantly, we found that AG1478, a specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor of EGFR potently inhibited NTHi-induced inflammatory responses in the middle ears and lungs of mice in vivo. Moreover, we found that MKK3/6-p38 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways are required for mediating EGFR-dependent NF-κB activation and inflammatory responses by NTHi. Here, we provide direct evidence that EGFR plays a critical role in mediating NTHi-induced NF-κB activation and inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Given that EGFR inhibitors have been approved in clinical use for the treatment of cancers, current studies will not only provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of inflammation, but may also lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of respiratory inflammatory diseases and other inflammatory diseases.
    PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(11):e28216. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously found that myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) initiates expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) leading to coronary endothelial dysfunction. However, it is not clear whether there is a direct relationship between levels of TNF expression and endothelial dysfunction in reperfusion injury. We studied levels of TNF expression by using different transgenic animals expressing varying amounts of TNF in I/R. We crossed TNF overexpression (TNF(++/++)) with TNF knockout (TNF(-/-)) mice; thus we have a heterozygote population of mice with the expression of TNF "in between" the TNF(-/-) and TNF(++/++) mice. Mouse hearts were subjected to 30 min of global ischemia followed by 90 min of reperfusion and their vasoactivity before and after I/R was examined in wild type (WT), TNF(-/-), TNF(++/++) and TNF heterozygote (TNF(-/++), cross between TNF(-/-) and TNF(++/++)) mice. In heterozygote TNF(-/++) mice with intermediate cardiac-specific expression of TNF, acetylcholine-induced or flow-induced endothelial-dependent vasodilation following I/R was between TNF(++/++) and TNF(-/-) following I/R. Neutralizing antibodies to TNF administered immediately before the onset of reperfusion-preserved endothelial-dependent dilation following I/R in WT, TNF(-/++) and TNF(++/++) mice. In WT, TNF(-/++) and TNF(++/++) mice, I/R-induced endothelial dysfunction was progressively lessened by administration of free-radical scavenger TEMPOL immediately before initiating reperfusion. During I/R, production of superoxide (O(2) (.-)) was greatest in TNF(++/++) mice as compared to WT, TNF(-/++) and TNF(-/-) mice. Following I/R, arginase mRNA expression was elevated in the WT, substantially elevated in the TNF(-/++) and TNF(++/++) mice and not affected in the TNF(-/-) mice. These results suggest that the level of TNF expression determines arginase expression in endothelial cells during myocardial I/R, which is one of the mechanisms by which TNF compromises coronary endothelial function in reperfusion injury.
    Archiv für Kreislaufforschung 07/2010; 105(4):453-64. · 7.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inflammation is a hallmark of many diseases, such as atherosclerosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, arthritis, infectious diseases, and cancer. Although steroids and cyclooxygenase inhibitors are effective antiinflammatory therapeutical agents, they may cause serious side effects. Therefore, developing unique antiinflammatory agents without significant adverse effects is urgently needed. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has long been used for cerebrovascular disorders and cognitive impairment. Its role in inhibiting inflammation, however, remains unexplored. Here, we show that vinpocetine acts as an antiinflammatory agent in vitro and in vivo. In particular, vinpocetine inhibits TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB activation and the subsequent induction of proinflammatory mediators in multiple cell types, including vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, macrophages, and epithelial cells. We also show that vinpocetine inhibits monocyte adhesion and chemotaxis, which are critical processes during inflammation. Moreover, vinpocetine potently inhibits TNF-alpha- or LPS-induced up-regulation of proinflammatory mediators, including TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2, and decreases interstitial infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in a mouse model of TNF-alpha- or LPS-induced lung inflammation. Interestingly, vinpocetine inhibits NF-kappaB-dependent inflammatory responses by directly targeting IKK, independent of its well-known inhibitory effects on phosphodiesterase and Ca(2+) regulation. These studies thus identify vinpocetine as a unique antiinflammatory agent that may be repositioned for the treatment of many inflammatory diseases.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/2010; 107(21):9795-800. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Growth hormone-releasing peptides (GHRP) and ghrelin are synthetic and natural ligands of growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) respectively and are shown to exert protective actions on cardiac dysfunction. Because ghrelin has been reported to inhibit proinflammatory responses in human endothelium and GHSR has been identified in blood vessels, we hypothesized that GHRP could alleviate the development of atherosclerosis (As). Atherosclearosis was induced by a short period (4 days) of vitamin D(3) and chronic (three months) intragastric feeding of high fat emulsion (containing 0.5% propylthiouracil) in adult SD rats. Some As rats received chronic hexarelin (a variant of GHRP) injection (SC BID, 30 days) and normal rats received placebo as control. Significant atherosclerosis developed in animals fed with the emulsion. Serum total cholesterol and LDL-c increased, and HDL-c and aortic nitric oxide (NO) decreased significantly in As group. Hexarelin suppressed the formation of atherosclerotic plaques and neointima, partially reversed serum HDL-c/LDL-c ratio and increased the levels of serum NO and aortic mRNAs of eNOS, GHSR and CD36 in As rats. Hexarelin also decreased [(3)H]-TdR incorporation in cultured vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) and calcium sedimentation in aortic wall. Furthermore, foam cell formation induced by ox-LDL was decreased by hexarelin. In conclusion, hexarelin suppresses high lipid diet and vitamin D3-induced atherosclerosis in rats, possibly through upregulating HDL-c/LDL-c ratio, vascular NO production and downregulating the VSMC proliferation, aortic calcium sedimentation and foam cell formation. These novel anti-atherosclerotic actions of hexarelin suggest that the peptide might have a clinical potential in treating atherosclerosis.
    Peptides 11/2009; 31(4):630-8. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) through the degradation of cGMP play critical roles in maintaining cardiomyocyte homeostasis. Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-activated cGMP-hydrolyzing PDE1 family may play a pivotal role in balancing intracellular Ca(2+)/CaM and cGMP signaling; however, its function in cardiomyocytes is unknown. Herein, we investigate the role of Ca(2+)/CaM-stimulated PDE1 in regulating pathological cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in neonatal and adult rat ventricular myocytes and in the heart in vivo. Inhibition of PDE1 activity using a PDE1-selective inhibitor, IC86340, or downregulation of PDE1A using siRNA prevented phenylephrine induced pathological myocyte hypertrophy and hypertrophic marker expression in neonatal and adult rat ventricular myocytes. Importantly, administration of the PDE1 inhibitor IC86340 attenuated cardiac hypertrophy induced by chronic isoproterenol infusion in vivo. Both PDE1A and PDE1C mRNA and protein were detected in human hearts; however, PDE1A expression was conserved in rodent hearts. Moreover, PDE1A expression was significantly upregulated in vivo in the heart and myocytes from various pathological hypertrophy animal models and in vitro in isolated neonatal and adult rat ventricular myocytes treated with neurohumoral stimuli such as angiotensin II (Ang II) and isoproterenol. Furthermore, PDE1A plays a critical role in phenylephrine-induced reduction of intracellular cGMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) activity and thereby cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vitro. These results elucidate a novel role for Ca(2+)/CaM-stimulated PDE1, particularly PDE1A, in regulating pathological cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via a cGMP/PKG-dependent mechanism, thereby demonstrating Ca(2+) and cGMP signaling cross-talk during cardiac hypertrophy.
    Circulation Research 09/2009; 105(10):956-64. · 11.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that the interaction between tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)/nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) via the activation of IKK-beta may amplify one another, resulting in the evolution of vascular disease and insulin resistance associated with diabetes. To test this hypothesis, endothelium-dependent (ACh) and -independent (sodium nitroprusside) vasodilation of isolated, pressurized coronary arterioles from mLepr(db) (heterozygote, normal), Lepr(db) (homozygote, diabetic), and Lepr(db) mice null for TNF-alpha (db(TNF-)/db(TNF-)) were examined. Although the dilation of vessels to sodium nitroprusside was not different between Lepr(db) and mLepr(db) mice, the dilation to ACh was reduced in Lepr(db) mice. The NF-kappaB antagonist MG-132 or the IKK-beta inhibitor sodium salicylate (NaSal) partially restored nitric oxide-mediated endothelium-dependent coronary arteriolar dilation in Lepr(db) mice, but the responses in mLepr(db) mice were unaffected. The protein expression of IKK-alpha and IKK-beta were higher in Lepr(db) than in mLepr(db) mice; the expression of IKK-beta, but not the expression of IKK-alpha, was attenuated by MG-132, the antioxidant apocynin, or the genetic deletion of TNF-alpha in diabetic mice. Lepr(db) mice showed an increased insulin resistance, but NaSal improved insulin sensitivity. The protein expression of TNF-alpha and NF-kappaB and the protein modification of phosphorylated (p)-IKK-beta and p-JNK were greater in Lepr(db) mice, but NaSal attenuated TNF-alpha, NF-kappaB, p-IKK-beta, and p-JNK in Lepr(db) mice. The ratio of p-insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 at Ser307 to IRS-1 was elevated in Lepr(db) compared with mLepr(db) mice; both NaSal and the JNK inhibitor SP-600125 reduced the p-IRS-1-to-IRS-1 ratio in Lepr(db) mice. MG-132 or the neutralization of TNF-alpha reduced superoxide production in Lepr(db) mice. In conclusion, our results indicate that the interaction between NF-kappaB and TNF-alpha signaling induces the activation of IKK-beta and amplifies oxidative stress, leading to endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 05/2009; 296(6):H1850-8. · 4.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The G-protein-coupled receptor kinase interacting protein-1 (GIT1) is a multidomain scaffold protein that participates in many cellular functions including receptor internalization, focal adhesion remodeling, and signaling by both G-protein-coupled receptors and tyrosine kinase receptors. However, there have been no in vivo studies of GIT1 function to date. To determine essential functions of GIT1 in vivo, we generated a traditional GIT1 knockout mouse. GIT1 knockout mice exhibited approximately 60% perinatal mortality. Pathological examination showed that the major abnormality in GIT1 knockout mice was impaired lung development characterized by markedly reduced numbers of pulmonary blood vessels and increased alveolar spaces. Given that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is essential for pulmonary vascular development, we investigated the role of GIT1 in VEGF signaling in the lung and cultured endothelial cells. Because activation of phospholipase-Cgamma (PLCgamma) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) by angiotensin II requires GIT1, we hypothesized that GIT1 mediates VEGF-dependent pulmonary angiogenesis by modulating PLCgamma and ERK1/2 activity in endothelial cells. In cultured endothelial cells, knockdown of GIT1 decreased VEGF-mediated phosphorylation of PLCgamma and ERK1/2. PLCgamma and ERK1/2 activity in lungs from GIT1 knockout mice was reduced postnatally. Our data support a critical role for GIT1 in pulmonary vascular development by regulating VEGF-induced PLCgamma and ERK1/2 activation.
    Circulation 04/2009; 119(11):1524-32. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human epithelial mucin, the major glycoprotein component of mucus, plays a critical role in host innate defense response against invading microbes by facilitating the mucociliary clearance. Excess mucin production, however, overwhelms the mucociliary clearance, resulting in not only defective mucosal defense but also conductive hearing loss in the middle ear and mucus obstruction in the airway. Indeed, mucus overproduction is a hall-mark of otitis media (OM) and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Thus, tight regulation of mucin production plays an important role in maintaining an appropriate balance between beneficial and detrimental outcomes. We previously reported that Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) up-regulates MUC5AC mucin expression via a positive MAPK ERK1/2 and a negative JNK1/2 signaling pathway. However, the signaling components including the up-stream activators and the down-stream transcription factors involved in these two path-ways remain largely unknown. In the present study, we showed that positive regulation of MUC5AC mucin expression by ERK1/2 is dependent on Ras-Raf-1 signaling pathway, whereas the negative regulation of MUC5AC expression by JNK1/2 is dependent on MEKK3. Moreover, transcriptional factor AP-1 acts as a key regulator for both of the positive and negative regulation of MUC5AC mucin expression as evidenced by mutagenesis analysis of two AP-1 sites in the promoter region of human MUC5AC mucin gene. Ras-Raf1-ERK1/2-dependent AP-1 activation positively regulates MUC5AC mucin induction by S. pneumoniae, whereas MEKK3-JNK1/2-dependent AP-1 activation negatively regulates it. Therefore, our data unveiled a novel signaling mechanism underlying the tight regulation of MUC5AC mucin induction by S. pneumoniae and may lead to the development of new therapeutic strategy for reducing mucus overproduction in both OM and COPD.
    American Journal of Translational Research 01/2009; 1(3):300-11.
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    ABSTRACT: The TGF-beta (transforming growth factor-beta) pathway represents an important signalling pathway involved in regulating diverse biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation and inflammation. Despite the critical role for TGF-beta in inflammatory responses, its role in regulating NF-kappaB (nuclear factor-kappaB)-dependent inflammatory responses still remains unknown. In the present study we show that TGF-beta1 synergizes with proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha (tumour necrosis factor-alpha) to induce NF-kappaB activation and the resultant inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo. TGF-beta1 synergistically enhances TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB DNA binding activity via induction of RelA acetylation. Moreover, synergistic enhancement of TNF-alpha-induced RelA acetylation and DNA-binding activity by TGF-beta1 is mediated by PKA (protein kinase A). Thus the present study reveals a novel role for TGF-beta in inflammatory responses and provides new insight into the regulation of NF-kappaB by TGF-beta signalling.
    Biochemical Journal 01/2009; 417(2). · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that neutralization of TNF-alpha at the time of reperfusion exerts a salubrious role on endothelial function and reduces the production of reactive oxygen species. We employed a mouse model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R, 30 min/90 min) and administered TNF-alpha neutralizing antibodies at the time of reperfusion. I/R elevated TNF-alpha expression (mRNA and protein), whereas administration of anti-TNF-alpha before reperfusion attenuated TNF-alpha expression. We detected TNF-alpha expression in vascular smooth muscle cells, mast cells, and macrophages, but not in the endothelial cells. I/R induced endothelial dysfunction and superoxide production. Administration of anti-TNF-alpha at the onset of reperfusion partially restored nitric oxide-mediated coronary arteriolar dilation and reduced superoxide production. I/R increased the activity of NAD(P)H oxidase and of xanthine oxidase and enhanced the formation of nitrotyrosine residues in untreated mice compared with shams. Administration of anti-TNF-alpha before reperfusion blocked the increase in activity of these enzymes. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase (allopurinol) or NAD(P)H oxidase (apocynin) improved endothelium-dependent dilation and reduced superoxide production in isolated coronary arterioles following I/R. Interestingly, I/R enhanced superoxide generation and reduced endothelial function in neutropenic animals and in mice treated with a neutrophil NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor, indicating that the effects of TNF-alpha are not through neutrophil activation. We conclude that myocardial ischemia initiates TNF-alpha expression, which induces vascular oxidative stress, independent of neutrophil activation, and leads to coronary endothelial dysfunction.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 10/2008; 295(6):H2242-9. · 4.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important human pathogen that colonizes the upper respiratory tract and is also the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. S. pneumoniae causes invasive diseases such as pneumonia, meningitis, and otitis media. Despite the importance of pneumococcal diseases, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which S. pneumoniae-induced inflammation is regulated, especially the negative regulatory mechanisms. Here we show that S. pneumoniae activates nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) signaling pathway and the subsequent up-regulation of inflammatory mediators via a key pneumococcal virulence factor, pneumolysin. We also demonstrate that S. pneumoniae activates NFAT transcription factor independently of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4. Moreover, S. pneumoniae induces NFAT activation via both Ca(2+)-calcineurin and transforming growth factor-beta-activated kinase 1 (TAK1)-mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MKK) 3/6-p38alpha/beta-dependent signaling pathways. Interestingly, we found for the first time that tumor suppressor cylindromatosis (CYLD) acts as a negative regulator for S. pneumoniae-induced NFAT signaling pathway via a deubiquitination-dependent mechanism. Finally, we showed that CYLD interacts with and deubiquitinates TAK1 to negatively regulate the activation of the downstream MKK3/6-p38alpha/beta pathway. Our studies thus bring new insights into the molecular pathogenesis of S. pneumoniae infections through the NFAT-dependent mechanism and further identify CYLD as a negative regulator for NFAT signaling, thereby opening up new therapeutic targets for these diseases.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2008; 283(18):12546-54. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abnormal growth of cardiac fibroblasts is critically involved in the pathophysiology of cardiac hypertrophy/remodeling. Hexarelin is a synthetic growth hormone secretagogue (GHS), which possesses a variety of cardiovascular protective activities mediated via the GHS receptor (GHSR), including improving cardiac dysfunction and remodeling. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of GHS on cardiac fibrosis are, however, not clear. In this report, cultured cardiac fibroblasts from 8-day-old rats were stimulated with ANG II or FCS to induce proliferation. The fibroblast proliferation and DNA and collagen synthesis were evaluated utilizing 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, (3)H-thymidine incorporation, and (3)H-proline incorporation. The level of mRNA of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta was evaluated by RT-PCR, and the active TGF-beta1 release from cardiac fibroblasts was evaluated by ELISA. The level of cellular cAMP was measured by radioimmunoassay. In addition, the effects of 3,7-dimethyl-l-propargylxanthine (DMPX; a specific adenosine receptor A(2)R antagonist) and 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX; a specific A(1)R antagonist) were tested. It was found that incubation with 10(-7) mol/l hexarelin for 24 h 1) inhibited the ANG II-induced proliferation and collagen synthesis and the 5% FCS- and TGF-beta-induced increase of DNA synthesis in cardiac fibroblast and 2) reduced ANG II-induced upregulation of TGF-beta mRNA expression and active TGF-beta1 release from fibroblasts. Hexarelin increased the cellular level of cAMP in cardiac fibroblasts. DMPX (10(-8) mol/l) but not DPCPX abolished the effect of hexarelin on cardiac fibroblast DNA synthesis. It is concluded that hexarelin inhibits DNA and collagen synthesis and proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts through activation of both GHSR and A(2)R and diminishment of ANG II-induced increase in TGF-beta expression and release.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 12/2007; 293(5):H2952-8. · 4.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We tested whether tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha increases arginase expression in endothelial cells as one of the primary mechanisms by which this inflammatory cytokine compromises endothelial function during ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Mouse hearts were subjected to 30 minutes of global ischemia followed by 90 minutes of reperfusion and their vasoactivity before and after I/R was examined in wild-type (WT), tumor necrosis factor knockout (TNF-/-), and TNF 1.6 (TNF++/++) mice. In WT mice, dilation to the endothelium-dependent vasodilator ACh was blunted in I/R compared with sham control. L-arginine or arginase inhibitor NOHA restored NO-mediated coronary arteriolar dilation in WT I/R mice. O2(-) production was reduced by eNOS inhibitor, L-NAME, or NOHA in WT I/R mice. In TNF-/- mice, I/R did not alter Ach-induced vasodilation and O2(-) production compared with sham mice. The increase in arginase expression that occurs during I/R in WT mice was absent in TNF-/- mice. Arginase expression was confined largely to the endothelium and independent of inflammatory cell invasion. Arginase activity was markedly lower in TNF-/-, but higher in WT I/R than that in WT sham mice. Our data demonstrate TNF-alpha upregulates expression of arginase in endothelial cells, which leads to O2(-) production then induces endothelial dysfunction in I/R injury.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 07/2007; 27(6):1269-75. · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that atherosclerosis inhibits NO-mediated endothelium-dependent dilation of coronary arterioles through interaction of ox-LDL with its receptor, LOX-1, through the production of O2ÿ- in endothelial cells. We assessed the role of ox-LDL in endothelial dysfunction in a murine model of atherosclerosis (ApoE KO mice). Coronary arterioles from WT control and ApoE KO mice were isolated and pressurized without flow. Although dilation of vessels to endothelium-independent vasodilator SNP was not altered between ApoE KO and WT mice, dilation to the endothelium-dependent agonist, ACh was reduced in ApoE KO versus WT mice. Impaired vasodilation to ACh in ApoE KO mice is partially restored by NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor, apocynin or DPI. Messenger RNA expression for NAD(P)H oxidases was higher in ApoE KO mice than that in WT and anti-LOX-1 treated ApoE KO mice. Anti-LOX-1, given in vivo, restored NO-mediated coronary arteriolar dilation in ApoE KO mice, but did not affect the endothelium-dependent vasodilation in controls. These results suggest that ox-LDL impairs endothelium-dependent NO-mediated dilation of coronary arterioles by activation of a signaling cascade involving LOX-1 and NAD(P)H oxidase expression.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 05/2007; 27(4):871-7. · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) produces endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. In m Lepr(db) control mice, sodium nitroprusside and acetylcholine induced dose-dependent vasodilation, and dilation to acetylcholine was blocked by the NO synthase inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine. In type 2 diabetic (Lepr(db)) mice, acetylcholine- or flow-induced dilation was blunted compared with m Lepr(db), but sodium nitroprusside produced comparable dilation. In Lepr(db) mice null for TNF (db(TNF-)/db(TNF-)), dilation to acetylcholine or flow was greater than in diabetic Lepr(db) mice and comparable to that in controls. Plasma concentration of TNF was significantly increased in Lepr(db) versus m Lepr(db) mice. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting showed that mRNA and protein expression of TNF and nuclear factor-kappaB were higher in Lepr(db) mice than in controls. Administration of anti-TNF or soluble receptor of advanced glycation end products attenuated nuclear factor-kappaB and TNF expression in the Lepr(db) mice. Immunostaining results show that TNF in mouse heart is localized predominantly in vascular smooth muscle cells rather than in endothelial cells and macrophages. Superoxide generation was elevated in vessels from Lepr(db) mice versus controls. Administration of the superoxide scavenger TEMPOL, NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor (apocynin), or anti-TNF restored endothelium-dependent dilation in Lepr(db) mice. NAD(P)H oxidase activity, protein expression of nitrotyrosine, and hydrogen peroxide production were increased in Lepr(db) mice (compared with controls), but these variables were restored to control levels by anti-TNF. Advanced glycation end products/receptor of advanced glycation end products and nuclear factor-kappaB signaling play pivotal roles in TNF expression through an increase in circulating and/or local vascular TNF production in the Lepr(db) mouse with type 2 diabetes. Increases in TNF expression induce activation of NAD(P)H oxidase and production of reactive oxidative species, leading to endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes.
    Circulation 02/2007; 115(2):245-54. · 15.20 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

521 Citations
137.06 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012
    • Georgia State University
      • Center for Inflammation, Immunity and Infection
      Atlanta, GA, United States
  • 2008–2012
    • University Center Rochester
      Rochester, Minnesota, United States
    • University of Missouri
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Columbia, MO, United States
  • 2007–2012
    • Peking Union Medical College Hospital
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2009–2011
    • University of Rochester
      • Institute for Cardiovascular Research
      Rochester, New York, United States
  • 2007–2009
    • Texas A&M University
      • Department of Veterinary Physiology & Pharmacology
      College Station, Texas, United States