Eunah Kang

MEDIPOST Biomedical Research Institute, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (12)67.69 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ultrasound (US) imaging is one of the most common biomedical imaging methods, due to the easy assessment and noninvasive way. For more precise and accurate US imaging, many contrast agents have been developed in a form of microbubbles composed of inner gas and shell materials. However, microbubbles showed undesirable short half-life under acoustic field during US imaging and insufficient in vivo stability in blood flow due to diffusion or bubble destruction. Therefore, the improvement of the half-life and stability of microbubbles under in vivo condition is highly needed for long-term in vivo US imaging. Herein, we developed rationally designed gas-generating polymeric microsphere (GGPM) that can produce microbubbles without encapsulation of gas for long-term and continuous US imaging. The poly(cholesteryl γ-butyrolactone-b-propylene oxide), poly(CB-PO), with carbonate side chains was synthesized as gas-generating polymer by ring-opening polymerization of cholestryl γ-butyrolactone (CB) and propylene oxide (PO). As optimal structure for intense US signal generation, porous GGPMs (p-GGPMs) with the average size about 3-5 μm were prepared with poly(CB-PO) by double emulsion method. These p-GGPMs generated continuous US signals over 70 min, while the signals from Sonovue(®), a commercial US contrast agent were completely attenuated within 15 min. This long-term signal duration of p-GGPM was also reproduced when they were subcutaneously injected under the skin of mouse. Moreover, as advanced in vivo application, the fine US imaging of heart in rat was enabled by intravenous injection of p-GGPM. Therefore, these overall results showed the great potential of p-GGPM as gas-generating US contrast agent for in vivo biomedical imaging and diagnosis.
    Biomaterials 11/2011; 33(3):936-44. · 7.60 Impact Factor
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    Angewandte Chemie International Edition 12/2009; 49(3):524-8. · 13.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1,3-Dipropyl-8-cyclopentyl xanthine (DPCPX) is a highly selective antagonist of the adenosine A(1) receptor (A(1)R). The A(1)R mediates mitogenic effects of adenosine in coronary artery smooth muscle cells (CASMC). DPCPX plays a role as an antimitogen and reduces CASMC proliferation by the blockage of A(1)R. A drug-eluting stent (DES) loaded with DPCPX was prepared. The water solubility of DPCPX is 1.6 microg/mL at pH 3-9, and 38.1 +/- 2.3 microg/mL at pH 11. A series of DPCPX-eluting stents were formulated in polyurethane (PU) films with different dose densities and film thicknesses. The release of DPCPX from the PU-coated stents was nearly linear. The release rate and duration were effectively controlled by adjusting the film thickness with the same drug concentration. The eluted DPCPX from the PU films was effective in preventing CASMC proliferation, regardless of stimulation by 2-chloro-N-6-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA), a highly selective A(1)R agonist. A(1)R specific antagonist DPCPX was effective in preventing CASMC proliferation and holds great promise for intracoronary delivery from DESs to test the role of the A(1)R signaling pathway for prevention of in-stent restenosis.
    Molecular Pharmaceutics 06/2009; 6(4):1110-7. · 4.57 Impact Factor
  • Advanced Functional Materials 04/2009; 19(10):1553 - 1566. · 9.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We developed a novel pH- and thermo-sensitive hydrogel as a scaffold for autologous bone tissue engineering. We synthesized this polymer by adding pH-sensitive sulfamethazine oligomers (SMOs) to both ends of a thermo-sensitive poly(epsilon-caprolactone-co-lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(epsilon-caprolactone-co-lactide) (PCLA-PEG-PCLA) block copolymer, yielding a pH/thermo-sensitive SMO-PCLA-PEG-PCLA-SMO block copolymer. The synthesized block copolymer solution rapidly formed a stable gel under physiological conditions (pH 7.4 and 37 degrees C), whereas it formed a sol at pH 8.0 and 37 degrees C, making it injectable. This pH/thermo-sensitive hydrogel exhibited high biocompatibility in a Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium extract test. Under physiological conditions, the hydrogel easily encapsulated human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2), with encapsulating efficiencies of about 90% and 85%, respectively. To assay for ectopic bone formation in vivo, we subcutaneously injected a polymer solution containing hMSCs and rhBMP-2 into the back of mice, after which we could observe hMSC differentiation for up to 7 weeks. Histological studies revealed mineralized tissue formation and high levels of alkaline phosphatase activity in the mineralized tissue. Therefore, this pH/thermo-sensitive SMO-PCLA-PEG-PCLA-SMO block copolymer demonstrated potential as an injectable scaffold for bone tissue engineering, with in situ formation capabilities.
    Tissue Engineering Part A 01/2009; 15(4):923-33. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antiangiogenic peptide drugs have received much attention in the fields of tumor therapy and tumor imaging because they show promise in the targeting of integrins such as alpha(v)beta(3) on angiogenic endothelial cells. However, systemic antiangiogenic peptide drugs have short half-lives in vivo, resulting in fast serum clearance via the kidney, and thus the therapeutic effects of such drugs remain modest. In this study, we prepared self-assembled glycol chitosan nanoparticles and explored whether this construct might function as a prolonged and sustained drug delivery system for RGD peptide, used as an antiangiogenic model drug in cancer therapy. Glycol chitosan hydrophobically modified with 5beta-cholanic acid (HGC) formed nanoparticles with a diameter of 230 nm, and RGD peptide was easily encapsulated into HGC nanoparticles (yielding RGD-HGC nanoparticles) with a high loading efficiency (>85%). In vitro work demonstrated that RGD-HGC showed prolonged and sustained release of RGD, lasting for 1 week. RGD-HGC also inhibited HUVEC adhesion to a beta ig-h3 protein-coated surface, indicating an antiangiogenic effect of the RGD peptide in the HGC nanoparticles. In an in vivo study, the antiangiogenic peptide drug formulation of RGD-HGC markedly inhibited bFGF-induced angiogenesis and decreased hemoglobin content in Matrigel plugs. Intratumoral administration of RGD-HGC significantly decreased tumor growth and microvessel density compared to native RGD peptide injected either intravenously or intratumorally, because the RGD-HGC formulation strongly enhanced the antiangiogenic and antitumoral efficacy of RGD peptide by affording prolonged and sustained RGD peptide delivery locally and regionally in solid tumors.
    Biomaterials 04/2008; 29(12):1920-30. · 7.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mapping the drug distribution in a polymeric film and following the subsequent changes that result during and after drug release is important to better understand the mechanism of drug release. This understanding leads to more efficiently designed tailor-made release profiles for drug-containing biomedical devices. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy was used for in situ imaging of local drug distribution in polymeric films, taking advantage of the three-dimensional (3D) resolution, high speed, high sensitivity, and noninvasiveness of the technology. Additionally, the morphological changes of poly(styrene-b-isobutylene-b-styrene) (SIBS) films during paclitaxel release were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, and drug release was quantitatively determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The time-dependent changes in the 3D distribution of paclitaxel in the polymer film were visualized using CARS microscopy. CARS images showed that the paclitaxel was uniformly distributed throughout the SIBS matrix. Changes in the paclitaxel distribution during release were monitored using depth intensity profiles and showed that, upon exposure of the paclitaxel-loaded film to a release medium, the quantitative CARS intensity of paclitaxel decreased. These results indicate that paclitaxel was dissolved and depleted from the SIBS film during in vitro drug elution, supporting the use of CARS microscopy as an effective nondestructive technique for chemical imaging of paclitaxel elution dynamics in polymer films.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 02/2008; 87(4):913-20. · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mechanisms underlying the release of paclitaxel (PTX) from poly(ethylene glycol)/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PEG/PLGA) blends were investigated by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. PLGA, PEG, and PTX were selectively imaged by using the resonant CARS signal from the CH3, CH2, and aromatic CH stretch vibrations, respectively. Phase segregation was observed in PLGA films containing 10 to 40 wt.% PEG in the absence of PTX loading. The PEG phase existed in the form of crystalline fibers in the (8:2, weight ratio) and (7:3) PLGA/PEG films. CARS observation indicated that PTX preferentially partitioned into the PEG domains in the (9:1) and (8:2) PLGA/PTX films, but exhibited a uniform mixing with both PLGA and PEG in the (7:3) PLGA/PEG film. The solid dispersion of PTX into PEG domains was attributed to a strong interaction between PTX and PEG, supported by the disappearance of PEG crystallization in the PTX-loaded PLGA/PEG film evidenced through X-ray diffraction analysis. PTX release was induced by exposing the film to an aqueous solution and monitored in real time by CARS and two-photon fluorescence microscopy. Fast dissolution of both PEG and PTX was observed at the film surface. Upon infiltration of water into the film, the PEG domains were rearranged into ring structures enriched by both PTX and PEG. The CARS data provided visual evidence explaining the accelerated burst release followed by more sustained release of PTX from the PLGA/PEG films as measured by HPLC.
    Journal of Controlled Release 11/2007; 122(3):261-8. · 7.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Silica surfaces modified with nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) derivatives were used to immobilize hexahistidine-tagged green fluorescent protein (His6-GFP), biotin/streptavidin-AlexaFluor555 (His6-biotin/SA-AF), and gramicidin A-containing vesicles (His6-gA). Three types of surface-reactive PEG derivatives-NTA-PEG3400-Si(OMe)3, NTA-PEG3400-vinylsulfone, and mPEG5000-Si(OMe)3 (control)-were grafted onto silica and tested for their ability to capture His6-tag species via His6/Ni2+/NTA chelation. The composition and thicknesses of the PEG-modified surfaces were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact angle, and ellipsometry. Protein capture efficiencies of the NTA-PEG-grafted surfaces were evaluated by measuring fluorescence intensities of these surfaces after exposure to His6-tag species. XPS and ellipsometry data indicate that surface adsorption occurs via specific interactions between the His6-tag and the Ni2+/NTA-PEG-grafted surface. Protein immobilization was most effective for NTA-PEG3400-Si(OMe)3-modified surfaces, with maximal areal densities achieved at 45 pmol/cm2 for His6-GFP and 95 fmol/cm2 for His6-biotin/SA-AF. Lipid vesicles containing His6-gA in a 1:375 gA/lipid ratio could also be immobilized on Ni2+/NTA-PEG3400-Si(OMe)3-modified surfaces at 0.5 mM total lipid. Our results suggest that NTA-PEG-Si(OMe)3 conjugates may be useful tools for immobilizing His6-tag proteins on solid surfaces to produce protein-functionalized surfaces.
    Langmuir 06/2007; 23(11):6281-8. · 4.19 Impact Factor
  • Eunah Kang, Sang Cheon Lee, Kinam Park
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    ABSTRACT: Biocompatible, biodegradable polyionic micelles were used as a building component for layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly that can produce drug-loaded nanolayers. To prepare the polycationic micelles, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-b-poly(l-lysine) [PLGA-b-P(Lys)] copolymers were synthesized. In an aqueous phase, PLGA-b-P(Lys) copolymers were self-assembled to form spherical micelles with the inner core of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and the cationic outer shell of P(Lys). The micelles were characterized by zeta potential, dynamic light scattering, and nuclear magnetic resonance. PLGA-b-P(Lys) micelles showed the positive zeta potential values in a broad range of pH (3–11), indicating the high stability of the polyionic micelles with the outer shell of positive charges. Cationic polymeric micelles were coated on the surface via electrostatic interactions with the oppositely charged polyelectrolyte, poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate). Formation of multiple micelle layers was monitored using quartz crystal microbalance in situ, and the surface topology of the layers was characterized by atomic force microscopy ex situ, as the number of micelle layer was increased. The multiple micelle layers were stable, and the thickness of micelle layer grew as the number of LbL coating increased. The approach described in this work can be used for the development of the biocompatible, biodegradable, drug-loaded bioactive nanocoatings.
    Nanobiotechnology 01/2007; 3(2):96-103.
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    ABSTRACT: Visualization of three-dimensional distribution of drug molecules and subsequent changes during the release process is critical for understanding drug delivery mechanisms as well as designing tailor-made release profiles. This study utilized coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging to examine paclitaxel distribution in various polymer films with lateral resolution of 0.3 microm and depth resolution of 0.9 microm. Raman bands in the CH stretch vibration and fingerprint regions were used to distinguish paclitaxel from the polymers. The detection sensitivity was measured to be 29 mM by imaging paclitaxel molecules dissolved in N,N-dimethylformamide solution. Release of paclitaxel from a polymer matrix was monitored at an acquisition speed of 1 frame/s. Our results show that CARS microscopy can be used effectively for in situ imaging of native drug molecules in a delivery system.
    Analytical Chemistry 01/2007; 78(23):8036-43. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy allows 3D molecular imaging with high sensitivity, high speed, and chemical selectivity without labeling. We demonstrate these unique advantages through its applications in drug delivery, membrane biophysics, and neuroscience.
    05/2006;

Publication Stats

164 Citations
94 Downloads
886 Views
67.69 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011
    • MEDIPOST Biomedical Research Institute
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2008–2009
    • Korea Institute of Science and Technology
      • Biomedical Research Institute
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2007–2009
    • Purdue University
      • Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering
      West Lafayette, IN, United States