[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our aim was to evaluate the role of exercise echocardiography for predicting outcome in a cohort of patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB).
Although the prognostic value of exercise echocardiography has been well established in several subgroups of patients, it has not been specifically assessed in patients with LBBB.
Of the 8,050 patients who underwent treadmill exercise echocardiography, 618 demonstrated complete LBBB. Nine patients were lost to follow-up and 609 patients were included in this study. Wall motion score index (WMSI) was evaluated at rest and at peak exercise, and the difference (DeltaWMSI) was calculated. Ischemia was defined as the development of new or worsening wall motion abnormalities with exercise. End points were all-cause mortality and major cardiac events (including cardiac death, myocardial infarction, or cardiac transplantation). Mean follow-up was 4.6 +/- 3.4 years.
Mean age was 66 +/- 10 years, and 331 patients (54%) were men. A total of 177 patients (29%) developed ischemia with exercise. During follow-up, 124 deaths occurred, and 74 patients had a major cardiac event before any revascularization procedure. Patients with ischemia had a greater 5-year mortality rate (24.6% vs. 12.6%, p < 0.001) and 5-year major cardiac events rate (18.1% vs. 9.7%, p = 0.003). In multivariate analysis, DeltaWMSI remained an independent predictor of mortality (hazard ratio: 2.42, 95% confidence interval: 1.21 to 4.82, p = 0.012) and major cardiac events (hazard ratio: 3.38, 95% confidence interval: 1.30 to 8.82, p = 0.013). Exercise echocardiographic results also provided incremental value over clinical, resting echocardiographic, and treadmill exercise data for the prediction of mortality (p = 0.014) and major cardiac events (p = 0.017).
Exercise echocardiography provides significant prognostic information for predicting outcome in patients with LBBB. As compared to patients with normal exercise echocardiograms, patients with abnormal results are at increased risk of mortality and major cardiac events.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The degree of exercise capacity is poorly predicted by conventional markers of disease severity in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC). The principal mechanism of exercise intolerance in patients with HC is the failure of stroke volume augmentation due to left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction. The role of LV chamber stiffness, assessed noninvasively, as a determinant of exercise tolerance is unknown. Sixty-four patients with HC were studied with Doppler echocardiography, exercise testing, and gadolinium cardiac magnetic resonance. The LV chamber stiffness index was determined as the ratio of pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (derived from the E/Ea ratio) to LV end-diastolic volume (assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance). Maximal exercise tolerance was defined as achieved METs. There were inverse correlations between METs achieved and age (r = -0.38, p = 0.003), heart rate deficit (r = -0.39, p = 0.002), LV outflow tract gradient (r = -0.33, p = 0.009), the E/Ea ratio (r = -0.4, p = 0.001), mean LV wall thickness (r = -0.26, p = 0.04), and LV stiffness (r = -0.56, p <0.001) and a positive correlation between METs achieved and LV end-diastolic volume (r = 0.33, p = 0.01). On multivariate analysis, only LV chamber stiffness was associated with exercise capacity. A LV stiffness level of 0.18 mm Hg/ml had 100% sensitivity and 75% specificity (area under the curve 0.84) for predicting < or =7 METs achieved. In conclusion, LV diastolic dysfunction at rest, as manifested by increased LV chamber stiffness, is a major determinant of maximal exercise capacity in patients with HC.
The American Journal of Cardiology 05/2007; 99(10):1454-7. · 3.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Real time myocardial contrast echocardiography (RTMCE) is a recently developed method. We sought to determine: a) whether RTMCE predicts recovery of left ventricular function after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and b) whether data obtained with this method are comparable to those obtained with 99mTc-sestamibi single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and magnetic resonance.
We studied 85 patients with AMI who underwent angioplasty. RTMCE was performed 7 (4) days after AMI. Two-dimensional echocardiography was performed at the time of the RTMCE study and at follow-up (10  weeks). SPECT and magnetic resonance were performed after AMI in 18 and 32 patients, respectively.
Follow-up two-dimensional echocardiography results were available for 82 patients, who were subdivided into 2 groups: recovery (n=49) and no recovery (n=33). Regional (AMI-related) wall motion score index improved from 1.75 (0.49) to 1.32 (0.36) (P< .001) in the recovery group, and worsened from 1.85 (0.39) to 1.95 (0.36) in the no recovery group (P< .001). RTMCE perfusion score was 0.8 (0.3) in the recovery group, and 0.6 (0.4) in the no recovery group (P< .001). Concordance between RTMCE and SPECT in a segmental analysis was 78% (P< .001; kappa=0.49), whereas concordance between RTMCE and hyperenhancement with delayed contrast magnetic resonance findings was 70% (P< .001; kappa =0.35). Independent predictors of recovery were peak creatine kinase (OR=1.4 per 1000 UI; 95% CI, 1.0-1.9; P< .05) and RTMCE score (OR=8.8; 95% CI, 1.9-39.3; P< .01). A RTMCE score > or = 0.60 had a positive predictive value of 73% and a negative predictive value of 69% (P< .001; area under the curve 0.70).
RTMCE showed a modest predictive value for recovery of left ventricular function after reperfused AMI.
Revista Espa de Cardiologia 10/2004; 57(9):815-25. · 3.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introducción y objetivos. La ecocardiografía de perfusión en tiempo real (EPTR) es un método reciente. Los objetivos fueron estudiar: a) si la EPTR predice la recuperación después de infarto agudo de miocardio (IAM), y b) si los datos son comparables a los obtenidos con la tomografía computarizada por emisión de fotones simples (SPECT) marcada con 99mTc-sestamibi y la resonancia magnética (RM). Pacientes y método. Hemos incluido a 85 pacientes con IAM sometidos a angioplastia coronaria transluminal percutánea (ACTP). La EPTR se realizó 7 ± 4 días después del IAM. Se utilizó ecocardiografía a la vez que la perfusión y a las 10 ± 4 semanas de ésta. La SPECT y la RM se realizaron después del IAM en 18 y 32 pacientes, respectivamente. Resultados. Al finalizar el seguimiento dispusimos de ecocardiografía de 82 pacientes, a los que dividimos en: grupo con recuperación (GR) (n = 49) y grupo sin recuperación (GNR) (n = 33). El índice de motilidad segmentaria (IMS) regional mejoró desde 1,75 ± 0,49 a 1,32 ± 0,36 (p < 0,001) en el GR, y empeoró desde 1,85 ± 0,39 a 1,95 ± 0,36 en el GNR (p < 0,001). El índice de EPTR era de 0,8 ± 0,3 en el GR y de 0,6 ± 0,4 en el GNR (p < 0,001). La concordancia entre la EPTR y la SPECT en un análisis segmentario era del 78% (p < 0,001; ? = 0,49), y entre la EPTR y el hipercontraste tardío de la RM era del 70% (p < 0,001; ? = 0,35). Los predictores independientes de recuperación fueron el valor de la creatincinasa (odds ratio [OR] = 1,4 por cada 1.000 U; intervalo de confianza [IC] del 95%, 1,0-1,9; p < 0,05) y el índice de EPTR (OR = 8,8; IC del 95%, 1,9-39,3; p < 0,01). Un índice = 0,60 tuvo un valor predictivo positivo del 73% y negativo del 69% (p < 0,001; ABC = 0,70). Conclusión. La EPTR tiene valor moderado para predecir la recuperación funcional después del IAM reperfundido.
Revista española de cardiología, ISSN 0300-8932, Vol. 57, Nº. 9, 2004, pags. 815-825.