[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our aim was to evaluate the role of exercise echocardiography for predicting outcome in a cohort of patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB).
Although the prognostic value of exercise echocardiography has been well established in several subgroups of patients, it has not been specifically assessed in patients with LBBB.
Of the 8,050 patients who underwent treadmill exercise echocardiography, 618 demonstrated complete LBBB. Nine patients were lost to follow-up and 609 patients were included in this study. Wall motion score index (WMSI) was evaluated at rest and at peak exercise, and the difference (DeltaWMSI) was calculated. Ischemia was defined as the development of new or worsening wall motion abnormalities with exercise. End points were all-cause mortality and major cardiac events (including cardiac death, myocardial infarction, or cardiac transplantation). Mean follow-up was 4.6 +/- 3.4 years.
Mean age was 66 +/- 10 years, and 331 patients (54%) were men. A total of 177 patients (29%) developed ischemia with exercise. During follow-up, 124 deaths occurred, and 74 patients had a major cardiac event before any revascularization procedure. Patients with ischemia had a greater 5-year mortality rate (24.6% vs. 12.6%, p < 0.001) and 5-year major cardiac events rate (18.1% vs. 9.7%, p = 0.003). In multivariate analysis, DeltaWMSI remained an independent predictor of mortality (hazard ratio: 2.42, 95% confidence interval: 1.21 to 4.82, p = 0.012) and major cardiac events (hazard ratio: 3.38, 95% confidence interval: 1.30 to 8.82, p = 0.013). Exercise echocardiographic results also provided incremental value over clinical, resting echocardiographic, and treadmill exercise data for the prediction of mortality (p = 0.014) and major cardiac events (p = 0.017).
Exercise echocardiography provides significant prognostic information for predicting outcome in patients with LBBB. As compared to patients with normal exercise echocardiograms, patients with abnormal results are at increased risk of mortality and major cardiac events.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) has been applied during dobutamine echocardiography it has not been used during exercise echocardiography. We sought to compare feasibility and accuracy of 3DE and 2-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) during exercise echocardiography.
100 patients underwent peak and postexercise (PEx) 2DE and 3DE on separate days. Coronary artery disease was detected in 58 patients. A quality score was calculated by assigning 0 to 3 points to each wall (apicoseptal, posterolateral, anterior, inferior).
Feasibility of peak 2DE, peak 3DE, PEx 2DE, and PEx 3DE was 99%, 92%, 100%, and 95%, respectively (2DE at peak or PEx vs peak 3DE, P < .05). Agreement between 2DE and 3DE was 82% at peak (kappa = 0.62) and 78% at PEx (kappa = 0.55). Quality score less than 2 was seen in 4% of the walls with peak 2DE, in none with PEx 2DE, in 18% by peak 3DE, and in 14% by PEx 3DE. The mean quality score was lower with 3DE at peak and at PEx (2.4 +/- 0.9 vs 2.9 +/- 0.3; and 2.5 +/- 0.8 vs 3.0 +/- 0.1, both P < .0001). Acquisition time was shorter with 3DE at peak and PEx (22 +/- 8 vs 43 +/- 14 seconds; and 15 +/- 5 vs 31 +/- 14 seconds, both P < .0001). Sensitivity of peak 2DE, peak 3DE, PEx 2DE, and PEx 3DE was 84%, 78%, 71%, and 58%, respectively (P < .05 vs peak 3DE and peak 2DE). Specificity was 76%, 73%, 93%, and 88%, respectively. Accuracy for peak 2DE was 81% (area under the curve [AUC] 0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.71-0.91); for peak 3DE was 76% (AUC 0.76, 95% CI = 0.65-0.86); for PEx 2DE was 80% (AUC 0.84, 95% CI = 0.75-0.92); and for PEx 3DE was 71% (AUC 0.73, 95% CI = 0.62-0.83).
Three-dimensional echocardiography during exercise is comparable with 2DE in terms of sensitivity and specificity but feasibility is lower.
Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography: official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 09/2007; 20(8):959-67. DOI:10.1016/j.echo.2007.01.034 · 3.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The degree of exercise capacity is poorly predicted by conventional markers of disease severity in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC). The principal mechanism of exercise intolerance in patients with HC is the failure of stroke volume augmentation due to left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction. The role of LV chamber stiffness, assessed noninvasively, as a determinant of exercise tolerance is unknown. Sixty-four patients with HC were studied with Doppler echocardiography, exercise testing, and gadolinium cardiac magnetic resonance. The LV chamber stiffness index was determined as the ratio of pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (derived from the E/Ea ratio) to LV end-diastolic volume (assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance). Maximal exercise tolerance was defined as achieved METs. There were inverse correlations between METs achieved and age (r = -0.38, p = 0.003), heart rate deficit (r = -0.39, p = 0.002), LV outflow tract gradient (r = -0.33, p = 0.009), the E/Ea ratio (r = -0.4, p = 0.001), mean LV wall thickness (r = -0.26, p = 0.04), and LV stiffness (r = -0.56, p <0.001) and a positive correlation between METs achieved and LV end-diastolic volume (r = 0.33, p = 0.01). On multivariate analysis, only LV chamber stiffness was associated with exercise capacity. A LV stiffness level of 0.18 mm Hg/ml had 100% sensitivity and 75% specificity (area under the curve 0.84) for predicting < or =7 METs achieved. In conclusion, LV diastolic dysfunction at rest, as manifested by increased LV chamber stiffness, is a major determinant of maximal exercise capacity in patients with HC.
The American Journal of Cardiology 05/2007; 99(10):1454-7. DOI:10.1016/j.amjcard.2006.12.077 · 3.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Real time myocardial contrast echocardiography (RTMCE) is a recently developed method. We sought to determine: a) whether RTMCE predicts recovery of left ventricular function after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and b) whether data obtained with this method are comparable to those obtained with 99mTc-sestamibi single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and magnetic resonance.
We studied 85 patients with AMI who underwent angioplasty. RTMCE was performed 7 (4) days after AMI. Two-dimensional echocardiography was performed at the time of the RTMCE study and at follow-up (10  weeks). SPECT and magnetic resonance were performed after AMI in 18 and 32 patients, respectively.
Follow-up two-dimensional echocardiography results were available for 82 patients, who were subdivided into 2 groups: recovery (n=49) and no recovery (n=33). Regional (AMI-related) wall motion score index improved from 1.75 (0.49) to 1.32 (0.36) (P< .001) in the recovery group, and worsened from 1.85 (0.39) to 1.95 (0.36) in the no recovery group (P< .001). RTMCE perfusion score was 0.8 (0.3) in the recovery group, and 0.6 (0.4) in the no recovery group (P< .001). Concordance between RTMCE and SPECT in a segmental analysis was 78% (P< .001; kappa=0.49), whereas concordance between RTMCE and hyperenhancement with delayed contrast magnetic resonance findings was 70% (P< .001; kappa =0.35). Independent predictors of recovery were peak creatine kinase (OR=1.4 per 1000 UI; 95% CI, 1.0-1.9; P< .05) and RTMCE score (OR=8.8; 95% CI, 1.9-39.3; P< .01). A RTMCE score > or = 0.60 had a positive predictive value of 73% and a negative predictive value of 69% (P< .001; area under the curve 0.70).
RTMCE showed a modest predictive value for recovery of left ventricular function after reperfused AMI.
Revista Espa de Cardiologia 10/2004; 57(9):815-25. DOI:10.1016/S1885-5857(06)60646-4 · 3.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introducción y objetivos. La ecocardiografía de perfusión en tiempo real (EPTR) es un método reciente. Los objetivos fueron estudiar: a) si la EPTR predice la recuperación después de infarto agudo de miocardio (IAM), y b) si los datos son comparables a los obtenidos con la tomografía computarizada por emisión de fotones simples (SPECT) marcada con 99mTc-sestamibi y la resonancia magnética (RM). Pacientes y método. Hemos incluido a 85 pacientes con IAM sometidos a angioplastia coronaria transluminal percutánea (ACTP). La EPTR se realizó 7 ± 4 días después del IAM. Se utilizó ecocardiografía a la vez que la perfusión y a las 10 ± 4 semanas de ésta. La SPECT y la RM se realizaron después del IAM en 18 y 32 pacientes, respectivamente. Resultados. Al finalizar el seguimiento dispusimos de ecocardiografía de 82 pacientes, a los que dividimos en: grupo con recuperación (GR) (n = 49) y grupo sin recuperación (GNR) (n = 33). El índice de motilidad segmentaria (IMS) regional mejoró desde 1,75 ± 0,49 a 1,32 ± 0,36 (p < 0,001) en el GR, y empeoró desde 1,85 ± 0,39 a 1,95 ± 0,36 en el GNR (p < 0,001). El índice de EPTR era de 0,8 ± 0,3 en el GR y de 0,6 ± 0,4 en el GNR (p < 0,001). La concordancia entre la EPTR y la SPECT en un análisis segmentario era del 78% (p < 0,001; ? = 0,49), y entre la EPTR y el hipercontraste tardío de la RM era del 70% (p < 0,001; ? = 0,35). Los predictores independientes de recuperación fueron el valor de la creatincinasa (odds ratio [OR] = 1,4 por cada 1.000 U; intervalo de confianza [IC] del 95%, 1,0-1,9; p < 0,05) y el índice de EPTR (OR = 8,8; IC del 95%, 1,9-39,3; p < 0,01). Un índice = 0,60 tuvo un valor predictivo positivo del 73% y negativo del 69% (p < 0,001; ABC = 0,70). Conclusión. La EPTR tiene valor moderado para predecir la recuperación funcional después del IAM reperfundido.
Revista Espa de Cardiologia 01/2004; 57(9). DOI:10.1016/S0300-8932(04)77201-2 · 3.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recommendations for risk assessment after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) include electrocardiographic (ECG) exercise testing. We hypothesized that a more sensitive technique, exercise echocardiography (EE), would refer a greater number of patients to invasive procedures. Therefore, we compared a strategy based on EE with a strategy based on ECG exercise testing for patients with uncomplicated AMI. A series of 164 patients referred for exercise testing after AMI were randomized to treadmill EE (strategy 2) or baseline echocardiography and ECG treadmill exercise testing (strategy 1). Ischemic response was more frequently detected with strategy 2 (59% vs 27%, p <0.001), and consequently angiography and revascularization procedures were more commonly performed (59 vs 32 procedures, p <0.01 and 46 vs 19 procedures, p <0.001, respectively). Fourteen percent and 15% of patients experienced soft events (unstable angina, heart failure, or late revascularization) after strategy 1 and strategy 2, respectively (p = NS); 6% and 9% of patients had hard events (nonfatal AMI or cardiovascular death) at follow-up (p = NS). In conclusion, a strategy based on EE detected more patients with ischemia; therefore, more patients were submitted to coronary angiography and revascularization procedures. No differences were detected in cardiac events when we compared this strategy with the less expensive ECG exercise testing after uncomplicated AMI.
The American Journal of Cardiology 08/2003; 92(4):373-6. DOI:10.1016/S0002-9149(03)00652-0 · 3.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A limitation of exercise echocardiography (EE) is its semiquantitative approach in analyzing wall-motion abnormalities. However, pulsed-Doppler tissue imaging is capable of a systolic and diastolic regional quantitative assessment.
To investigate the feasibility of performing pulsed-Doppler tissue imaging sampling of the basal left ventricular (LV) septum during EE, we studied 105 consecutive patients (71 men, 34 women, aged 61 +/- 11 years). Harmonic two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiography was performed at rest and peak EE, whereas pulsed-Doppler tissue imaging was performed at rest and immediately after EE. Adequate recordings for peak systolic velocity (Vs) were possible in all patients, but peak early diastolic (Ve) and peak late diastolic (Va) velocities were possible in 78 (74%) patients. Positive 2-D echocardiography was considered as infarction or an ischemic response.
Forty-five (43%) patients (Group 1) had wall-motion abnormalities involving the left anterior descending artery (LAD) territory (29 with ischemia, 11 with ischemia and necrosis, and 5 with necrosis), 21 (20%) (Group 2a) had wall-motion abnormalities involving the left circumflex (LCX) and/or the right coronary artery (RCA) territories, and 39 (37%) (Group 2b) had normal EE. Heart rate increased from 72 +/- 17 beats/min to 143 +/- 18 beats/min (P < 0.0001) and systolic blood pressure from 129 +/- 19 mmHg to 174 +/- 26 mmHg (P < 0.001). Coronary angiography was performed in 30 (29%) patients, 29 of whom had positive findings on EE. LAD or diagonal branch coronary artery disease (CAD) (> or = 50% luminal narrowing) was present in 22 patients, 10 of whom had proximal severe stenosis (> or = 70% luminal narrowing). Vs increase was significatively lower in Group 1 (40 +/- 35%, from 6.0 +/- 1.5 cm/sec to 8.1 +/- 2.2 cm/sec) than Group 2a (75 +/- 35%, from 6.3 +/- 1.4 cm/sec to 10.8 +/- 2.1 cm/sec, P < 0.0001) and Group 2b (64 +/- 27%, from 6.7 +/- 1.3 cm/sec to 10.9 +/- 2.0 cm/sec, P < 0.001). Ve was not different at rest and at postexercise between groups. Va was similar at rest but higher at postexercise in Group 2b than Group 1 (11.8 +/- 2.3 cm/sec vs 10.3 +/- 3.0 cm/sec, P < 0.05). Failure to achieve Vs > or = 9.5 cm/sec after exercise was found to be the more accurate limit to detect necrosis or ischemia in the LAD territory according to EE criteria (sensitivity 76%, specificity 78%). When analysis was limited to the 30 patients who underwent angiography, we found that the 10 patients with proximal severe LAD or diagonal branch stenosis showed blunted increases in Vs (increase 9.4 +/- 19%, from 6.5 +/- 1.2 cm/sec at rest to 7.4 +/- 1.7 cm/sec at post-EE; P = 0.17) in contrast to the 20 patients having moderate or nonsignificant stenosis (increase 31 +/- 20%, from 6.2 +/- 1.5 cm/sec at rest to 9.3 +/- 1.8 cm/sec at post-EE, P < 0.0001). A failure to increase Vs > or = 30% had a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 80% in detecting proximal severe stenosis.
Pulsed-Doppler tissue imaging sampling of the LV septum is feasible technically during EE and allows quantification of the regional response. This method may be accurate for detecting proximal severe stenosis in vessels supplying the LAD territory.