[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cadaveric renal transplants suffer frequently from delayed graft function, which is associated with increased risk for long-term graft survival loss. One-third of kidney grafts that are stored in current organ preservation solutions experience delayed graft function, demonstrating the urgent need for improvement. Although ischaemic graft injury is complex in nature, complement activation is considered important to the process. Here we show that pharmacological targeting of the complement 5a receptor (C5aR) during cold ischaemia has a protective effect on early kidney graft survival, inflammation and apoptosis in a mouse model of syngeneic kidney transplantation. Graft survival of kidneys that were stored in University of Wisconsin solution in the presence of a C5aR antagonist increased from 29% to 57%. Increased graft survival was associated with less tubular damage and apoptosis, protection from sustained C5aR expression and decreased production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and macrophage inflammatory protein-2. In a translational approach, we determined C5aR expression in paediatric living-related and cadaveric allografts. C5aR expression was significantly higher in all compartments of kidneys from cadaveric compared with kidneys from living-related donors. C5aR expression in cadaveric kidneys correlated positively with cold ischaemia time, renal dysfunction and the frequency of apoptotic tubular cells, suggesting a novel role for C5a in delayed graft function pathogenesis. Supplementing organ preservation solutions with C5aR inhibitors may improve early graft function following cadaveric kidney transplantation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors describe four patients with unusual anatomic presentation of ectopic ureteroceles and their surgical treatment. Over a 3-year period, four cases of unusual ectopic ureteroceles were encountered. A 6-month-old girl had a complex cloacal anomaly with an ectopic ureterocele within the cloaca. A 10-year-old boy had two large diverticuli within an ectopic ureterocele combined with a blind-ending ipsilateral ureter. A 3-year-old girl had an ectopic ureterocele combined with a periureteral diverticulum and a completely duplicated ipsilateral kidney. A 4-year-old girl was found to have a vaginal ectopic ureterocele. Despite thorough radiological investigation in all patients, a correct assessment of the anatomic defect was achieved only by surgical exploration or endoscopic evaluation. If preoperative radiological evaluation is equivocal, a high index of suspicion and intraoperative recognition of an unusual anatomic presentation of the ectopic ureterocele are essential for appropriate management and a successful outcome.
Journal of Pediatric Surgery 04/1999; 34(3):474-6. · 1.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of contralateral vesicoureteral reflux following different types of unilateral antireflux surgery has been reported to be as high as 22%. We review our recent experience with unilateral extravesical detrusorrhaphy in regard to the incidence of postoperative contralateral vesicoureteral reflux.
Between 1990 and 1995, 72 children underwent unilateral extravesical detrusorrhaphy. Of 73 refluxing renal moieties (1 patient had reflux in both moieties of a completely duplicated kidney) reflux grade was II in 35 (48%), III in 25 (34%), IV in 11 (15%) and V in 2 (3%). Common sheath reimplantation for complete ipsilateral duplication was performed in 16 patients.
One patient had grade I postoperative ipsilateral vesicoureteral reflux resulting in a success rate of 98.6%. In 4 patients (5.6%) contralateral vesicoureteral reflux developed, and was grade II in 3 and grade I in 1. In all patients contralateral reflux resolved at 16, 17, 18 and 31 months of followup. No additional surgery was required in any patient. There was no association between the incidence of contralateral vesicoureteral reflux, and patient age, gender, preoperative ipsilateral reflux grade and presence of ipsilateral duplication.
Unilateral extravesical detrusorrhaphy is a highly successful procedure with a low incidence of postoperative contralateral vesicoureteral reflux. Should reflux develop, it is of low grade with a significant rate of spontaneous resolution.
The Journal of Urology 07/1998; 159(6):2126-8. · 3.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In large series of adults microsurgical varicocelectomy has been associated with extremely high success rates, combined with minimal incidence of postoperative hydrocele. We report our initial experience of inguinal varicocelectomy using an intraoperative microscope in adolescents.
From 1994 to 1996, 32 adolescents (mean age 15.3 years) underwent inguinal microsurgical varicocelectomy. An operative microscope and Doppler probe were used during spermatic cord dissection to identify and preserve the testicular artery and lymphatics.
All patients were available for followup, which ranged from 2 to 35 months (mean 20). There were no intraoperative complications. A temporary reactive hydrocele, which subsequently completely resolved, was observed in 1 patient. There were no palpable recurrent varicoceles.
The operative microscope permits reliable identification of the testicular artery and lymphatics, as well as venous channels in adolescents. As a result, the postoperative development of hydrocele or recurrence of the varicocele may be prevented.
The Journal of Urology 04/1998; 159(3):1022-4. · 3.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conservative management of children who have unequivocal multicystic dysplastic kidney with a stable or regressive pattern of disease during close followup is well established. However, a clear diagnosis may prove difficult. We report 3 cases in which the diagnosis was particularly difficult to increase awareness of the importance of applying strict criteria for the diagnosis of multicystic dysplastic kidney.
Three children in whom a diagnosis of multicystic dysplastic kidney was suspected underwent surgical exploration. One patient who did not comply with followup presented with a large retroperitoneal mass suspicious for neuroblastoma 8 months later. In another patient a growing renal cystic mass was suspicious for a multilocular cyst at 3 months of followup. At 2 months of followup a cystic nephroma was suspected in the remaining patient.
All patients underwent surgical exploration. The patient with suspected neuroblastoma had extensive stage 3 Wilms tumor. In the child with a suspected multilocular cyst segmental multicystic dysplastic kidney of the lower pole of an ipsilateral duplicated system was found. In the patient in whom cystic nephroma was suspected mesoblastic nephroma was confirmed by the National Wilms Tumor Study Pathology Center.
An unequivocal diagnosis of multicystic dysplastic kidney should be made early in life. The urologist should have an active role in making the initial radiological diagnosis and close followup with renal ultrasound every 3 to 4 months is essential during year 1 of life. Surgical exploration is indicated if the diagnosis becomes equivocal at any point or should concerns exist regarding compliance with followup.
The Journal of Urology 10/1997; 158(3 Pt 2):1301-4. · 3.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the antegrade continence enema for managing the most severely compromised fecal continence mechanisms and the efficacy of nonappendiceal conduits in children when appendix is unavailable.
Ten patients 3 to 25 years old underwent continent cecostomy for the purpose of the antegrade continence enema. Diagnoses included the VATER association in 4 cases, myelomeningocele in 3, cloacal anomaly in 2 and isolated imperforate anus in 1. Eight patients received a tubularized ileal conduit, 2 received an appendiceal conduit and 2 underwent concomitant fecal undiversion.
Followup ranged from 4 to 28 months (mean 17.6). All patients have achieved excellent fecal continence and no significant stomal soilage or difficulty with catheterization has been noted. Patients reported a high degree of satisfaction.
Continent cecostomy for the antegrade continence enema is highly effective even in the presence of severe structural anorectal disease. The tapered ileal conduit is an excellent alternative to the appendiceal conduit.
The Journal of Urology 10/1997; 158(3 Pt 2):1277-9; discussion 1279-80. · 3.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We compared outcomes following single or 2-stage repair of infected urachal cysts in the pediatric population.
We reviewed the records of 17 patients 1 day to 14 years old (median age 22 months) with a urachal cyst. Immediate cyst excision was performed in 6 patients without infection, while those with an abscess underwent single or 2-stage repair.
Median postoperative hospital stay for the urachal abscess group was 14 and 11.5 days for single and 2-stage procedures, respectively. After immediate excision postoperative complications developed in each case, although none occurred with a 2-stage approach.
In the absence of infection, urachal cyst excision affords the most benign postoperative course. However, when infection is present, perioperative drainage with subsequent total excision, including a cuff of bladder, may offer the most effective surgical option.
The Journal of Urology 06/1997; 157(5):1869-72. · 3.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ureteroscopic management of ureteral obstruction in children presents a challenge to the urologist because of the use of relatively large instruments in smaller anatomy. The authors present our initial experience and describe the technique and equipment found to be most useful. Eleven ureteroscopic procedures were performed in ten patients, either for stone extraction or diagnostic evaluation of ureteral obstruction. Six of seven patients with ureteral stones became stone free, and the stone load was reduced to 25% in the remaining patient. Diagnostic ureteroscopy for ureteral obstruction was successfully performed in four patients. There were no intraoperative ureteral injuries and no postoperative complications. Pediatric ureteroscopy appears to be safe and effective for the diagnosis and treatment of distal ureteral obstruction. Further studies and longer follow-up are necessary to determine whether this technique will prove as successful in children as it has been in the adult population.
Journal of Pediatric Surgery 05/1997; 32(4):571-4. · 1.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The intra-abdominal testis continues to present a considerable urological challenge and the approach to its management continues to evolve. We report our initial experience with laparoscopically assisted testicular autotransplantation.
An intra-abdominal testicle was identified laparoscopically in 5 patients who subsequently underwent testicular autotransplantation.
The success rate was 100% and median operative time was 5 hours. All patients were discharged home the day after surgery with no complications and a good result.
Because of success with this technique, this procedure offers significant advantages (decreased hospital stay and lower morbidity) than an open or 2-stage Fowler-Stephens approach.
The Journal of Urology 09/1996; 156(2 Pt 2):772-4. · 3.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the usefulness of conventional color Doppler ultrasound (US), unenhanced and contrast material-enhanced power Doppler US, and radionuclide imaging in a model of acute testicular torsion.
Twenty rabbits underwent unilateral 360 degree testis torsion and contralateral orchiopexy. Gray-scale, color Doppler, and unenhanced and contrast-enhanced power Doppler US were performed 4-6 hours later. The side of torsion was determined, and intratestis flow was graded. Within 2 hours of US, technetium-99m pertechnetate was intravenously administered, the rabbits were killed, and the testes excised for radionuclide imaging.
Intratestis perfusion was detected in 85% of torsed testes at US and radionuclide imaging. The side of torsion was correctly diagnosed in 25% of cases with radionuclide imaging and in 60% of cases with US. Power Doppler US demonstrated significantly greater intratestis flow in pexed than in torsed testes. Although the numbers of correct diagnosis with the three US modalities were similar, flow grades within torsed and normal testes were significantly different.
Perfusion to torsed and normal testes was demonstrated equally well with color Doppler US, power Doppler US, and radionuclide imaging. Doppler US better depicted differences in intratesticular flow between torsed and normal testes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined whether the intravenous (IV) Doppler ultrasound contrast agent SHU 508 would improve the detection of reduced perfusion of rabbit testes when normal flow was otherwise difficult to detect.
Seventeen anesthetized prepubertal rabbits underwent random unilateral spermatic cord ligation and a contralateral sham operation. Immediate, blinded, and systematic color Doppler examination of each pair of testes was recorded before and after IV administration of 1 ml (300 mg) SHU 508, a gas-containing microparticle. Recorded examinations were reviewed by two pediatric radiologists who were unaware of experimental conditions and who graded intratesticular flow.
For 34 pairs of observations (17 animals x 2 observers), intratesticular flow was absent in the sham-operated testes in 18 precontrast and two postcontrast images. The false-positive rate in this group decreased from 53% to 6%. This improvement in the detection of normal blood flow was statistically significant. The absence of flow in the ischemic testis was not significantly different before or after contrast agent administration.
IV SHU 508 enhances color Doppler ultrasound detection of flow not otherwise evident in prepubertal rabbit testes. Doppler ultrasound contrast agents may be used in a setting of suspected torsion when routine Doppler sonography is indeterminate.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bladder resistance to bacterial infection after gastrocystoplasty, ileocystoplasty and cecocystoplasty was investigated in the rat.
Bladders were infected with Escherichia coli 6 to 13 months after augmentation and urine culture was obtained weekly for 3 months.
No differences were observed in the number of infected animals within each group or electrolyte data among groups. The number of animals infected after surgery but before E. coli challenge was lowest in the gastrocystoplasty group. Bladder stones formed only in ileocystoplasty and cecocystoplasty groups. No group had a change in urinary pH.
Gastrocystoplasty may be associated with a lower incidence of spontaneous infection and stone formation. An aggressive infection protocol may have masked differences in susceptibility to infection. Since urinary pH was unchanged after gastrocystoplasty, use of the rat may not be appropriate for augmentation studies.
The Journal of Urology 12/1995; 154(5):1895-9. · 3.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We compared color Doppler sonography and radionuclide imaging in an animal model of variable torsion of the testes.
The testes of 19 rabbits with unilateral 0 degree (nontorsion), 180 degrees, 360 degrees, or 540 degrees torsion and contralateral nontorsion were evaluated by sonography serially over 24 hr. Color Doppler sonography and radionuclide imaging at 24 hr were compared and correlated with pathology in a subset of testes.
Nontorsion (n = 16 testes) and 540 degrees torsion (n = 7 testes) were always correctly diagnosed at 24 hr by color Doppler sonography and radionuclide imaging. Torsion at 180 degrees (n = 2) was indistinguishable from nontorsion. With 360 degrees torsion (n = 6 testes), four testes had reduced or absent flow with color Doppler sonography, whereas only one testis was abnormal with radionuclide imaging.
Nontorsion and extreme torsion of rabbit testes are well documented by radionuclide imaging and color Doppler sonography. Torsion at 360 degrees can result in variable flow alterations that are better detected by color Doppler sonography than by radionuclide imaging.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although male infants and young boys with epididymitis have a high incidence of anatomical pathology, dysfunctional voiding is not a well established cause of epididymitis. In our series 36 boys with epididymitis underwent noninvasive urodynamic studies to determine whether a physiological defect could be assigned as an etiology. The 2 mechanisms proposed are similar to that in children with vesicoureteral reflux associated with dyssynergia or bladder instability and to a cause of recurrent urinary tract infection in children (the infrequent voider syndrome). Urinalysis and urine culture are recommended in all children with epididymitis and urethral swabs are obtained from those who are sexually active. We recommend renal/bladder ultrasound and voiding cystourethrography in all infants and young children with epididymitis. In the older child we advocate detailed questioning regarding voiding symptoms and the performance of noninvasive urodynamic studies.
The Journal of Urology 09/1995; 154(2 Pt 2):762-5. · 3.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with intra-abdominal testes represent a small but challenging group who require innovative therapy. We report our 17-year experience with testicular autotransplantation.
Testicular autotransplantation was performed in 23 patients with 27 intra-abdominal testes.
The success rate was 96% and average operative time was 4.25 hours with 40 to 90 minutes for vascular anastomoses. A contralateral Fowler-Stephens procedure had previously failed in 3 cases.
Since the variability of collateral blood supply in patients with high undescended testes may potentially compromise the Fowler-Stephens procedure, we believe that testicular autotransplantation should be strongly considered in such patients, particularly those with bilateral undescended testicles.
The Journal of Urology 09/1995; 154(2 Pt 1):558-61. · 3.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 2-year retrospective review of 238 cases of acute scrotal pain encountered in a children's hospital emergency department is presented. The incidences of testicular torsion, torsion of a testicular appendage, and epididymitis were 16%, 46%, and 35%, respectively. Testicular salvage was critically dependent on the interval between onset of pain and surgical intervention. No testis likely to have been viable at the time of presentation was "lost." The diagnostic error rate on first encounter was 7%, resulting in 10 negative scrotal explorations. With the exception of cases of far-advanced necrotic testes, both color Doppler ultrasound and radioisotope imaging were highly specific diagnostic modalities. Thirty-nine percent of the children with epididymitis who underwent investigation were found to have either structural or functional urinary tract abnormalities. Noninvasive urodynamic studies appear to be useful screening modalities in older children with epididymitis.
Journal of Pediatric Surgery 03/1995; 30(2):277-81; discussion 281-2. · 1.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxybutynin has a proved role in correcting uninhibited detrusor contractions in the intact and the bowel augmented bladder. Beneficial responses to oxybutynin have also been noted after gastrocystoplasty. It has been questioned whether this response reflects a selective effect on the bladder segment or whether there is an additional effect on the gastric patch musculature. We report a case of improved function of a previously poorly complaint gastric neobladder caused by oxybutynin, thereby demonstrating a direct action on gastric smooth muscle.
The Journal of Urology 03/1995; 153(2):461-2. · 3.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors report on 23 patients who underwent complex continent urinary reconstructions, made successful by the selection of gastrocystoplasty as the chosen augmentation modality. The mean patient age was 6.1 years, and the mean weight was 17.9 kg. The minimum follow-up period was 1.5 years. The bladder capacity increased from a preoperative mean of 77.8 +/- 52.2 (SD) mL to a postoperative mean of 303.5 +/- 117.4 mL (P < .000001). No adverse effects on renal function or serum electrolyte composition were encountered, and there were no instances of acidosis or alkalosis. Continence was achieved in 91% of patients. In two patients (0.9%), hematuria-dysuria developed; one case was extremely mild. The other occurred only during a period of severe oliguria and resolved after transplantation. Gastrointestinal complications were minimal. Five patients had end-stage renal disease at the time of reconstruction and have since had successful transplantation. Gastrocystoplasty is particularly applicable to the pediatric population because of its unique anatomic and metabolic characteristics, which bestow tremendous versatility.
Journal of Pediatric Surgery 02/1995; 30(2):283-7; discussion 287-8. · 1.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proximal and distal penile-urethral stomas were created in the rabbit and 1 to 3 months later a free bladder mucosal graft was placed in the damaged urethral bed. The graft adhered to a rapidly proliferating submucosa with active regeneration by post-transplantation day 5. All grafts were adherent and viable by days 10 to 14, during which time sham operated animals that had been stented only showed a degree of epithelial regeneration that was of variable quality and without submucosal proliferation. The graft may stimulate the subepithelial layer, and the most viable bladder mucosa may be associated with the most actively proliferating subepithelial layer, which is also the area of greatest neovascularity. Further studies may explain the apparent paradox of how a free bladder mucosal graft survives in a poorly vascularized, scarred urethral bed.
The Journal of Urology 10/1994; 152(3):983-6. · 3.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Childhood vaginal anomalies are frequently encountered, often in association with significant anorectal or urinary tract abnormalities. As a result, reconstruction poses a number of technical challenges. We maintain that the best results are achieved by single stage perineal reconstruction. The primary goal of achieving a functional and cosmetically adequate vagina must not be at the expense of the optimal repair of associated urinary and anorectal abnormalities. In addition, since these repairs are performed early in childhood, vaginal growth is an issue that further limits the choice of reconstructive technique. We present a series of successful vaginal reconstructions in complex cases and an outline of the principles of surgical care.
The Journal of Urology 08/1994; 152(1):190-5. · 3.70 Impact Factor