M R el-Maghrabi

Stony Brook University Hospital, Stony Brook, New York, United States

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Publications (87)364.1 Total impact

  • S R Maitra, S Bhaduri, M R El-Maghrabi, M J Shapiro
    Shock 01/2004; 21:46. · 2.73 Impact Factor
  • S R Maitra, S Wang, M R El-Maghrabi
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the role of glucocorticoid receptor antagonists and mediators released by Kupffer cells and other resident macrophages, we have used RU486 and gadolinium chloride to prevent the induction of glucose-6-phosphatase (Glu-6-Pase) gene expression in the liver following hemorrhagic shock (HS) and lactated Ringer's (LR) solution resuscitation. HS was induced in fasted, anesthetized, and cannulated rats by rapid phlebotomy to a mean arterial pressure of 40 mmHg and maintained for 30 min by withdrawal or infusion of blood. The LR solution group underwent induction and maintenance of HS for 30 min followed by LR resuscitation. Rats were injected with gadolinium chloride (7 mg/kg) to inhibit the phagocytic function of Kupffer cells, and with glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486 (20 mg/kg) prior to induction of HS. Arterial blood samples were obtained and livers were freeze clamped in liquid nitrogen and stored at -70 degrees C for subsequent analysis. Northern blot analysis indicated that Glu-6-Pase mRNA abundance increased 2-fold in HS rats and a further 2-fold with resuscitation. Gadolinium chloride administration had no significant effect on Glu-6-Pase mRNA abundance in HS or in LR solution. In contrast, RU486 pre-treatment reduced Glu-6-Pase mRNA by about one half in HS rats compared with control and that in LR solution to normal. This was associated with a normalization of Glu-6-Pase activity and plasma glucose toward pre-hemorrhage levels. These results suggest that gadolinium chloride inhibition of macrophage factor release has no effect on the induction of Glu-6-Pase mRNA during HS or in LR solution resuscitation. On the other hand, the suppression of Glu-6-Pase mRNA by RU486 suggests that glucocorticoids are responsible for the induction of the mRNA in HS and during LR resuscitation. KEYWORDS-Shock, hyperglycemia, corticosterone, gadolinium chloride, diltiazem, animal model, mRNA
    Shock 12/2000; 14(5):578-81. · 2.73 Impact Factor
  • S R Maitra, S Wang, C E Brathwaite, M R El-Maghrabi
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    ABSTRACT: The influence of sepsis on the expression and activity of hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (Glu-6-Pase) was examined during the early hyperglycemic phase and the later hypoglycemic phase. Sepsis was induced in anesthetized, fasted rats by cecal ligation and puncture, and liver samples were taken at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 20 hours after cecal ligation and puncture. The mRNA abundance of hepatic Glu-6-Pase increased fourfold at 0.5 hours over healthy control values, two-fold after 1 hour, and returned to normal after 1.5 hours. This finding was followed by a corresponding increase in Glu-6-Pase activity and was coincident with increased plasma glucose levels and decreased liver glucose-6-phosphate (Glu-6-P) at 0.5 and 1 hours. Plasma insulin and glucagon levels remained unchanged during this period, whereas corticosterone levels increased 2.5-fold over control values. At 20 hours cecal ligation and puncture, plasma glucose levels returned to normal, coincident with a 90% reduction in Glu-6-Pase mRNA abundance. Glu-6-Pase activity and Glu-6-P concentration returned to normal levels, while insulin, glucagon, and corticosterone levels increased significantly, i.e., 40-fold, 6.5-fold, and 6-fold, respectively. The initial rise and subsequent decline in blood glucose correlate very well with a corticosterone-dependent induction of hepatic Glu-6-Pase, mRNA, and protein, followed by an insulin-dependent suppression of its expression.
    The Journal of trauma 08/2000; 49(1):38-42. · 2.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanisms responsible for the glycemic changes associated with endotoxic shock are not fully understood, but are known to involve the ability of the liver to produce glucose. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether endotoxin (LPS) influences the expression and activity of glucose-6-phosphatase (Glu-6-Pase) during the early hyperglycemic phase and the later hypoglycemic phase. Rats were injected with a relatively large dose of LPS (20 mg/kg) or saline (control), and sacrificed at 1 or 5 h post-injection. Both the plasma glucose concentration and glucose production were elevated 1 h post-LPS (2-fold) and both decreased at 5 h postinjection (50%). Compared to time-matched control values, hepatic glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate levels were significantly decreased at both 1 and 5 h. Hepatic Glu-6-Pase activity and mRNA levels were moderately increased, 1 h after injection of LPS. At 5 h, an 88% decrease in mRNA abundance for Glu-6-Pase was associated with a 30% decrease in activity of this enzyme. Plasma insulin concentrations were not different 1 h after LPS and were elevated 2-fold from control values at 5 h. Circulating levels of glucagon and corticosterone were elevated at both time points following LPS. Our data indicate that the LPS-induced hypoglycemia and reduction in hepatic glucose production were accompanied by a depression in Glu-6-Pase activity and gene expression.
    Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 07/1999; 196(1-2):79-83. · 2.39 Impact Factor
  • S R Maitra, M Gestring, M R el-Maghrabi
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    ABSTRACT: The mRNA abundance of several hepatic glycolytic and gluconeogenic enzymes and blood hormone concentrations were determined in hemorrhagic hypotension-induced rats before and after resuscitation with lactated Ringer's. Northern blot analysis of total liver RNA after 30 min of hemorrhage showed control values for phospho-enolpyruvate carboxykinase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase mRNA, but significantly lower values for 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (6PF2K/FBPase) as well as 2.5-fold increases in glucose-6-phosphatase (Glu-6-Pase) mRNA. The latter finding is in agreement with the greatly reduced intracellular levels of fructose-6-phosphate and glucose-6-phosphate, and the results are consistent with a rapid activation of hepatic gluconeogenesis by the concomitant decrease in 6PF2K/FBPase and increase in Glu-6-Pase. Blood insulin levels were decreased during hemorrhage and with resuscitation, whereas glucocorticoids were increased 1.5-fold in both cases. Glucagon was unchanged during hemorrhage, but was reduced with resuscitation. Lactated Ringer's resuscitation seemed to affect 6PF2K/FBPase only, which was restored to, and even exceeded, control values. In contrast, Glu-6-Pase mRNA was increased to fourfold control values. The increase in Glu-6-Pase and the decrease in 6PF2K/FBPase mRNA is probably at the level of altered transcriptional rates, because insulin, which plays a dominant role in the regulation of these genes, was decreased during hemorrhage. It remains to be determined what factors are causing further induction of Glu-6-Pase gene after lactated Ringer's resuscitation when hepatic glucose metabolism seems to have reverted to the glycolytic mode.
    Shock 12/1997; 8(5):385-8. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase has been postulated to be a metabolic signaling enzyme, which acts as a switch between glycolysis and gluconeogenesis in mammalian liver by regulating the level of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate. The effect of overexpressing the bifunctional enzyme was studied in FAO cells transduced with recombinant adenoviral constructs of either the wild-type enzyme or a double mutant that has no bisphosphatase activity or protein kinase phosphorylation site. With both constructs, the mRNA and protein were overexpressed by 150- and 40-fold, respectively. Addition of cAMP to cells overexpressing the wild-type enzyme increased the S0.5 for fructose 6-phosphate of the kinase by 1.5-fold but had no effect on the overexpressed double mutant. When the wild-type enzyme was overexpressed, there was a decrease in fructose 2,6-bisphosphate levels, even though 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase maximal activity increased more than 22-fold and was in excess of fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase maximal activity. The kinase:bisphosphatase maximal activity ratio was decreased, indicating that the overexpressed enzyme was phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Overexpression of the double mutant resulted in a 28-fold increase in kinase maximal activity and a 3-4-fold increase in fructose 2,6-bisphosphate levels. Overexpression of this form inhibited the rate of glucose production from dihydroxyacetone by 90% and stimulated the rate of lactate plus pyruvate production by 200%. In contrast, overexpression of the wild-type enzyme enhanced glucose production and inhibited lactate plus pyruvate production. These results provide direct support for fructose 2,6-bisphosphate as a regulator of gluconeogenic/glycolytic pathway flux and suggest that regulation of bifunctional enzyme activities by covalent modification is more important than the amount of the protein.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/1995; 270(41):24229-24236. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (EC is a key regulatory enzyme of gluconeogenesis that catalyzes the hydrolysis of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate to generate fructose-6-phosphate and inorganic phosphate. Deficiency of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase is associated with fasting hypoglycemia and metabolic acidosis because of impaired gluconeogenesis. We have cloned and characterized the human liver fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase gene (FBP1). FBP1 , localized to chromosome bands 9q22.2-q22.3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization, consists of seven exons that span >31 kb, and the six introns are in the same position as in the rat gene. FBP1 was screened for mutations in two subjects with fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency. Four nucleotide substitutions were identified, two of which were silent mutations in the codons for Ala-216 (GCṮ → GCC̱) and Gly-319 (GGG̱ → GGA̱). The other substitutions were in intron 3, a C → T substitution 7 nucleotides downstream from the splice donor site, and in the promoter region, an A → T substitution 188 nucleotides upstream from the start of transcription. These nucleotide substitutions were also found in normal unaffected subjects and thus are not the cause of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency in the two subjects studied. The molecular basis of hepatic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency in these subjects remains undetermined but could result from unidentified mutations in the promoter that decrease expression or from mutations in another gene that indirectly lead to decreased fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase activity.
    Genomics 07/1995; · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A cDNA encoding the catalytic core of a novel brain 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase isoenzyme was isolated from a lambda gt10 bovine brain library. This brain cDNA begins and ends in an open reading frame encoding a peptide of 476 amino acids. This peptide contains both the catalytic kinase and bisphosphatase domains and has an overall 65% and 67% indentity with the bovine heart and liver isozymes, respectively, whereas the NH2 and COOH-termini are divergent. An active catalytic core brain bifunctional enzyme was expressed in E. coli using a T7 RNA polymerase-based expression system. These results support the presence of a distinct gene coding for the protein in bovine brain.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 05/1995; 209(3):1140-8. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Decreased hepatic fructose 2,6-bisphosphate levels were observed in the early phase of hemorrhagic shock. The lower sugar bisphosphatae level was a result of increased phosphoenolpyruvate levels and decreased glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate levels. The decreased glucose-6-phosphate levels correlated with increased activity of liver glucose-6-phosphatase and a concomitant 2.5-fold increase in glucose-6-phosphatase mRNA abundance. In addition, protein-free filtrate from hemorrhagic shock rats, but not from control rats, increased glucose-6-phosphatase activity. However, when control and hemorrhagic shock protein-free filtrates were heated, they both increased the glucose-6-phosphatase activity of the respective microsomes to the same extent. It is concluded that the early hyperglycemic phase of hemorrhagic shock is due to enhanced glucose-6-phosphatase gene expression and activity and the generation of a heat sensitive activator of the enzyme.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 11/1994; 204(2):716-24. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The molecular structure of human liver fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase complexed with AMP was determined by x-ray diffraction using molecular replacement, starting from the pig kidney enzyme AMP complex. Of the 34 amino acid residues which differ between these two sequences, only one interacts with AMP; Met30 in pig kidney is Leu30 in human liver. From this analysis, six sites in which side chains of amino acid residues are in contact with AMP, Ala24, Leu30, Thr31, Tyr113, Arg140, and Met177, were mutated by polymerase chain reaction. The wild-type and mutant forms were expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and their kinetic properties determined. Circular dichroism spectra of the mutants were indistinguishable from that of the wild-type enzyme. Kinetic analyses revealed that all forms had similar turnover numbers, Km values for fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, and inhibition constants for fructose 2,6-bisphosphate. Apparent Ki values for AMP inhibition of the Leu30 --> Phe and Met177 --> Ala mutants were similar to those of the wild-type enzyme, but the apparent Ki values for the Arg140 --> Ala and Ala24 --> Phe mutants were 7-to 20-fold higher, respectively. The Thr31 --> Ser mutant exhibited a 5-fold increase in apparent Ki for AMP, while mutation of Thr31 to Ala increased the apparent Ki 120-fold. AMP inhibition of the Tyr113 --> Phe mutant was undetectable even at millimolar AMP concentrations. Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate potentiated AMP inhibition of the mutants to the same extent as for the wild-type enzyme, except in the case of the Thr31 --> Ala and Tyr113 --> Phe mutants. Thus, the Met177 --> Ala mutant suggests that the side chain beyond C alpha is not needed for AMP binding, and that the Leu30 --> Phe mutant preserves the AMP contacts with these side chains. Thr31, Tyr113, and Arg140 form key hydrogen bonds to AMP consistent with strong side chain interactions in the wild-type enzyme. Finally, the absence of any effect of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate on AMP inhibition observed in the Thr31 --> Ala mutant may be an important clue relating to the mechanism of synergism of these two inhibitors.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/1994; 269(44):27732-8. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: cDNA clones coding for the catalytic subunit of rat liver glucose-6-phosphatase (EC were isolated from a rat liver cDNA library in lambda gt11 phage. The sequence of the cDNA and the amino acid sequence derived from it were greater than 90% identical to the corresponding sequences for the mouse and human forms of liver glucose-6-phosphatase. Northern blot analysis of RNA from FAO hepatoma cells revealed that dexamethasone induced the glucose-6-phosphatase mRNA while insulin suppressed its expression. When both hormones were added together insulin completely suppressed the effect of glucocorticoid. cAMP addition alone decreased the abundance of glucose-6-phosphatase mRNA. The results demonstrate multihormonal regulation of gene expression of hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase and support a dominant role for insulin.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 06/1994; 201(1):302-9. · 2.28 Impact Factor
  • N R Shochet, A Rudi, Y Kashman, Y Hod, M R el-Maghrabi, I Spector
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    ABSTRACT: Six novel alkaloids that contain a fused tetracyclic pyrido[2,3,4-kl]acridine ring system were purified recently from the Red Sea purple tunicate Eudistoma sp. Evaluation of the effects of these alkaloids on cultured neuroblastoma and fibroblast cells revealed that they possess potent growth regulatory properties, and affect cell shape and adhesion. In mouse neuroblastoma cells, the Eudistoma alkaloids inhibited cell proliferation and induced a process of differentiation during which the cells flattened onto the surface, increased considerably in size, and extended long neurites. In hamster fibroblasts the alkaloids slowed down cell multiplication, and caused an exceptional cell flattening or elongation. In a virus-transformed derivative of the hamster fibroblasts the alkaloids restored many aspects of normal cell growth and morphology. In addition, several of the alkaloids mimicked the effects of cAMP analogs on two well-characterized cAMP-mediated processes involved in hepatic glucose metabolism--inhibition of pyruvate kinase (PK) activity and induction of mRNA for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). All these effects suggest that the Eudistoma alkaloids may act on the cAMP signaling system. However, a single application of these compounds was sufficient to completely block cell multiplication and to induce and sustain differentiation and "reverse transformation". Furthermore, these effects were not readily reversible following removal of the drugs. In contrast, a single application of agents that mimic or elevate cAMP induced a transient response that waned with time in culture, and the effects induced by constant elevation of cAMP reverse rapidly following drug removal. We propose that the Eudistoma alkaloids cause growth inhibition, differentiation, and reverse transformation by modifying the activity state of proteins that are involved in the regulation of cell shape and adhesion and serve as a target for the cAMP and/or other second messenger systems.
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 01/1994; 157(3):481-92. · 3.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A cDNA for an adipocyte membrane protein, implicated in the transport of long-chain fatty acids, was isolated by screening with a synthetic oligonucleotide derived from the amino terminal sequence of the protein. The 88-kDa adipocyte membrane protein was previously identified by covalent labeling with N-sulfosuccinimidyl esters of long-chain fatty acids which irreversibly inhibited fatty acid transport by 75% (Harmon, C. M., and Abumrad, N.A. (1993) J. Membr. Biol. 124, 261-268). The cDNA (FAT, 2432 base pairs (bp)) contained 70 bp of 5'-untranslated sequence, an open reading frame encoding a 472-amino acid protein with a predicted molecular mass of 52466, and 940 bp of 3'-untranslated sequence with two polyadenylation signal sequences but with no polyadenylation tail. The deduced protein sequence predicted two transmembrane segments and 10 potential N-linked glycosylation sites. Extensive glycosylation most likely explains why the molecular mass of the isolated protein (88 kDa) is different from that deduced from the cDNA sequence (53 kDa). The sequence of FAT is 85% homologous with that of glycoprotein IV (CD36) identified in human platelets and in lactating mammary epithelium. Consistent with this, a polyclonal antibody against CD36 reacted with adipocyte plasma membranes and detected a single band at 88 kDa. Northern blot analysis of RNA obtained from rat adipose tissue and probed with the cDNA identified two major transcripts of 4.8 and 2.9 kilobases which were abundant in heart, intestine, fat, muscle, and testis. The mRNAs were not detectable in cultured adipose cell lines (Ob1771, 3T3F442A) at the fibroblastic stage but were strongly induced during the differentiation process and by treatment of preadipocytes with dexamethasone, conditions that were also associated with an increase in oleate transport. In contrast, the fibroblastic cell lines 3T3-C2 and L929, which do not differentiate, did not express the mRNAs at all stages of culture. The data suggest that FAT and CD36 belong to a family of proteins that bind/transport long-chain fatty acids or function as regulators of these processes.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/1993; 268(24):17665-8. · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • I J Kurland, M R el-Maghrabi, S J Pilkis
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    ABSTRACT: The role of Cys-138 in the catalysis of the skeletal muscle 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase reaction was investigated by mutating this residue to serine, glutamine and alanine, expressing the mutants in E. coli with a T7 RNA polymerase-based expression system, and analyzing their kinetic properties. The Cys138Ala mutant had greatly diminished activity, while the Cys138Ser and Cys138Gln mutants had maximal velocities 2-3 fold higher than the wild-type enzyme. It was concluded that Cys-138 does not act as a base catalyst in the kinase reaction, but that it plays a significant structural role in the enzyme's active site.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/1993; 195(1):229-36. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of the NH2-terminal region of the liver and skeletal muscle 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose 2,6-bisphosphatases was investigated, as well that of a mutant of the liver isoform lacking the first 22 amino acids, by the overexpression of these enzymes in Escherichia coli and the comparison of their kinetic properties. The muscle isoform and the deletion mutant had Km values for fructose 6-phosphate which were 50- and 20-fold higher, respectively, than that of the liver isoform, and the bisphosphatase maximal velocity of the liver deletion mutant was 4-fold higher than that of the native liver isoform. Phosphorylation of the liver isoform increased bisphosphatase activity by 2-3-fold and the Km for fructose 6-phosphate of the 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase by 10-15-fold, but these kinetic effects were greatly diminished for the deletion mutant despite equivalent phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Arg-173 of the skeletal muscle isoform was found to be functionally equivalent to the residue corresponding to the essential fructose 6-phosphate binding residue of the liver kinase domain, Arg-195. The results suggest that 1) the NH2-terminal regions of the liver and skeletal muscle isoforms are important determinants of fructose 6-phosphate affinity, and 2) the initial 22 amino acids of the liver isoform exert an inhibitory influence on the bisphosphatase and mediate, at least in part, the response of both activities of the enzyme to cAMP-dependent phosphorylation.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/1993; 268(19):14056-64. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The hormonal regulation of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase gene expression was studied in the rat hepatoma cell line FAO-1. Both 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase and fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase activities were detected in FAO-1 cells, at 68% of the levels found in rat liver. Northern blot analysis showed that FAO-1 cells, like rat liver, contained a predominant species of bifunctional enzyme mRNA, which is 2.2 kb in size. A sensitive RNAase protection assay revealed the presence in FAO-1 cells of an additional mRNA species, which is generated when transcription is initiated from the skeletal muscle promoter of the rat liver/skeletal muscle gene. The liver/skeletal muscle mRNA ratio in FAO-1 cells was 10:1, which is similar to that observed in rat liver. In contrast, in another rat hepatoma cell line, FTO-2B, only the skeletal muscle mRNA was detected. Insulin and dexamethasone induced the liver bifunctional enzyme mRNA in FAO-1 cells by 2-4-fold and 10-20-fold respectively in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, and their effects were antagonized by cyclic AMP. Transcription of the gene in FAO-1 cells, measured by nuclear run-on assays, was also enhanced by dexamethasone and insulin. It is concluded that the FAO-1 cell line is similar to liver with respect to both the preferential use of the liver promoter of the gene and its regulation by hormones, and is therefore an excellent model for the study of the hepatic expression of this gene.
    Biochemical Journal 08/1993; 293 ( Pt 1):173-9. · 4.78 Impact Factor
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    M R el-Maghrabi, M Gidh-Jain, L R Austin, S J Pilkis
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    ABSTRACT: A cDNA encoding human liver fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase was isolated from a lambda gt11 library by screening with a rat liver fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase cDNA. The cDNA (1421 base pairs) contains an open reading frame encoding 337 amino acids, corresponding to a protein with an estimated molecular weight of 36,697. Its primary sequence is highly homologous to that of the pig kidney and rat liver enzymes. The human liver cDNA was used to construct a T7 RNA polymerase-transcribed expression vector, and the enzyme was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Approximately 50% of the expressed human fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase was soluble and enzymatically active, and the enzyme was purified to homogeneity by heat treatment, ammonium sulfate fractionation, and substrate/AMP elution from carboxymethyl-Sephadex. Expressed human liver fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase had a specific activity (9.8 mumol/min/mg of protein) that was half that of the rat liver enzyme, but had an identical Km for substrate. However, the human enzyme was more sensitive to inhibition by fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (Ki = 0.3 microM) and AMP (Ki = 12 microM) than the rat liver form (fructose 2,6-P2, Ki = 4 microM; AMP, Ki = 40 microM). Crystallographic analyses have suggested that Asp-118 and Asp-121 are catalytic residues located in a negatively charged pocket that binds divalent metal cations. These residues were mutated to alanine, and the E. coli-expressed mutant enzymes were purified to homogeneity. The Asp-118-->Ala and Asp-121-->Ala mutants had 1/5000 and 1/20,000 lower Kcat values than the wild-type enzyme, respectively, consistent with their critical role in fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase catalysis.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/1993; 268(13):9466-72. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: At least two genes encode isoenzymes of rat 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase. Alternative splicing of one of these genes generates a skeletal muscle-specific transcript from an upstream promoter and a liver-specific transcript from a downstream promoter. A potent glucocorticoid response element was identified in the first intron of the gene, i.e. between liver exon I and exon II. The element is approximately 3.5 kilobase pairs (kb) downstream of the liver isoenzyme transcription start site and 13 kb upstream of exon II of the gene and confers dexamethasone-sensitive expression of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activity from a heterologous thymidine kinase promoter and from both homologous 5'-flanking regions of the gene. This glucocorticoid response element also exhibits androgen- but not estrogen-sensitive expression of CAT activity in HeLa cells cotransfected with the appropriate receptor expression vector. DNase footprint and sequence analysis revealed that the element is comprised minimally of two adjacent 15-mer glucocorticoid receptor dimer binding sites situated in opposite orientations. Glucocortcoid regulation of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase gene expression in liver and skeletal muscle is mediated by a single complex glucocorticoid response element located in the first intron of the skeletal muscle/liver gene.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/1992; 267(22):15673-80. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The primary sequence of maize 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-independent phosphoglycerate mutase was deduced from cDNAs isolated from maize cDNA libraries by screening with specific antibodies to the cofactor-independent enzyme and from a maize genomic clone. The genomic clone provided the 5'-nucleotide sequence encoding the N-terminal amino acids which could not be obtained from the cDNA. Confirmation that the nucleotide sequence was for the cofactor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase was obtained by sequencing the peptides generated from cyanogen bromide cleavage of the purified protein. This is the first report of the amino acid sequence of a 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate cofactor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase, which consists of 559 amino acids and is twice the molecular size of the mammalian cofactor-dependent enzyme subunit. Analysis of the cofactor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase amino acid sequence revealed no identity with the cofactor-dependent mutase types. Northern blot analysis confirmed this difference since the maize cofactor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase cDNA did not hybridize with mRNA of the cofactor-dependent mutase. The lack of amino acid identity between cofactor-dependent and -independent enzymes is consistent with their different catalytic mechanisms and suggests that both enzymes are unrelated evolutionarily and arose from two independent ancestral genes. However, a constellation of residues which are involved in metal ion binding in various alkaline phosphatases is conserved in the maize cofactor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase, which suggests that the enzyme is a member of the alkaline phosphatase family of enzymes.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/1992; 267(18):12797-803. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    M R el-Maghrabi, L R Austin, J J Correia, S J Pilkis
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    ABSTRACT: Lysine 274 is conserved in all known fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase sequences. It has been implicated in substrate binding and/or catalysis on the basis of reactivity with pyridoxal phosphate as well as by x-ray crystallographic analysis. Lys274 of rat liver fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase was mutated to alanine by the polymerase chain reaction, and the T7-RNA polymerase-transcribed construct containing the mutant sequence was expressed in Escherichia coli. The mutant and wild-type forms of the enzyme were purified to homogeneity, and their specific activity, substrate dependence, and inhibition by fructose 2,6-bisphosphate and AMP were compared. While the mutant exhibited no change in maximal velocity, its Km for fructose 1,6-bisphosphate was 20-fold higher than that of the wild-type, and its Ki for fructose 2,6-bisphosphate was increased 1000-fold. Consistent with the unaltered maximal velocity, there were no apparent difference between the secondary structure of the wild-type and mutant enzyme forms, as measured by circular dichroism and ultraviolet difference spectroscopy. The Ki for the allosteric inhibitor AMP was only slightly increased, indicating that Lys274 is not directly involved in AMP inhibition. Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate potentiated AMP inhibition of both forms, but 500-fold higher concentrations of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate were needed to reduce the Ki for AMP for the mutant compared to the wild-type. However, potentiation of AMP inhibition of the Lys274----Ala mutant was evident at fructose 2,6-bisphosphate concentrations (approximately 100 microM) well below those that inhibited the enzyme, which suggests that fructose 2,6-bisphosphate interacts either with the AMP site directly or with other residues involved in the active site-AMP synergy. The results also demonstrate that although Lys274 is an important binding site determinant for sugar bisphosphates, it plays a more significant role in binding fructose 2,6-bisphosphate than fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, probably because it binds the 2-phospho group of the former while other residues bind the 1-phospho group of the substrate. It is concluded that the enzyme utilizes Lys274 to discriminate between its substrate and fructose 2,6-bisphosphate.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/1992; 267(10):6526-30. · 4.60 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
364.10 Total Impact Points


  • 2000
    • Stony Brook University Hospital
      Stony Brook, New York, United States
  • 1988–1997
    • Stony Brook University
      • • Department of Emergency Medicine
      • • Department of Physiology and Biophysics
      Stony Brook, NY, United States
    • Wake Forest University
      • Department of Biochemistry
      Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States
  • 1995
    • University of Barcelona
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 1994
    • Public Health Agency
      Béal Feirste, N Ireland, United Kingdom
  • 1986–1991
    • State University of New York
      New York City, New York, United States
    • Howard Hughes Medical Institute
      Ashburn, Virginia, United States
  • 1981–1989
    • Vanderbilt University
      • Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics
      Nashville, MI, United States