[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel strain, C-138(T), belonging to the genus Corynebacterium was isolated from a severe thigh liposarcoma infection and its differentiation from Corynebacterium xerosis and Corynebacterium freneyi is described. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, rpoB sequences and the PCR profile of the 16S-23S spacer regions was not conclusive enough to differentiate strain C-138(T) from C. xerosis and C. freneyi. However, according to DNA-DNA hybridization data, strain C-138(T) constitutes a member of a distinct novel species. It can be differentiated from strains of C. xerosis and C. freneyi by colony morphology, the absence of alpha-glucosidase and some biochemical characteristics such as glucose fermentation at 42 degrees C and carbon assimilation substrates. The name Corynebacterium hansenii sp. nov. is proposed for this novel species; the type strain is C-138(T) (=CIP 108444(T)=CCUG 53252(T)).
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 06/2007; 57(Pt 5):1113-6. · 2.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enumeration and phenotypic characterization of aerobic cellulolytic bacteria were performed on fresh, 1 year old and 5 years old refuse samples of a French landfill site. Numbers of cellulolytic bacteria ranged from 1.1×106 to 2.3×108 c.f.u. (g dry wt.)−1 and were lower in 5 years old refuse samples. A numerical analysis of phenotypic data based on 80 biochemical tests and performed on 321 Gram-positive isolates from refuse, revealed a high phenotypic diversity of cellulolytic bacteria which were distributed into 21 clusters. Based on the phenotypic analysis and the sequencing of 16S rDNA of five representative strains of major clusters, the predominant cellulolytic groups could be assigned to the family of Bacillaceae and to the genera Cellulomonas, Microbacterium and Lactobacillus. Furthermore, chemical parameters such as pH, carbohydrates and volatile solid contents influenced the composition of the cellulolytic bacterial groups which were reduced essentially to the family of Bacillaceae in the oldest refuse samples.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With the increased number of resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains, it is urgently required to decipher the molecular bases of outer membrane permeability. The analyses of the outer membrane from different A. baumannii strains indicated a modification in the expression of two proteins of 29 and 43 kDa, respectively. By electrophoresis and MALDI-MS analyses, the 43 kDa OMP was identified as a protein belonging to the OprD family, a basic amino acid and imipenem porin.
Journal of Proteome Research 12/2005; 4(6):2386-90. · 5.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enterobacter aerogenes is an agent of hospital-acquired infection that exhibits a remarkable resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics during therapy. Five successive isolates of E. aerogenes infecting a patient and exhibiting a multiresistance phenotype to beta-lactam antibiotics and fluoroquinolones were investigated. Among these clinical strains, four presented resistant phenotypes during successive imipenem and colistin treatments. The involved resistance mechanisms exhibited by the successive isolates were associated with alterations of the outer membrane that caused a porin decrease and lipopolysaccharide modifications.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 05/2005; 49(4):1354-8. · 4.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aeromonas popoffii is a recently described species isolated mainly from freshwater. An isolate of Aeromonas popoffii was found to be responsible for a urinary tract infection in a 13-year-old boy suffering from spina bifida with enterocystoplasty. This is the first reported case of human infection attributed to this species.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 12/2004; 42(11):5427-8. · 4.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enterobacter aerogenes is a nosocomial pathogen associated with high mortality rate in intensive care units. Most of the isolates belonging to a prevalent type, are resistant to most antibiotics, particularly β-lactams, except imipenem, by harbouring a derepressed cephalosporinase and/or an extended-spectrum β-lactamase TEM-24. Some strains show a Multidrug Resistant phenotype due to constitutive expression of the mar operon and the MDR phenotype is the result of activation of a regulation cascade with expression of multiple genetic loci in response to regulatory proteins. The gene ramA is an another MDR regulator described in E. aerogenes. The two locus are involved in the MDR alone or in combination in E. aerogenes by altering expression of porins and surexpressing efflux systems. Such strains lead to the critical clinical situations of having no alternative therapeutic to be found.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multidrug resistance (MDR) in Enterobacter aerogenes can be mediated by induction of MarA, which is triggered by certain antibiotics and phenolic compounds. In this study, we identified the gene encoding RamA, a 113-amino-acid regulatory protein belonging to the AraC-XylS transcriptional activator family, in the Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 13048 type strain and in a clinical multiresistant isolate. Overexpression of RamA induced an MDR phenotype in drug-susceptible Escherichia coli JM109 and E. aerogenes ATCC 13048, as demonstrated by 2- to 16-fold-increased resistance to beta-lactams, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and quinolones, a decrease in porin production, and increased production of AcrA, a component of the AcrAB-TolC drug efflux pump. We show that RamA enhances the transcription of the marRAB operon but is also able to induce an MDR phenotype in a mar-deleted strain. We demonstrate here that RamA is a transcriptional activator of the Mar regulon and is also a self-governing activator of the MDR cascade.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 08/2004; 48(7):2518-23. · 4.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Enterobacter aerogenes, beta-lactam resistance often involves a decrease in outer membrane permeability induced by modifications of porin synthesis. In ATCC 15038 strain, we observed a different pattern of porin production associated with a variable antibiotic susceptibility. We purified Omp35, which is expressed under conditions of low osmolality and analyzed its pore-forming properties in artificial membranes. This porin was found to be an OmpF-like protein with high conductance values. It showed a noticeably higher conductance compared to Omp36 and a specific location of WNYT residues in the L3 loop. The importance of the constriction region in the porin function suggests that this organization is involved in the level of susceptibility to negative large cephalosporins such as ceftriaxone by bacteria producing the Omp35 porin subfamily.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 07/2004; 48(6):2153-8. · 4.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enterobacter aerogenes develops increased multidrug resistance via a functional alteration of outer-membrane permeability associated with a decrease in porin function. We have sequenced the gene coding the major porin of Enterobacter aerogenes, omp36. The sequence shows a high similarity with the Klebsiella pneumoniae ompK36 gene and is closely related to the enterobacterial OmpC family. Sequence analysis of several Omp36 issued from clinical strains indicated variability in putative cell-surface exposed domains. Interestingly, substitution Gly112Asp was observed in the conserved eyelet L3 region of the porin produced by two strains, C and 3. This substitution is associated with a high general beta-lactam resistance observed in these isolates and with alteration of pore properties previously described in strain 3 porin [Mol. Microbiol. 41 (2001) 189]. This is the first genetic identification of impermeability-mediated resistance to beta-lactams in various clinical E. aerogenes strains.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 06/2004; 317(3):851-6. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Corynebacterium freneyi is a recently described alpha-glucosidase-positive species of the genus CORYNEBACTERIUM: To our knowledge, there is no description of human infection due to this species. We report on a case of bacteremia due to C. freneyi following vascular surgery.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 07/2003; 41(6):2777-8. · 4.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eubacterium callanderi is an environmental anaerobic rod-shaped bacterium first isolated in 1998 from an industrial anaerobic digester. We report on the first clinical isolate of E. callanderi, which was recovered from the blood of a patient with a bladder carcinoma. Identification of the organism was made by cell fatty acid chromatographic analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 06/2003; 41(5):2235-6. · 4.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Imipenem is often used to treat intensive care unit patients infected by Enterobacter aerogenes, but it is leading to an increasing number of antibiotic resistant strains. Clinical isolates and imipenem resistant variants presented a high level of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotic group and to chemically unrelated drugs. We report here that imipenem selects strains which contain active efflux pumps ejecting various unrelated antibiotics including quinolones, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol. An increase of AcrA, an efflux pump component, was observed in the imipenem resistant variants. The overexpression of marA, involved in the genetic control of membrane permeability via porin and efflux pump expression, indicated the activation of the resistance genetic cascade in imipenem resistant variants.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 03/2003; 301(4):985-90. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The new gene prbA encodes an esterase responsible for the hydrolysis of the ester bond of parabens in Enterobacter cloacae strain EM. This gene is located on the chromosome of strain EM and was cloned by several PCR approaches. The prbA gene codes for an immature protein of 533 amino acids, the first 31 of which represent a proposed signal peptide yielding a mature protein of a putative molecular mass of 54.6 kDa. This enzyme presents analogies with other type B carboxylesterases, mainly of eukaryotic origin. The cloning and expression of the prbA gene in a strain of Escherichia coli previously unable to hydrolyze parabens resulted in the acquisition of a hydrolytic capacity comparable to the original activity of strain EM, along with an increased resistance of the transformed strain to methyl paraben. The presence of homologues of prbA was tested in additional ubiquitous bacteria, which may be causative factors in opportunistic infections, including Enterobacter gergoviae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas agglomerans, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Burkholderia cepacia. Among the 41 total strains tested, 2 strains of E. gergoviae and 1 strain of Burkholderia cepacia were able to degrade almost completely 800 mg of methyl paraben liter(-1). Two strains of E. gergoviae, named G1 and G12, contained a gene that showed high homology to the prbA gene of E. cloacae and demonstrated comparable paraben esterase activities. The significant geographical distance between the locations of the isolated E. cloacae and E. gergoviae strains suggests the possibility of an efficient transfer mechanism of the prbA gene, conferring additional resistance to parabens in ubiquitous bacteria that represent a common source of opportunistic infections.
Journal of Bacteriology 10/2002; 184(18):5011-7. · 2.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We determined the sequence of the entire marRAB operon in Enterobacter aerogenes. It is functionally and structurally analogous to the Escherichia coli operon. The overexpression of E. aerogenes MarA induces a multidrug resistance phenotype in a susceptible strain, demonstrated by a noticeable resistance to various antibiotics, a decrease in immunodetected porins, and active efflux of norfloxacin.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 05/2002; 46(4):1093-7. · 4.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The resistance phenotype of the clinical isolate of Escherichia coli 1941 was characterized by high-level resistance to penicillins and to combinations amoxicillin-ticarcillin/clavulanate and ampicillin/sulbactam. This resistance was carried by the conjugative plasmid pEC1941 that encoded a beta-lactamase activity. The purified enzyme focused at pI 5.4 and was strongly inhibited in vitro by clavulanic acid (IC50 = 0.09 microM). Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed identity between the plasmid borne blaTEM gene of E. coli 1941 and the blaTEM-1B gene, except for a single C-to-T substitution at position 32 in the promoter region leading to the overlapping promoters Pa and Pb. No alterations in the expression of outer membrane porins OmpC and OmpF have been detected. These findings show that the resistance of E. coli 1941 to the combinations of beta-lactams with beta-lactamase inhibitors is related to high-level production of TEM-1 enzyme expressed from the strong promoters Pa and Pb.
Microbial Drug Resistance 02/2002; 8(4):267-72. · 2.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical isolate, Escherichia coli 1941, exhibits high resistance to chloramphenicol and tetracycline (minimum inhibitory concentrations of 512 micrograms/ml). Neither resistance is linked to the large conjugative plasmid present in the strain. The intracellular accumulation of radiolabeled chloramphenicol increased about 9-fold after the addition of the energy uncoupler carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenol-hydrazone to an E. coli 1941 culture, indicating the presence of an active efflux mechanism. Sequence analysis and expression study suggested that the multiple-antibiotic resistance marRAB locus and the AcrAB drug-efflux pump were not involved in this active efflux of chloramphenicol.
Drugs under experimental and clinical research 02/2002; 28(2-3):99-104.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three coryneform strains from clinical specimens were studied. They belonged to the genus Corynebacterium, since they had type IV cell walls containing corynemycolic acids. They had phenotypic characteristics that included alpha-glucosidase, pyrazinamidase and alkaline phosphatase activities and fermentation of glucose, ribose, maltose and sucrose. These are the characteristics of Corynebacterium xerosis. Since this species is very rare in human pathology, the strains were studied in more detail by comparing the 16S-23S intergenic spacers, rDNA sequences and levels of DNA similarity of these three strains and those of the reference strains C. xerosis ATCC 373T and Corynebacterium amycolatum CIP 103452T. According to DNA-DNA hybridization data, the three novel strains are members of the same species (level of DNA similarity >72%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these strains are closely related to C. xerosis and C. amycolatum, but DNA-relatedness experiments showed clearly that they constitute a distinct new species, with levels of DNA relatedness of less than 23% to C. xerosis ATCC 373T and less than 5% to C. amycolatum CIP 103452T. Two other alpha-glucosidase-positive strains presenting the same biochemical characteristics were included in the study and proved to be C. amycolatum. This new species can be differentiated from C. xerosis and C. amycolatum strains by carbon source utilization, intergenic spacer region length profiles and some biochemical characteristics such as glucose fermentation at 42 degrees C and growth at 20 degrees C. The name Corynebacterium freneyi sp. nov. is proposed with the type strain ISPB 6695110T (= CIP 106767T = DSM 44506T).
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 09/2001; 51(Pt 5):1723-8. · 2.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacterial strains isolated from diseased erythrina (Erythrina sp.) trees in Martinique (French West Indies) were studied using phenotypic tests, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. Numerical analysis of phenotypic characteristics showed that these strains formed an homogeneous phenon among plant-pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae, and gave useful and updated information for the identification of these bacteria. Results of DNA-DNA hybridization indicated that strains from erythrina belonged to a discrete genomospecies (89-100% hybridization) and had low levels of DNA relatedness (2-33% hybridization) with reference strains of phytopathogenic Erwinia, Brenneria, Pectobacterium, Pantoea and Enterobacter species. 16S rDNA sequence analysis using three different methods revealed that the position of strain CFBP 5236T isolated from erythrina was variable in the different trees, so that strains from erythrina could not be assigned to any recognized genus. It is proposed that these strains are included in a new genus, Samsonia. The name Samsonia erythrinae is proposed for the new species. The G+C content of the DNA of the type strain, CFBP 5236T (= ICMP 13937T), is 57.0 mol%.
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 08/2001; 51(Pt 4):1291-304. · 2.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The phylogenetic relationships of the type strains of 9 Klebsiella species and 20 species from 11 genera of the family Enterobacteriaceae were investigated by performing a comparative analysis of the sequences of the 16S rRNA and rpoB genes. The sequence data were phylogenetically analysed by the neighbourjoining and parsimony methods. The phylogenetic inference of the sequence comparison confirmed that the genus Klebsiella is heterogeneous and composed of species which form three clusters that also included members of other genera, including Enterobacter aerogenes, Erwinia clusters I and II and Tatumella. Cluster I contained the type strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis and Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae. Cluster II contained Klebsiella ornithinolytica, Klebsiella planticola, Klebsiella trevisanii and Klebsiella terrigena, organisms characterized by growth at 10 degrees C and utilization of L-sorbose as carbon source. Cluster III contained Klebsiella oxytoca. The data from the sequence analyses along with previously reported biochemical and DNA-DNA hybridization data support the division of the genus Klebsiella into two genera and one genogroup. The name Raoultella is proposed as a genus name for species of cluster II and emended definitions of Klebsiella species are proposed.
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 06/2001; 51(Pt 3):925-32. · 2.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some bacteria are difficult to identify with phenotypic identification schemes commonly used outside reference laboratories. 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA)-based identification of bacteria potentially offers a useful alternative when phenotypic characterization methods fail. However, as yet, the usefulness of 16S rDNA sequence analysis in the identification of conventionally unidentifiable isolates has not been evaluated with a large collection of isolates. In this study, we evaluated the utility of 16S rDNA sequencing as a means to identify a collection of 177 such isolates obtained from environmental, veterinary, and clinical sources. For 159 isolates (89.8%) there was at least one sequence in GenBank that yielded a similarity score of > or =97%, and for 139 isolates (78.5%) there was at least one sequence in GenBank that yielded a similarity score of > or =99%. These similarity score values were used to defined identification at the genus and species levels, respectively. For isolates identified to the species level, conventional identification failed to produce accurate results because of inappropriate biochemical profile determination in 76 isolates (58.7%), Gram staining in 16 isolates (11.6%), oxidase and catalase activity determination in 5 isolates (3.6%) and growth requirement determination in 2 isolates (1.5%). Eighteen isolates (10.2%) remained unidentifiable by 16S rDNA sequence analysis but were probably prototype isolates of new species. These isolates originated mainly from environmental sources (P = 0.07). The 16S rDNA approach failed to identify Enterobacter and Pantoea isolates to the species level (P = 0.04; odds ratio = 0.32 [95% confidence interval, 0.10 to 1.14]). Elsewhere, the usefulness of 16S rDNA sequencing was compromised by the presence of 16S rDNA sequences with >1% undetermined positions in the databases. Unlike phenotypic identification, which can be modified by the variability of expression of characters, 16S rDNA sequencing provides unambiguous data even for rare isolates, which are reproducible in and between laboratories. The increase in accurate new 16S rDNA sequences and the development of alternative genes for molecular identification of certain taxa should further improve the usefulness of molecular identification of bacteria.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 10/2000; 38(10):3623-30. · 4.23 Impact Factor