Javier Romeo

INRCA Istituto Nazionale di Ricovero e Cura per Anziani, Ancona, The Marches, Italy

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Publications (46)104.32 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the association between specific dietary habits and body fatness in Spanish adolescents, and to analyze the role of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in this association. In this cross-sectional study, 1,978 adolescents (1,017 girls) aged 13.0-18.5 years from the AVENA (Alimentación y Valoración del Estado Nutricional en Adolescentes) study were included. Particular dietary habits (breakfast, mid-morning snack, lunch, afternoon snack, dinner, and nighttime snack, as well as time spent eating, number of meals, consumption of soft drinks, and ready-to-eat foods) and LTPA were self-reported and analyzed as dichotomic variables (yes/no). The sum of six skinfold thicknesses and waist circumference (WC) values were the main body fatness variables. Skinfolds and WC values were lower in adolescents who reported consumption of mid-morning snack, afternoon snack, more than four meals per day, and an adequate speed of eating, independently of participation in LTPA. Moreover, a beneficial influence of breakfast consumption on skinfolds and WC values was observed in those adolescent boys who did not participate in LTPA (p for interactions = .044 and .040, respectively). In Spanish adolescents, certain healthy dietary habits (i.e., mid-morning snack, afternoon snack, > 4 meals per day, adequate eating speed) are associated with lower body fatness, independently of engaging in LTPA. In addition, among boys with non-LTPA, those who skipped breakfast showed the highest body fatness values, indicating a beneficial influence of daily breakfast on body fat in this particular group.
    Journal of Adolescent Health 04/2012; 50(4):403-9. · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The diet in the elderly does not provide a sufficient level of nutrients needed to maintain an adequate healthy status leading to micronutrient deficiencies and impaired immune response with subsequent development of degenerative diseases. Nutrient "zinc" is a relevant micronutrient involved in maintaining a good integrity of many body homeostatic mechanisms, including immune efficiency, owing to its requirement for the biological activity of many enzymes, proteins and for cellular proliferation and genomic stability. Old people aged 60-65 years and older have zinc intakes below 50% of the recommended daily allowance on a given day. Many causes can be involved: among them, altered intestinal absorption, inadequate mastication, psychosocial factors, drugs interactions, altered subcellular processes (zinc transporters (Zip and ZnT family), metallothioneins, divalent metal transporter-1). Zinc supplementation may remodel the immune alterations in elderly leading to healthy ageing. Several zinc trials have been carried out with contradictory data, perhaps due to incorrect choice of an effective zinc supplementation in old subjects showing subsequent zinc toxic effects on immunity. Old subjects with specific IL-6 polymorphism (GG allele carriers; named C-) are more prone for zinc supplementation than the entire old population, in whom correct dietary habits with foods containing zinc (Mediterranean diet) may be sufficient in restoring zinc deficiency and impaired immune response. We summarise the main causes of low zinc dietary intake in elderly reporting an update on the impact of zinc supplementation upon the immune response also on the basis of individual IL-6 polymorphism.
    Age 01/2012; · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the effects of the EVASYON program on body fatness, cardiometabolic risk factors, gut appetite-controlling hormones and serum levels of cytokines in adolescents with overweight or obesity (OW/OB). This study comprised 13 boys (10 obese) and 12 girls (8 obese), aged 13-16 years, from a Madrid Hospital. The EVASYON program was based on a calorie-restricted diet (10-40%), increased physical activity (at least 60 min/day 5 days a week), psychological therapy and nutritional education for 13 months. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were measured before and after intervention. Serum glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, leptin, total peptide YY and insulin levels were determined before and after intervention. Serum levels of cytokines IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α were also assessed before and after intervention. A decrease in body mass index (BMI), BMI z-score, skinfolds (triceps, biceps, subscapular, thigh, and calf), sum of six skinfolds and body circumferences (arm relaxed and flexed, waist, hip, and proximal thigh) values were observed after the intervention program (all p < 0.05). In addition, diastolic blood pressure also decreased (p < 0.05). A decrease in serum leptin levels (-48.4%, p < 0.001) was observed after intervention without changes in total peptide YY and insulin levels. Levels of IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α also decreased (all p < 0.05) after the intervention program. These preliminary results evidence that the EVASYON program may improve body fat, leptin, and some pro-inflammatory cytokines in adolescents with OW/OB.
    Pediatric Diabetes 06/2011; 12(4 Pt 2):372-80. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the combined influence of four lifestyle risk factors related to physical activity, television viewing, sleep duration, and meal frequency on body fat (BF) in adolescents. This cross-sectional study comprised 1,310 Spanish adolescents (age 13-18.5 years). Lifestyle variables were self-reported and BF indicators (weight, height, six skinfold thicknesses, waist circumference) measured during the years 2000-2002. Lifestyle risk factors were: physically inactive, ≥ 3 h/day watching television, <8 h/day sleep duration, and <5 meals a day. The number of lifestyle risk factors was calculated for each participant, ranging from 0 to 4. The number of lifestyle risk factors was positively associated with sum of six skinfolds, %BF, waist circumference, and waist-height ratio (all p < 0.001). The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of overweight (including obesity) for groups with 1, 2, and 3-4 lifestyle risk factors compared with those with 0 were 2.86 (1.77-4.62), 3.61 (2.16-6.04), and 5.81 (3.07-10.99), respectively (p for trend <0.001). All the observations were independent of age, gender, race, socioeconomic status, and fat free mass. The combined influence of four lifestyle risk factors is positively associated with BF and an approximately sixfold risk of overweight in adolescents.
    Obesity Facts 01/2011; 4(2):105-11. · 1.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a running bout under hot conditions on cognitive performance in physically active men. Sixteen participants ran at 60% of maximum aerobic speed for an average time of 52.4 ± 7.6 minutes under hot environmental conditions (35°C, 60% relative humidity). Changes in body mass, lean mass, hematocrit, plasma volume, serum urea, creatinine, and thirst score were assessed to evaluate the state of hydration immediately before and after exercise. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Vienna Test System battery before and after exercise. The running protocol led to a decreased body mass, lean mass, plasma volume and an increased hematocrit, serum urea, creatinine and thirst score (all p < 0.05), implying that there was significant impairment in the state of hydration. After the running bout, complex and peripheral reaction time consistently improved, whereas visual angle was impaired (all p < 0.05). A running bout in the heat improves the speed of response in complex tasks but impairs the field of vision and leads to a deleterious hydration state.
    Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness - J EXERC SCI FIT. 01/2011; 9(1):58-64.
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    ABSTRACT: Adipocytokines may have a key role in the development of atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to examine the independent and joint associations of physical activity (PA), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and muscular fitness (MF) with adiponectin and leptin in adolescents. A sample of 198 adolescents (96 girls), aged 13-17-year, was selected. Participants completed anthropometric measurements (height, weight, and waist circumference) and percentage of body fat (%BF) was estimated by bioelectrical impedance. PA was measured by accelerometer for 7-day. The 20-m shuttle-run test was used to assess CRF and two MF tests (handgrip strength and standing broad jump) were used to create an MF score. A cluster score of health status (0-3 risks) was created. Serum adiponectin and plasma leptin were also determined. Regression analyses controlling for age, sex, pubertal status and waist circumference showed that PA was not significantly associated with adiponectin and vigorous PA showed a significant inverse association with leptin. Both CRF and MF were significantly and inversely associated with adiponectin and leptin. Further analyses revealed that the 'healthy' group (0 risks) had significantly lower adiponectin and leptin than 'medium-healthy' (1 risk) and 'unhealthy' (2-3 risks) status groups. PA, CRF and MF are inversely and jointly associated with adiponectin and leptin concentrations in adolescents.
    Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD 01/2011; 22(3):252-9. · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    Proceedings of The Nutrition Society 01/2011; 70(OCE2). · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The liver X receptors (LXR) α and β regulate lipid and carbohydrate homeostasis and inflammation. Lxrβ⁻/⁻ mice are glucose intolerant and at the same time lean. We aimed to assess the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in LXRβ and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity and related traits in 3 separate cohort studies. Twenty LXRβ SNPs were identified by sequencing and genotyped in the HUNT2 adult nested case-control study for T2DM (n = 835 cases/1986 controls). Five tag-SNPs (rs17373080, rs2695121, rs56151148, rs2303044 and rs3219281), covering 99.3% of the entire common genetic variability of the LXRβ gene were identified and genotyped in the French MONICA adult study (n = 2318) and the European adolescent HELENA cross-sectional study (n = 1144). In silico and in vitro functionality studies were performed. We identified suggestive or significant associations between rs17373080 and the risk of (i) T2DM in HUNT2 (OR = 0.82, p = 0.03), (ii) obesity in MONICA (OR = 1.26, p = 0.05) and (iii) overweight/obesity in HELENA (OR = 1.59, p = 0.002). An intron 4 SNP (rs28514894, a perfect proxy for rs17373080) could potentially create binding sites for hepatic nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α) and nuclear factor 1 (NF1). The C allele of rs28514894 was associated with ~1.25-fold higher human LXRβ basal promoter activity in vitro. However, no differences between alleles in terms of DNA binding and reporter gene transactivation by HNF4α or NF1 were observed. Our results suggest that rs17373080 in LXRβ is associated with T2DM and obesity, maybe via altered LXRβ expression.
    BMC Medical Genetics 10/2010; 11:144. · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During the last few decades, scientific evidence has confirmed a wide range of health benefits related to regular physical activity. How physical activity affects the immune function and infection risk is, however, still under debate. Commonly, intensive exercise suppresses the activity and levels of several immune cells, while other immune functions may be stimulated by moderate physical activity. With this knowledge, the understanding of the relationship between different levels of physical activity on the immune function has been raised as a potential tool to protect health not only in athletes but also in the general population; the mechanisms that translate a physically active lifestyle into good health continue to be investigated. Reviewing the literature, although several outcomes (i.e. the mechanisms by which different levels and duration of physical activity programmes affect numerous cell types and responses) remain unclear, given that the additional benefits encompass healthy habits including exercise, the use of physical activity programmes may result in improved health of elderly populations. Moderate physical activity or moderate-regulated training may enhance the immune function mainly in less fit subjects or sedentary population and the pre-event fitness status also seems to be an important individual factor regarding this relationship. Although adequate nutrition and regular physical activity habits may synergistically improve health, clinical trials in athletes using nutritional supplements to counteract the immune suppression have been inconclusive so far.Further research is necessary to find out to what extent physical activity training can exert an effect on the immune function.
    Proceedings of The Nutrition Society 08/2010; 69(3):390-9. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Social acceptance of drinking involves social and cultural roles and has important implications for public health. Since extensive evidence indicates that alcohol possesses immunomodulatory properties, scientists have recently debated the influence of alcohol consumption on the immune response, particularly in countries where drinking in a social setting is a part of cultural identity. Experimental and clinical data support the conclusion that alcohol is a potent immunomodulator. While high alcohol consumption suppresses a wide range of immune responses, leading to an increased incidence of a number of infectious diseases, moderate alcohol consumption may have a beneficial impact on the immune system, compared to alcohol abuse or abstinence, most likely due to the multiple components of polyphenol-rich alcoholic contributing to the protective effect seen for moderate alcohol consumption on CVD and the immune system. Despite this, the scientific literature appears to be concerned about the diseases associated with excessive drinking in some societies and cultures. Thus, the present review recognizes the importance to consider social and cultural aspects of drinking when examining the whole dimension of alcohol consumption (amount, beverage type, frequency and variability), in order to estimate global risk of consequences on host defence to better understand alcohol-related harm or benefit.
    Proceedings of The Nutrition Society 08/2010; 69(3):341-6. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prospective studies have shown that chronic low-grade inflammation may contribute to the pathogenesis of the most common chronic diseases and in particular CVD. Obesity has repeatedly been associated with moderately raised levels of inflammation, and this observation has led to the view that obesity is characterised by a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. There is now great interest in elucidating how physical activity and exercise modulate inflammation. This review summarises the current research addressing the influence of physical activity and exercise in mitigating the risks of obesity and diseases such as type-II diabetes and CVD, through its action on the low-grade inflammatory state. Most research on this topic hypothesised that the association between physical activity and inflammatory markers is independent of fatness, but very few studies have proven this. Given that physical activity and obesity are often inversely related, it is not clear as to whether the anti-inflammatory health benefits of a physically active lifestyle are due to exercise per se or result from favourable changes in the body composition.
    Proceedings of The Nutrition Society 08/2010; 69(3):400-6. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic diseases associated to modern lifestyle habits are usually related to immune system malfunction. In this context, since diet is very well-known to modulate host resistance to infectious and inflammatory processes, the consumption of fibre and probiotics seems to be a promising nutritional tool for immune system modulation in different populations. Health effects of dietary fibres and probiotics have been extensively documented in numerous epidemiological and intervention studies, especially their beneficial effect on intestinal microbiota with important clinical implications in the prevention and/or treatment of infectious and inflammatory diseases. Mechanisms may include modulation of the functional properties of the microbiota, epithelial cells, dendritic cells and immune cell types. Prebiotics have been extensively reported to affect the composition of the gut microbiota, stimulating directly or indirectly putative beneficial gut commensals other than lactic acid bacteria, opening promising areas of research for the discovery of new probiotic strains and synbiotic combinations. Age-related changes in gut physiology, microbiota and mucosal immune response are well established. Moreover, exposure to different challenges during life such as early encounter of environmental insults in the newborn, infant formula feeding, antibiotic treatment, gastrointestinal diseases and stress, also interferes with the normal development and balance of the healthy gut microbiota. Therefore, the current short review gives an overview of today's main aspects of the effect of fibres, probiotics and synbiotics on the immune system in different life-stages.
    Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral 06/2010; 25(3):341-349. · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    American Journal of Human Biology - AMER J HUM BIOL. 01/2010;
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    Proceedings of The Nutrition Society 01/2010; 69. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    Proceedings of The Nutrition Society 01/2010; 69. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several studies have suggested that polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins and minerals have beneficial effects on lipid profile and systemic inflammation in adults. We examined the effects of a daily intake of milk enriched with longchain polyunsaturated fatty acids, oleic acid, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and low in saturated fatty acids (SFAs) for 5 months, on several cardiovascular (CVD) risk biomarkers in healthy children aged 8-14 years. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, a total of 107 children of both genders were assigned to two study groups: 1) a supplemented group (SG, n=53) who consumed 0.6 L/day of an enriched dairy product, and 2) a control group (CG, n=54) who consumed 0.6 L/day of standard whole milk. Both groups consumed the dairy drinks for 5 months, in addition to their usual diet. Serum levels of adhesion molecules as indices of vascular endothelial cell activation were assessed in both groups at 0 and 5 months as well as white blood cell counts, lipid profile, serum proteins, total serum calcium, 25-OH vitamin D, glucose, insulin and adiponectin. In the enriched dairy drink supplemented group, adhesion molecules E-selectin and ICAM-1 as well as lymphocyte levels decreased while plasma docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and serum calcium concentrations increased. In the control group, serum total protein, transferrin, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin concentrations decreased. The consumption of a milk enriched with fish oil, oleic acid, minerals and vitamins reduced indices of endothelial cell activation in the studied group of healthy children.
    Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD 11/2009; 21(2):113-20. · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To provide reference values for haematological indices in Spanish adolescents according to age and gender. A cross sectional study conducted in five Spanish cities was performed. Blood was drawn from a representative sample of 581 adolescents with age ranging from 13 to 17-18.5 yr. Age- and gender-specific means, standard deviations and percentiles were determined for the following parameters: total red blood cell counts (RBC), haemoglobin concentration (Hb), haematocrit percentage (Hct), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, red cell distribution width and total white blood cell (WBC) counts as well as counts and percentage of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils; platelet count (PLT), mean platelet volume and plateletcrit percentage. Younger male subjects presented lower RBC, Hb, Hct and MCV means that their older counterpart. By contrast these differences were not observed in female subjects. As expected, RBC, Hb and Hct mean values in males were found significantly higher than in girls for all studied age groups. No significant differences were observed in WBC by age and gender. PLT values gradually decreased with age, except for females aged 17-18.5 yr. The present study provides reference data on the distribution of haematological indices of Spanish adolescents. These data can be useful biomarkers of the nutritional status in adolescents.
    European Journal Of Haematology 08/2009; 83(6):586-94. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inflammation, particularly low-grade chronic inflammation, appears to affect several brain functions, from early brain development to the development of neurodegenerative disorders and perhaps some psychiatric diseases. On the other hand, nutrition and dietary components and patterns have a plethora of anti- and pro-inflammatory effects that could be linked to cognitive function. Even a modest effect of nutrition on cognitive decline could have significant implications for public health. This paper summarizes the available evidence regarding inflammation as a key mechanism in cognitive function and nutritional pro- or anti-inflammatory effects with the purpose of linking the apparent disparate disciplines of nutrition, immunity, and neurology.
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 02/2009; 1153(1):164 - 175. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Published data about the association between the consumption of sweetened soft-drinks (SSD) and obesity in childhood are controversial and still inconsistent. In addition, data are lacking in the Spanish population. The purpose of this study was therefore, to explore the cross-sectional association between body composition-related parameters and SSD consumption in Spanish adolescents. Subjects and methods: A representative sample of 1,523 adolescents (768 boys and 755 girls), with complete dietary data as well as anthropometric measurements, were included in this study. Weight, height, waist circumferences, and 6 skinfolds were measured, and BMI and percentage body fat were calculated. From a 24h dietary recall the subjects were grouped in 3 groups according to their SSD consumption: 1) Non-consumers (0 g of SSD consumption); 2) Moderate consumption (< 336 g/day of SSD, equivalent to the average SSD portion size); and 3) High consumption (> 336 g/day of SSD). Results: 67% males and 75% females did not consume any SSD the day before the dietary recall interview. Males consumed more SSD than females. Regarding the association between SSD consumption and measures of obesity, no difference was observed between the three groups of SSD consumption in any of the anthropometric measurement, BMI or body fat. Conclusion: As no association was present between SSD consumption and obesity in our cross-sectional study we suggest that dietary patterns and habits as well as lifestyle factors such as physical activity should be present when examining cross-sectional or longitudinal relationships with obesity. Multidisciplinary intervention studies are crucial when trying to develop solutions against the increasing obesity epidemic.
    Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral 02/2009; 24(1):97-102. · 1.31 Impact Factor
  • Obesity Facts 01/2009; · 1.58 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

401 Citations
104.32 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012
    • INRCA Istituto Nazionale di Ricovero e Cura per Anziani
      • Gerontological Research Department
      Ancona, The Marches, Italy
    • Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2002–2012
    • Spanish National Research Council
      • Departamento de Metabolismo y Nutrición
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2009
    • Karolinska Institutet
      • Institutionen för biovetenskaper och näringslära
      Solna, Stockholm, Sweden