[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new small-molecule inhibitor class that targets virion maturation was identified from a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antiviral screen. PF-46396, a representative molecule, exhibits antiviral activity against HIV-1 laboratory strains and clinical isolates in T-cell lines and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). PF-46396 specifically inhibits the processing of capsid (CA)/spacer peptide 1 (SP1) (p25), resulting in the accumulation of CA/SP1 (p25) precursor proteins and blocked maturation of the viral core particle. Viral variants resistant to PF-46396 contain a single amino acid substitution in HIV-1 CA sequences (CAI201V), distal to the CA/SP1 cleavage site in the primary structure, which we demonstrate is sufficient to confer significant resistance to PF-46396 and 3-O-(3',3'-dimethylsuccinyl) betulinic acid (DSB), a previously described maturation inhibitor. Conversely, a single amino substitution in SP1 (SP1A1V), which was previously associated with DSB in vitro resistance, was sufficient to confer resistance to DSB and PF-46396. Further, the CAI201V substitution restored CA/SP1 processing in HIV-1-infected cells treated with PF-46396 or DSB. Our results demonstrate that PF-46396 acts through a mechanism that is similar to DSB to inhibit the maturation of HIV-1 virions. To our knowledge, PF-46396 represents the first small-molecule HIV-1 maturation inhibitor that is distinct in chemical class from betulinic acid-derived maturation inhibitors (e.g., DSB), demonstrating that molecules of diverse chemical classes can inhibit this mechanism.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 10/2009; 53(12):5080-7. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The synthesis and structure-activity relationship of a series of novel gp120-CD4 inhibitors are described. Pharmacokinetic studies and antiviral spectrum assessment of lead compounds led to the identification of compound 36, a potent gp120-CD4 inhibitor which exhibited antiviral potency across a spectrum of 25 clade B isolates.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of piperazine derivatives were designed and synthesised as gp120-CD4 inhibitors. SAR studies led to the discovery of potent inhibitors in a cell based anti viral assay represented by compounds 9 and 28. The rat pharmacokinetic and antiviral profiles of selected compounds are also presented.