[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: School environment is an important determinant of psychosocial function and may also be related to mental health. We therefore investigated whether perceived school safety, a simple measure of this environment, is related to mental health problems. In a population-based sample of 11,130 secondary school students, we analysed the relationship of perceived school safety with mental health problems using multiple logistic regression analyses to adjust for potential confounders. Mental health problems were defined using the clinical cut-off of the self-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. School safety showed an exposure-response relationship with mental health problems after adjustment for confounders. Odds ratios increased from 2.48 ("sometimes unsafe") to 8.05 ("very often unsafe"). The association was strongest in girls and young and middle-aged adolescents. Irrespective of the causal background of this association, school safety deserves attention either as a risk factor or as an indicator of mental health problems.
Community Mental Health Journal 01/2013; · 1.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To perform a systematic review, and if possible a meta-analysis, to establish whether depressed patients with co-morbid chronic somatic illnesses are a high risk "double trouble" group for depressive recurrence.
The databases PubMed, EMbase and PsycINFO were systematically searched until the 4 of December 2012 by using MeSH and free text terms. Additionally, reference lists of retrieved publications and treatment guidelines were reviewed, and experts were consulted. Inclusion criteria were: depression had to be measured at least twice during the study with qualified instruments and the chronic somatic illness had to be assessed by self-report or by a medical professional. Information on depressive recurrence was extracted and additionally risk ratios of recurrence were calculated.
The search generated four articles that fulfilled our inclusion criteria. These studies showed no differences in recurrence over one- two- three- and 6.5 years of follow-up for a total of 2010 depressed patients of which 694 patients with a co-morbid chronic somatic illness versus 1316 patients without (Study 1: RR = 0.49, 95% CI, 0.17-1.41 at one year follow-up and RR = 1.37, 95% CI, 0.78-2.41 at two year follow-up; Study 2: RR = 0.94, 95% CI, 0.65-1.36 at two year follow-up; Study 3: RR = 1.15, 95% CI, 0.40-3.27 at one year follow-up; RR = 1.07, 95% CI, 0.48-2.42 at two year follow-up and RR = 0.99, 95% CI,0.55-1.77 at 6.5 years follow-up; Study 4: RR = 1.16, 95% CI, 0.86-1.57 at three year follow-up).
We found no association between a heightened risk for depressive recurrence and co-morbid chronic somatic illnesses. There is a need for more longitudinal studies to justify the current specific treatment advice such as long-term pharmacological maintenance treatment for this presumed "double trouble" group.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(3):e57510. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In spina bifida aperta (SBA), spinal MRI provides a surrogate marker to estimate muscle damage caudal to the myelomeningocele (MMC). This muscle damage by the MMC can be quantified by intra-individual comparison of muscle ultrasound density (MUD) caudal versus cranial to the MMC (dMUD = [MUD(caudal-to-the-MMC)] - [MUD(cranial-to-the-MMC)]). Quantitative dMUD assessment requires time, equipment and expertise, whereas it could also be visually determined by differences in muscle echodensity caudal vs. cranial to the MMC (visual-dMUD). If visual and quantitative dMUD correspond, visual dMUD assessment could provide a clinical screening parameter. In 100 SBA muscle ultrasound recordings of patients with various MMC levels, we aimed to compare quantitative dMUD (dMUD = [MUD(calf-muscle/S1)] - [MUD(quadriceps-muscle/L2-L4)]) with visual dMUD assessments by 20 different observers. Results indicate that quantitative dMUD can be visually detected (sensitivity 86%; specificity 57%), implicating that visual dMUD screening could provide a quick, clinical screening tool for muscle impairment by the MMC.
Ultrasound in medicine & biology 06/2012; 38(8):1339-44. · 2.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In type 1 diabetes, diabetes-associated autoantibodies, including islet cell antibodies (ICAs), reflect adaptive immunity, while increased serum N(ε)-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), an advanced glycation end product, is associated with proinflammation. We assessed whether serum CML and autoantibodies predicted type 1 diabetes and to what extent they were determined by genetic or environmental factors. Of 7,287 unselected schoolchildren screened, 115 were ICA(+) and were tested for baseline CML and diabetes autoantibodies and followed (for median 7 years), whereas a random selection (n = 2,102) had CML tested. CML and diabetes autoantibodies were determined in a classic twin study of twin pairs discordant for type 1 diabetes (32 monozygotic, 32 dizygotic pairs). CML was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, autoantibodies were determined by radioimmunoprecipitation, ICA was determined by indirect immunofluorescence, and HLA class II genotyping was determined by sequence-specific oligonucleotides. CML was increased in ICA(+) and prediabetic schoolchildren and in diabetic and nondiabetic twins (all P < 0.001). Elevated levels of CML in ICA(+) children were a persistent, independent predictor of diabetes progression, in addition to autoantibodies and HLA risk. In twins model fitting, familial environment explained 75% of CML variance, and nonshared environment explained all autoantibody variance. Serum CML, a glycotoxin, emerged as an environmentally determined diabetes risk factor, in addition to autoimmunity and HLA genetic risk, and a potential therapeutic target.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pharmacogenetic studies have demonstrated significant associations between several candidate genes (DRD2, DRD3, 5HTR2A and 5HTR2C, COMT and MTHFR) and antipsychotic drug response. The present study investigates the effect of nine polymorphisms in these genes for an association with antipsychotic treatment response. 329 Caucasian patients with a non-affective psychotic disorder using antipsychotics were included. All patients participated in the longitudinal GROUP-study in The Netherlands. We genotyped 9 SNPs in 6 candidate genes (DRD2: TaqI_A, -141C; DRD3: Ser9Gly; HTR2A: 102-T/C, His452Tyr; HTR2C: Cys23Ser; COMT: Val158Met; MTHFR: 677-C/T) using standard protocols. Polymorphisms were based on previous studies showing associations with positive symptoms treatment response. The Clinical Global Impression - Improvement (CGI-I) scale was used to assess improvement in positive psychotic symptoms since the start of current antipsychotic treatment. Ordinal regression was used for association analyses. Ninety percent of the patients used second generation antipsychotics, with olanzapine (28%) and risperidone (29%) being the most prescribed drugs. Ser9Gly of the dopamine D3 receptor gene (P value 0.034) and 677-C/T of MTHFR (P value 0.019) were tested statistically significant. Gly-carriers and T-carriers, respectively, showed more clinical improvement on the CGI-I. The other polymorphisms did not show a statistically significant association (P values>0.10). In conclusion, we replicated two out of nine of the previously reported associations between polymorphisms and treatment response. The direction and magnitude of the associations presented here in DRD3 (Ser9Gly) and MTHFR (677-C/T) are in line with previous association studies in Caucasian patients. These polymorphisms may be of value for predicting clinical response.
European neuropsychopharmacology: the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology 02/2012; 22(9):625-31. · 3.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) characteristically presents with asymmetrical symptoms, contralateral to the side of the most extensive cerebral affection. This intriguing asymmetry, even included in the definition for diagnosing PD, however, is still part of a mystery. The relation with handedness as a common indicator of cerebral asymmetry might provide a clue in the search for causal factors of asymmetrical symptom onset in PD. This possible relationship, however, is still under debate. The objective of this study was to establish whether a relation between handedness and dominant PD side exists. We searched for cross-sectional or cohort studies that registered handedness and onset side in PD patients in PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science from their first record until 14 February 2011. Data about handedness and dominant PD side was extracted. Authors who registered both but not described their relation were contacted for further information. Odds ratios (ORs) were analyzed with a fixed effect Mantel-Haenszel model. Heterogeneity and indications of publication bias were limited. Our electronic search identified 10 studies involving 4405 asymmetric PD patients. Of the right-handed patients, 2413 (59.5%) had right-dominant and 1644 (40.5%) had left-dominant PD symptoms. For the left-handed patients this relation was reversed, with 142 (40.8%) right-dominant and 206 (59.2%) left-dominant PD symptoms. Overall OR was 2.13 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.71-2.66). Handedness and symptom dominance in PD are firmly related with each other in such a way that the PD symptoms emerge more often on the dominant hand-side. Possible causal factors are discussed.
Movement Disorders 02/2012; 27(2):206-10. · 5.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is thought to be associated with more mood symptoms and worse cognitive functioning. This study examined whether variation in HPA axis activity underlies the association between mood symptoms and cognitive functioning.
In 65 bipolar patients cognitive functioning was measured in domains of psychomotor speed, speed of information processing, attentional switching, verbal memory, visual memory, executive functioning and an overall mean score. Severity of depression was assessed by the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-self rating version. Saliva cortisol measurements were performed to calculate HPA axis indicators: cortisol awakening response, diurnal slope, the evening cortisol level and the cortisol suppression on the dexamethasone suppression test. Regression analyses of depressive symptoms and cognitive functioning on each HPA axis indicator were performed. In addition we calculated percentages explanation of the association between depressive symptoms and cognition by HPA axis indicators. Depressive symptoms were associated with dysfunction in psychomotor speed, attentional switching and the mean score, as well as with attenuation in diurnal slope value. No association was found between HPA axis activity and cognitive functioning and HPA axis activity did not explain the associations between depressive symptoms and cognition.
As our study is the first one in this field specific for bipolar patients and changes in HPA-axis activity did not seem to explain the association between severity of depressive symptoms and cognitive functioning in bipolar patients, future studies are needed to evaluate other factors that might explain this relationship.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(5):e37119. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The early detection of poststroke depression is essential for optimizing recovery after stroke. A prospective study was conducted to investigate the diagnostic value of the 9-item and the 2-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9, PHQ-2).
One hundred seventy-one consecutive patients with stroke who could communicate adequately were included. In the 6th to 8th weeks after stroke, depression was measured using the PHQ-9 and PHQ-2 and diagnosed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview.
Of the participating patients, 20 (12.2%) were depressed. The PHQ-9 performed best at a score ≥10, a sensitivity of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.62-0.98), and a specificity of 0.78 (95% CI, 0.72-0.85) and the PHQ-2 at a score ≥2 with a sensitivity of 0.75 (95% CI, 0.56-0.94) and a specificity of 0.76 (95% CI, 0.69-0.83). Administering the PHQ-9 only to patients who scored ≥2 on the PHQ-2 improved the identification of depression (sensitivity, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.69-1.04).
The diagnostic value is acceptable to good for PHQ-9 scores ≥10 and PHQ-2 scores ≥2. Conducting a PHQ-9 only in patients with a PHQ-2 score ≥2 generates the best results.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effects of exogenous melatonin on the frequency of wet nights, on the sleep-wake cycle, and on the melatonin profile in children with therapy-resistant MNE.
24 patients were included. Patients had to maintain a diary including time of sleep and arousal, and whether they had a dry or a wet bed in the morning. We measured baseline melatonin profiles in saliva. Hereafter, patients were randomized to synthetic melatonin or placebo. After 3 and 6 months we evaluated the frequency of enuresis and the melatonin profiles.
11 patients were randomized to melatonin, 13 to placebo. We evaluated melatonin profiles of 7 patients in the melatonin group and of 8 in the placebo group. We observed a change in profile in the melatonin group, but we did not observe a difference in the sleep-wake cycle or the frequency of wet nights in either group.
This is the first time exogenous melatonin has been evaluated in the treatment of MNE. Although we observed a change in melatonin profile after the use of exogenous melatonin, we did not observe a change in enuresis frequency or in the sleep-wake cycle of this select group of patients.
Journal of pediatric urology 09/2011; 8(4):416-20. · 1.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Postpartum depression (PPD) follows 5-15% of the life births and forms a major threat to the child's mental health and psychosocial development. However, the nature, continuance, and mediators of the association of postpartum depression (PPD) with the child's mental health are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an association between PPD and adolescent mental problems is explained by parental psychopathology and whether the association shows specificity to the internalizing or externalizing domain.
2729 adolescents aged 10-15 years from the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Life Survey (TRAILS) were included. Both PPD and parental lifetime history of psychopathology were assessed by parent report. Adolescents' psychopathology was assessed using the Achenbach scales (parent, teacher and self report). Linear regression was used to examine the association between PPD and adolescent mental health.
We found a statistically significant association of adolescents' internalizing problems with maternal PPD, which remained when adjusted for parental psychopathology. We found no association for externalizing problems.
Underreporting of both PPD and lifetime parental psychopathology may have occurred due to their retrospective assessment.
The association of PPD with internalizing but not externalizing problems extends into adolescence. Parental psychopathology does not explain this association suggesting a direct psychological effect on the child postpartum. If this effect appears causal, early treatment of parental psychopathology may prevent internalizing psychopathology in the offspring, ultimately in adolescence.
Journal of Affective Disorders 09/2011; 136(3):948-54. · 3.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pharmacogenetic studies on antipsychotic-induced movement disorders (MD) in schizophrenia so far have focused mainly on tardive dyskinesia. Only a few examined the more acute antipsychotic-induced MD such as parkinsonism and akathisia. Notably, all MD relate to deregulation of the dopamine system.
This study aimed to replicate previously reported associations in candidate genes for acute and tardive antipsychotic-induced MD in a young Caucasian sample.
In 402 patients (median age 26 years), a total of 13 polymorphisms were genotyped in eight dopamine-related candidate genes selected a priori from the literature (regarding dopamine and serotonin receptors, dopamine degradation, and free radicals scavenging enzymes pathways).
Patients with MD used on average a higher haloperidol dose equivalent when compared to those without MD. The prevalence of MD was high and did not differ between first- and second-generation antipsychotics. Significant associations were found between (a) the TaqI_D polymorphism and akathisia (OR = 2.3, p = 0.001 for each extra C-allele) and (b) the -141C polymorphism and tardive dyskinesia (OR = 0.20, p = 0.001 for each extra Del allele). The other polymorphisms were not significantly associated with an MD.
Two associations were found between genetic variation TaqI_D and the -141C polymorphisms in the DRD2 gene and antipsychotic-induced MD; one with acute akathisia and one with tardive dyskinesia. These were previously reported to be associated with tardive dyskinesia and acute parkinsonism, respectively. These results suggest that the contribution of these DRD2 gene variants in the vulnerability of antipsychotic-induced MD takes place in a more general or pleiotropic way.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: There is ample evidence from observational prospective studies that maternal depression or anxiety during pregnancy is a risk factor for adverse psychosocial outcomes in the offspring. However, to date no previous study has demonstrated that treatment of depressive or anxious symptoms in pregnancy actually could prevent psychosocial problems in children. Preventing psychosocial problems in children will eventually bring down the huge public health burden of mental disease. The main objective of this study is to assess the effects of cognitive behavioural therapy in pregnant women with symptoms of anxiety or depression on the child's development as well as behavioural and emotional problems. In addition, we aim to study its effects on the child's development, maternal mental health, and neonatal outcomes, as well as the cost-effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy relative to usual care. METHODS/DESIGN: We will include 300 women with at least moderate levels of anxiety or depression at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy. By including 300 women we will be able to demonstrate effect sizes of 0.35 or over on the total problems scale of the child behavioural checklist 1.5-5 with alpha 5% and power (1-beta) 80%.Women in the intervention arm are offered 10-14 individual cognitive behavioural therapy sessions, 6-10 sessions during pregnancy and 4-8 sessions after delivery (once a week). Women in the control group receive care as usual.Primary outcome is behavioural/emotional problems at 1.5 years of age as assessed by the total problems scale of the child behaviour checklist 1.5-5 years.Secondary outcomes will be mental, psychomotor and behavioural development of the child at age 18 months according to the Bayley scales, maternal anxiety and depression during pregnancy and postpartum, and neonatal outcomes such as birth weight, gestational age and Apgar score, health care consumption and general health status (economic evaluation). TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands Trial Register (NTR): NTR2242.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the multifactorial relationship between illness insight, cognitive and emotional processes, and illness characteristics in bipolar disorder patients.
Data from 85 euthymic or mildly to moderately depressed bipolar disorder patients were evaluated. Insight was measured using the Mood Disorder Insight Scale (total score and subscale scores: awareness of illness, symptom attribution, and need for treatment). Cognitive and emotional functioning was measured in four domains (processing speed, memory, executive functioning, and emotional learning) in addition to premorbid IQ. Illness characteristics were assessed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Questionnaire for Bipolar Disorder, and the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-self rating scale. Regression analyses were performed for the whole sample. Post-hoc, interactions with lifetime psychotic features (LPF) were statistically tested and if significant, analyses were repeated for patients with (n = 36) and without (n = 49) LPF separately.
In the whole group, better insight was associated with lower processing speed, better memory performance, increased emotional learning, higher level of depressive symptoms, and longer duration of illness. Patients with LPF had worse awareness of illness, but better symptom attribution than patients without LPF. No group differences for need for treatment and overall insight were found. Finally, processing speed significantly predicted subscores for symptom attribution in patients with LPF only.
Cognitive functioning as well as impairments in emotional learning and psychotic features independently contributes to impaired insight in bipolar disorder. Processing speed seems to be a key variable in the prediction of insight in patients with LPF and not in patients without LPF.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the effect of withdrawal of antipsychotic treatment on relapse risk in remitted first-episode schizophrenia patients.
First-episode 1-year stable and remitted outpatients with a schizophrenic disorder were randomly allocated to continuation of their antipsychotic regimen for at least 6 months (N = 9), or gradual withdrawal (N = 11). Primary outcome was the difference in cumulative relapse-free survival at 9 months.
Recruitment was terminated prematurely on 26 October 2005. The cumulative relapse-free survival was 88% (SE = 0.12) in the continuation and 18% (SE = 0.12) in the discontinuation group (P = 0.001) at 9 months follow-up.
Discontinuation of antipsychotic medication markedly increases the risk of relapse in stable remitted first-episode schizophrenia patients. In future studies the topics of safety monitoring and sampling of patients should receive extra attention.
International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice 06/2011; 15(2):128-34. · 1.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infections have been suggested to play a role in the etiology of schizophrenia, but the evidence for this has been inconsistent. Schizophrenia patients have an increased risk of infections as a result of hospitalizations or life style factors. Therefore a study on early subclinical manifestations of psychosis in relation to virus infections is warranted. We examined whether serum antibodies against human Herpes viruses and Toxoplasma gondii were associated with subclinical symptoms of psychosis in adolescents. Data were collected as part of the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) cohort, a large prospective cohort of Dutch adolescents. A total of 1176 participants with an available Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE) and an available blood sample were included in this analysis. Solid-enzyme immunoassay methods were used to measure the presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies in serum to the Herpes virus family and to T. gondii. There was no significant association between serologic evidence of infection with human Herpes viruses or T. gondii and the risk of subclinical positive experience of psychosis. Subjects with a positive serological reaction to Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) had higher scores on the positive dimension of psychosis measured by CAPE (b=0.03, P=0.02). This significant association was observed in males, but not in females. The current study suggests that there is no significant association between serological evidence of infection to human Herpes viruses and positive subclinical experience of psychosis, whereas there was an association between EBV infection and subclinical psychotic symptoms in boys.
Schizophrenia Research 03/2011; 129(1):47-51. · 4.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Weight gain is one of the major problems in patients using antipsychotic medication, leading to relevant morbidities and reduced compliance to pharmacotherapy. Recently, an association has been reported between a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs1455832) of the roundabout axon guidance receptor, homolog 1 (ROBO1) gene and body mass index (BMI) in persons younger than 30 years. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between BMI and rs1455832 in patients with a psychotic disorder using antipsychotics.
A cross-sectional design was used in a pooled sample of Caucasian psychiatric patients obtained from three comparable Dutch psychiatric populations. Patients were eligible for inclusion in this study if they met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria for a nonaffective psychotic disorder, were 18 years or older, and used one or more antipsychotics. Genotyping was performed according to standard protocols. Linear (for BMI) and logistic (for obesity, defined as BMI > 30) regression analyses, corrected for age and sex, were applied in the statistical analyses.
A total of 435 patients were included in this association analyses. The rs1455832 polymorphism studied was significantly associated with BMI and obesity in female patients. Female patients had a statistically significant (P = 0.025) decrease of 1.76 kg/m in BMI values per C allele. In contrast to female patients, this association was not exhibited in male patients.
The rs1455832 polymorphism may play a role in inducing obesity in female patients using antipsychotics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The influence of antipsychotic medication on brain morphology in schizophrenia may confound interpretation of brain changes over time. We aimed to assess the effect of discontinuation of atypical antipsychotic medication on change in brain volume in patients. Sixteen remitted, stable patients with first-episode schizophrenia, schizoaffective or schizophreniform disorder and 20 healthy controls were included. Two magnetic resonance imaging brain scans were obtained from all subjects with a 1-year interval. The patients either discontinued (n = 8) their atypical antipsychotic medication (olanzapine, risperidone, or quetiapine) or did not (n = 8) discontinue during the follow-up period. Intracranial volume and volumes of total brain, cerebral gray and white matter, cerebellum, third and lateral ventricle, nucleus caudatus, nucleus accumbens, and putamen were obtained. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to assess main effects for group (patient-control) and discontinuation (yes-no) for brain volume (change) while correcting for age, sex, and intracranial volume. Decrease in cerebral gray matter and caudate nucleus volume over time was significantly more pronounced in patients relative to controls. Our data suggest decreases in the nucleus accumbens and putamen volumes during the interval in patients who discontinued antipsychotic medication, whereas increases were found in patients who continued their antipsychotics. We confirmed earlier findings of excessive gray matter volume decrements in patients with schizophrenia compared with normal controls. We found evidence suggestive of decreasing volumes of the putamen and nucleus accumbens over time after discontinuation of medication. This might suggest that discontinuation reverses effects of atypical medication.
Journal of clinical psychopharmacology 02/2011; 31(2):146-53. · 5.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the association between cognitive complaints and objective cognitive functioning in bipolar patients, with a focus on the moderating role of depressive symptoms.
The association between cognitive complaints (measured by the total score and four subscales of the Cognitive Failure Questionnaire; CFQ) and objective cognitive functioning (domains of psychomotor speed, speed of information processing, attentional switching, verbal memory, visual memory and executive functioning/working memory, and the total score) was assessed in 108 euthymic (n=45) or mildly to moderately depressed bipolar patients (n=63). We studied potential moderation of this association by depressive symptoms (total score of the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-self rating). Analyses were performed using Pearson correlations and multiple linear regression.
Cognitive complaints were not associated with objective cognitive functioning, except for CFQ 'memory for names' which was positively correlated with speed of information processing (r=0.257, p=0.007). Although depressive symptoms were positively associated with cognitive complaints (total score and three subscales; p<0.01), the association between cognitive complaints and objective cognitive functioning was not moderated by depressive symptoms (p for interaction 0.054 to 0.988).
It can be argued whether the retrospective questionnaire (CFQ) is sufficiently accurate to measure the type of cognitive dysfunctions seen in bipolar patients.
Cognitive complaints are not associated with objective cognitive functioning, irrespective of depressive symptoms. However, cognitive complaints are indicative for depressive symptoms. Clinicians should be to be alert to depressive symptoms rather than objective cognitive problems in patients expressing cognitive complaints.
Journal of Affective Disorders 02/2011; 130(1-2):306-11. · 3.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antipsychotics are approved treatment for severe conditions and have serious side effects. Antipsychotics are often prescribed off-label. Although a substantial proportion of antipsychotics are prescribed in primary care, it is largely unknown what motivates the general practitioner (GP) to initiate antipsychotic treatment. Therefore, we sought to examine the relation between pre-defined, licensed as well as off-label, reasons for antipsychotic treatment and the initiation of this treatment by the GP as well as report registration and incidence of antipsychotic treatment in general practice.
In a case-control study, 723 patients selected from an electronic database and with a new antipsychotic prescription were compared with 3615 controls receiving any other new prescription. Using logistic regression, six pre-defined categories of International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC) codes ('psychosis', 'depression and anxiety', 'sleeping disorders', 'acute stress and surmenage', 'dementia' and 'somatic indications') were associated with initiating antipsychotic treatment.
All, including off-label, categories were significantly related to initiating antipsychotic treatment. The incidence of initiating antipsychotic therapy was 1.28 per 1000 persons per year (95% confidence interval: 1.09, 1.48). GPs registered an ICPC code in 50% and prescribed typical antipsychotics in 90% of the cases. Prescription of atypical antipsychotics increased almost threefold over the study period.
The results suggest that GPs prescribe antipsychotics off-label. Despite serious side effects and relatively infrequent occurrence in Dutch general practices, GPs seem imprecise in underpinning and registrating the initiation of antipsychotic treatment. GPs increasingly prescribe atypical antipsychotics although the prescription of typical antipsychotics still dominates.
Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 02/2011; 17(1):12-7. · 1.51 Impact Factor