[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The modern human colonization of Eurasia and Australia is mostly explained by a single-out-of-Africa exit following a southern coastal route throughout Arabia and India. However, dispersal across the Levant would better explain the introgression with Neanderthals, and more than one exit would fit better with the different ancient genomic components discovered in indigenous Australians and in ancient Europeans. The existence of an additional Northern route used by modern humans to reach Australia was previously deduced from the phylogeography of mtDNA macrohaplogroup N. Here, we present new mtDNA data and new multidisciplinary information that add more support to this northern route.
MtDNA hypervariable segments and haplogroup diagnostic coding positions were analyzed in 2,278 Saudi Arabs, from which 1,725 are new samples. Besides, we used 623 published mtDNA genomes belonging to macrohaplogroup N, but not R, to build updated phylogenetic trees to calculate their coalescence ages, and more than 70,000 partial mtDNA sequences were screened to establish their respective geographic ranges.
The Saudi mtDNA profile confirms the absence of autochthonous mtDNA lineages in Arabia with coalescence ages deep enough to support population continuity in the region since the out-of-Africa episode. In contrast to Australia, where N(xR) haplogroups are found in high frequency and with deep coalescence ages, there are not autochthonous N(xR) lineages in India nor N(xR) branches with coalescence ages as deep as those found in Australia. These patterns are at odds with the supposition that Australian colonizers harboring N(xR) lineages used a route involving India as a stage. The most ancient N(xR) lineages in Eurasia are found in China, and inconsistently with the coastal route, N(xR) haplogroups with the southernmost geographical range have all more recent radiations than the Australians.
Apart from a single migration event via a southern route, phylogeny and phylogeography of N(xR) lineages support that people carrying mtDNA N lineages could have reach Australia following a northern route through Asia. Data from other disciplines also support this scenario.
PLoS ONE 06/2015; 10(6):e0129839. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0129839 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present-day population structure of La Gomera is outstanding in its high aboriginal heritage, the greatest in the Canary Islands. This was earlier confirmed by both mitochondrial DNA and autosomal analyses, although genetic drift due to the fifteenth century European colonization could not be excluded as the main factor responsible. The present mtDNA study of aboriginal remains and extant samples from the six municipal districts of the island indeed demonstrates that the pre-Hispanic colonization of La Gomera by North African people involved a strong founder event, shown by the high frequency of the indigenous Canarian U6b1a lineage in the aboriginal samples (65%). This value is even greater than that observed in the extant population (44%), which in turn is the highest of all the seven Canary Islands. In contrast to previous results obtained for the aboriginal populations of Tenerife and La Palma, haplogroups related to secondary waves of migration were not detected in La Gomera aborigines, indicating that isolation also had an important role in shaping the current population. The rugged relief of La Gomera divided into several distinct valleys probably promoted subsequent aboriginal intra-insular differentiation that has continued after the European colonization, as seen in the present-day population structure observed on the island.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 19 November 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.251.
European journal of human genetics: EJHG 11/2014; DOI:10.1038/ejhg.2014.251 · 4.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome analyses have greatly improved the phylogeny and phylogeography of human mtDNA. Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup U6 has been considered as a molecular signal of a Paleolithic return to North Africa of modern humans from southwestern Asia.
Using 230 complete sequences we have refined the U6 phylogeny, and improved the phylogeographic information by the analysis of 761 partial sequences. This approach provides chronological limits for its arrival to Africa, followed by its spreads there according to climatic fluctuations, and its secondary prehistoric and historic migrations out of Africa colonizing Europe, the Canary Islands and the American Continent.
The U6 expansions and contractions inside Africa faithfully reflect the climatic fluctuations that occurred in this Continent affecting also the Canary Islands. Mediterranean contacts drove these lineages to Europe, at least since the Neolithic. In turn, the European colonization brought different U6 lineages throughout the American Continent leaving the specific sign of the colonizers origin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: North Africa is considered a distinct geographic and ethnic entity within Africa. Although modern humans originated in this Continent, studies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y-chromosome genealogical markers provide evidence that the North African gene pool has been shaped by the back-migration of several Eurasian lineages in Paleolithic and Neolithic times. More recent influences from sub-Saharan Africa and Mediterranean Europe are also evident. The presence of East-West and North-South haplogroup frequency gradients strongly reinforces the genetic complexity of this region. However, this genetic scenario is beset with a notable gap, which is the lack of consistent information for Algeria, the largest country in the Maghreb. To fill this gap, we analyzed a sample of 240 unrelated subjects from a northwest Algeria cosmopolitan population using mtDNA sequences and Y-chromosome biallelic polymorphisms, focusing on the fine dissection of haplogroups E and R, which are the most prevalent in North Africa and Europe respectively. The Eurasian component in Algeria reached 80% for mtDNA and 90% for Y-chromosome. However, within them, the North African genetic component for mtDNA (U6 and M1; 20%) is significantly smaller than the paternal (E-M81 and E-V65; 70%). The unexpected presence of the European-derived Y-chromosome lineages R-M412, R-S116, R-U152 and R-M529 in Algeria and the rest of the Maghreb could be the counterparts of the mtDNA H1, H3 and V subgroups, pointing to direct maritime contacts between the European and North African sides of the western Mediterranean. Female influx of sub-Saharan Africans into Algeria (20%) is also significantly greater than the male (10%). In spite of these sexual asymmetries, the Algerian uniparental profiles faithfully correlate between each other and with the geography.
PLoS ONE 02/2013; 8(2):e56775. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0056775 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type 1 and type 2 diabetes, complicated with renal disease, have a significantly higher incidence in the Canary Islands than in mainland Spain and other European countries. Present-day Canarian inhabitants consist of a mixed population with North African indigenous and European colonizer ancestors who have rapidly evolved from a rural to an urban life style. The aim of this work was to assess the possible role of genetic and environmental factors on diabetes-related end-stage renal disease incidence in the Canary Islands.
For both types of diabetes there is an ethnic susceptibility increased by diabetes family history. Whereas the Y-chromosome does not play a significant role, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup differences point to a maternal origin for this ethnic predisposition, confirming susceptible and protective effects for haplogroups J and T, respectively. In addition, urban life style seems to be an additional risk factor for type 1 diabetes.
The maternal ethnic predisposition to diabetes complicated with kidney disease detected in the Canary Islands signals mtDNA and X-chromosome markers as the best candidates to uncover the genetic predisposition to this disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a previous preliminary analysis we reported that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup R0a was significantly more frequent in primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) Saudi patients than in healthy Saudi controls. This result prompted us to extend our work using a significant larger Saudi PACG cohort and more healthy controls.
We sequenced the mtDNA regulatory hypervariable region-I (HVS-I) and coding regions, comprising haplogroup diagnostic polymorphisms, in 227 PACG Saudi patients and compared their haplogroup frequencies with those obtained from 186 matched healthy controls (free of PACG by examination) and from a large sample of 810 healthy Saudi Arabs representing the general Saudi population.
MtDNA Haplogroups R0a and J, the most abundant lineages in Saudi Arabia, were in significant higher frequencies in the PACG patients than in controls, while the widespread western Eurasian haplogroup U was associated with reduced risk to developing PACG.
Haplogroups R0a and J could be ancestry informative markers for PACG in the Saudi Arabian population. In addition, the western Eurasian haplogroup U may play a mild protective effect to this illness.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y-chromosome variation has been studied in Bou Omrane and Bou Saâd, two Tunisian Berber populations. In spite of their close geographic proximity, genetic distances between them were high and significant with both uniparental markers. A global analysis, including all previously studied Tunisian samples, confirmed the existence of a high female and male population structure in this country. Analyses of molecular variance analysis evidenced that this differentiation was not attributable to ethnic differences. Mantel test showed that, in all cases, Y-chromosome haplotypic distances correlated poorly with geography, whereas after excluding the more isolated samples of Bou Omrane and Bou Saâd, the mtDNA pattern of variation is significantly correlated with geography. Congruently, the N(m) ratio of males versus females pointed to a significant excess of female migration rate across localities, which could be explained by patrilocality, a common marriage system in rural Tunisia. In addition, it has been observed that cultural isolation in rural communities promotes, by the effect of genetic drift, stronger loss of diversity and larger genetic differentiation levels than those observed in urban areas as deduced from comparisons of their respective mean genetic diversity and their respective mean genetic distances among populations. It is likely that the permanent exodus from rural to urban areas will have important repercussions in the future genetic structure of this country.
Journal of Human Genetics 08/2011; 56(10):734-41. DOI:10.1038/jhg.2011.92 · 2.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported that certain mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphisms in the coding region may be involved in the pathogenesis for primary open-angle-glaucoma (POAG). This encouraged us to extend our work and assess whether mtDNA diagnostic polymorphisms, defining geographically structured haplogroups, could be associated with the development of POAG.
We sequenced the mtDNA regulatory hypervariable region-I (HVS-I) region and coding regions, comprising haplogroup diagnostic polymorphisms, in 176 POAG patients and 186 matched healthy controls (free of glaucoma by examination) of Saudi Arabia ascendancy. A large sample of 810 healthy Saudi Arabs representing the general Saudi population has also been included in the analysis. Assigning individuals into various mitochondrial haplogroups was performed using the nomenclature previously described for African and for Eurasian sequences.
African mtDNA haplotypes belonging to L haplogroups, excluding L2, confer susceptibility to POAG whereas the Eurasian haplogroup N1 was associated with reduced risk of developing POAG in Saudi Arabian population.
Saudi individuals with mtDNA of African origin are at higher risk of developing POAG. In addition, the mtDNA Eurasian haplogroup N1 may play a mild protective effect to this illness.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate whether different mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups have a role on the development of pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEG) in the Saudi Arab population.
The mtDNA regulatory region and coding regions comprising mtDNA haplogroup diagnostic polymorphisms were sequenced in patients with PEG (n=94), healthy matched controls (free of PEG; n=112) and a healthy Saudi Arab population group (n=810).
The Eurasian haplogroup T and the Sub-Saharan African Haplogroup L2 confer susceptibility to PEG, whereas the Eurasian haplogroup N1 was associated with reduced risk to develop PEG in the Saudi Arab population.
Mitochondrial haplogroups T and L2 may play a role in the development of PEG in the Saudi Arabian population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been proposed that the distribution patterns and coalescence ages found in Europeans for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups V, H1 and H3 are the result of a post-glacial expansion from a Franco-Cantabrian refuge that recolonized central and northern areas. In contrast, in this refined mtDNA study of the Cantabrian Cornice that contributes 413 partial and 9 complete new mtDNA sequences, including a large Basque sample and a sample of Asturians, no experimental evidence was found to support the human refuge-expansion theory. In fact, all measures of gene diversity point to the Cantabrian Cornice in general and the Basques in particular, as less polymorphic for V, H1 and H3 than other southern regions in Iberia or in Central Europe. Genetic distances show the Cantabrian Cornice is a very heterogeneous region with significant local differences. The analysis of several minor subhaplogroups, based on complete sequences, also suggests different focal expansions over a local and peninsular range that did not affect continental Europe. Furthermore, all detected clinal trends show stronger longitudinal than latitudinal profiles. In Northern Iberia, it seems that the highest diversity values for some haplogroups with Mesolithic coalescence ages are centred on the Mediterranean side, including Catalonia and South-eastern France.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: By virtue of the functional role of the mitochondrion in energy and reactive oxygen species production, mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are potential candidates for cardiovascular-related disorders. Further, the mtDNA is extremely polymorphic and several diagnostic single-nucleotide polymorphisms have been used to assort sequences into haplogroups with defined continental and regional ranges. However, the relevance of these haplogroups and mutations with respect to coronary artery disease (CAD) susceptibility remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the role of the 16189T>C variants and mtDNA haplogroups as predisposing factors for CAD in 669 Saudi patients with angiographically established disease compared with 258 disease-free controls. The 16189T>C was associated with CAD (1.524 [1.076-2.159]; p = 0.017). However, this association was influenced by age as well as the presence of myocardial infarction and hypertension. Among the haplogroups, only the N1c showed a borderline protective relationship (p = 0.074) with CAD as an independent risk factor. This association turned significant in the total sample (0.176 [0.042-0.736]; p = 0.017) and in the <50-year age group (0.075 [0.008-0.743]; p = 0.027), when included as a possible confounding factor. Our results suggested that the impact of mtDNA polymorphism on CAD manifestation is influenced by important confounders, particularly the presence of myocardial infarction, hypertension, and age.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The reconstruction of the origin and spread of modern humans has been a multidisciplinary enterprise. Archaeological records
and genetic inferences (Stringer and Andrews, 1988), have given strong support to the model of a single recent origin of modern
humans in Africa around 200 ka (McDougall et al., 2005). Subsequent dispersals out of Africa replaced, in relatively short
time, the archaic humans living in Eurasia (Pääbo et al., 2004). However, the dates of this exit and the routes taken to spread
out of Africa are currently debatable topics. On the basis of modern human fossils in the Levant, dated around 120 ka (Valladas
et al., 1988), a northern route by land across the Sinai peninsula was proposed. The lack of fossil continuity in the area
prompted researchers to consider it as an unproductive exit. A later successful exit around 45 ka using the same corridor
has received stronger archaeological support (Lahr and Foley, 1994). A second, maritime, southern route across the Bab al
Mandab strait and afterwards coasting Arabia, India, Southeast Asia to reach the Sahul has also been proposed as a complementary
or alternative exit gate (Stringer, 2000). Recent archaeological findings in coastal Eritrea dated about 125 ka (Walter et
al., 2000) have been taken as support of an earlier exit age for the southern route (Stringer, 2000).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macaronesia covers four Atlantic archipelagos: the Azores, Madeira, the Canary Islands, and the Cape Verde islands. When discovered by Europeans in the 15th century, only the Canaries were inhabited. Historical reports highlight the impact of Iberians on settlement in Macaronesia. Although important differences in their settlement are documented, its influence on their genetic structures and relationships has yet to be ascertained. In this study, the hypervariable region I (HVRI) sequence and coding region polymorphisms of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in 623 individuals from the Azores (120) and Canary Islands (503) were analyzed. Combined with published data, these give a total of 1,542 haplotypes from Macaronesia and 1,067 from the Iberian Peninsula. The results obtained indicate that Cape Verde is the most distinctive archipelago, with an mtDNA pool composed almost exclusively of African lineages. However, the other archipelagos present an mtDNA profile dominated by the presence of West-Eurasian mtDNA haplogroups with African lineages present in varying proportions. Moreover, no signs of integration of typical Canarian U6 lineages in the other archipelagos were detected. The four Macaronesia archipelagos currently have differentiated genetic profiles, and the Azores present the highest intra-archipelago differentiation and the lowest values of diversity. The analyses performed show that the present-day genetic profile of the Macaronesian archipelagos was mainly determined by the initial process of settlement and further microdifferentiation probably as a consequence of the small population size of some islands. Moreover, contacts between archipelagos seem to have had a low impact on the mtDNA genetic pool of each archipelago.
American Journal of Physical Anthropology 11/2009; 141(4):610-9. DOI:10.1002/ajpa.21180 · 2.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Human origins and migration models proposing the Horn of Africa as a prehistoric exit route to Asia have stimulated molecular genetic studies in the region using uniparental loci. However, from a Y-chromosome perspective, Saudi Arabia, the largest country of the region, has not yet been surveyed. To address this gap, a sample of 157 Saudi males was analyzed at high resolution using 67 Y-chromosome binary markers. In addition, haplotypic diversity for its most prominent J1-M267 lineage was estimated using a set of 17 Y-specific STR loci.
Saudi Arabia differentiates from other Arabian Peninsula countries by a higher presence of J2-M172 lineages. It is significantly different from Yemen mainly due to a comparative reduction of sub-Saharan Africa E1-M123 and Levantine J1-M267 male lineages. Around 14% of the Saudi Arabia Y-chromosome pool is typical of African biogeographic ancestry, 17% arrived to the area from the East across Iran, while the remainder 69% could be considered of direct or indirect Levantine ascription. Interestingly, basal E-M96* (n = 2) and J-M304* (n = 3) lineages have been detected, for the first time, in the Arabian Peninsula. Coalescence time for the most prominent J1-M267 haplogroup in Saudi Arabia (11.6 ± 1.9 ky) is similar to that obtained previously for Yemen (11.3 ± 2) but significantly older that those estimated for Qatar (7.3 ± 1.8) and UAE (6.8 ± 1.5).
The Y-chromosome genetic structure of the Arabian Peninsula seems to be mainly modulated by geography. The data confirm that this area has mainly been a recipient of gene flow from its African and Asian surrounding areas, probably mainly since the last Glacial maximum onwards. Although rare deep rooting lineages for Y-chromosome haplogroups E and J have been detected, the presence of more basal clades supportive of the southern exit route of modern humans to Eurasian, were not found.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The origin and prevalence of the prehispanic settlers of the Canary Islands has attracted great multidisciplinary interest. However, direct ancient DNA genetic studies on indigenous and historical 17th–18th century remains, using mitochondrial DNA as a female marker, have only recently been possible. In the present work, the analysis of Y-chromosome polymorphisms in the same samples, has shed light on the way the European colonization affected male and female Canary Island indigenous genetic pools, from the conquest to present-day times.
Autochthonous (E-M81) and prominent (E-M78 and J-M267) Berber Y-chromosome lineages were detected in the indigenous remains, confirming a North West African origin for their ancestors which confirms previous mitochondrial DNA results. However, in contrast with their female lineages, which have survived in the present-day population since the conquest with only a moderate decline, the male indigenous lineages have dropped constantly being substituted by European lineages. Male and female sub-Saharan African genetic inputs were also detected in the Canary population, but their frequencies were higher during the 17th–18th centuries than today.
The European colonization of the Canary Islands introduced a strong sex-biased change in the indigenous population in such a way that indigenous female lineages survived in the extant population in a significantly higher proportion than their male counterparts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The indigenous Canary Islands population suffered a strong cultural and genetic impact when they were colonized by Europeans in the fifteenth century. The molecular analysis of the ABO blood group gene on aboriginal and seventeenth to eighteenth century remains confirms the demographic history of the islands depicted by previous archaeological, anthropological, and genetic studies. ABO allele frequencies clearly related Canarian aborigines with North African Berber populations, its most probable source of origin, and is far related to Iberian and to the current population of the archipelago. The historical sample shows a congruent intermediate position testifying already a strong European influence that would go in augment since then to present times, affecting all the islands with the important exception of La Gomera.