Elham Khanafshar

University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, United States

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Publications (21)64.5 Total impact

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    Ricardo V Lloyd, Darya Buehler, Elham Khanafshar
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    ABSTRACT: Papillary thyroid carcinomas are the most common thyroid cancers and constitute more than 70% of thyroid malignancies. The most common etiologic factor is radiation, but genetic susceptibility and other factors also contribute to the development of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The most common variants include conventional, follicular variant and tall cell variant. However, many other uncommon variants have been described including oncocytic, columnar cell, diffuse sclerosing and solid forms. Immunohistochemical staining with TTF-1 and thyroglobulin is very useful in confirming the diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma especially in metastatic sites. Markers such as HBME-1 and CITED1 can assist in separating some difficult cases of follicular variants of papillary thyroid carcinomas from follicular adenomas. Molecular studies have shown that the BRAF V600E mutation is found mainly in papillary and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. Other molecular markers such as HMGA2 and insulin-like growth factor II mRNA binding protein 3 have been used recently as molecular tests to separate papillary thyroid carcinoma and its variants from follicular adenomas and other benign thyroid nodules.
    Head and Neck Pathology 03/2011; 5(1):51-6.
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    ABSTRACT: The incidence of thyroid cancer has doubled over the past decade. The reason for this dramatic increase in incidence is controversial. Some investigators have suggested that the increased incidence is because of increased detection of small primary tumors as a result of diagnostic scrutiny. Conversely, some investigators have demonstrated an increased incidence across all tumor sizes, suggesting that other factors may play a role. This study was undertaken to investigate the clinical, pathologic, and molecular changes present in papillary thyroid cancer over a 15-year period during which the incidence of papillary thyroid cancer doubled. A total of 628 patients with conventional papillary thyroid cancer and 228 tumor samples from a single institution were analyzed from 1991 to 2005. Time-trend analyses of demographic, clinical, pathologic, and tumor genotype were performed over three 5-year time periods: group I (1991-1995), group II (1996-2000), and group III (2001-2005). The authors found no differences in age, sex, ethnicity, primary tumor size, rate of extrathyroidal invasion, or overall TNM cancer stage among the 3 time groups. The rate of BRAF V600E mutation was significantly higher in group III (88% BRAF V600E positive) as compared with groups I and II (51% and 43%, respectively) (P < .001). The rate of all the common somatic mutations was also significantly higher in group III (92% positive) as compared with groups I and II (68% and 64%, respectively) (P < .002). The rate of BRAF V600E mutation increased significantly over a 15-year period at the authors' institution. The findings suggest that a higher rate of BRAF mutation in papillary thyroid cancer may contribute to the increasing incidence of thyroid cancer.
    Cancer 03/2011; 117(19):4390-5. · 5.20 Impact Factor
  • Elham Khanafshar, Ricardo V Lloyd
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    ABSTRACT: Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common type of thyroid malignancy. The diagnostic features of these tumors include characteristic nuclear cytology. However, many variants have been reported with different morphology and molecular profiles. Although the vast majority of papillary thyroid carcinomas have an excellent prognosis, some variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma can have a more aggressive course. With this increased attention to papillary thyroid carcinoma variants has come the need to sort out which variants are clinically important and should be recognized by practicing pathologists. The main objectives of this review article are to (1) summarize the gross and histopathologic features of papillary thyroid carcinoma; (2) provide an overview of the subtypes of papillary thyroid carcinoma and their prognosis; (3) discuss established and emerging data on the immunohistochemical findings that are helpful in differential diagnosis; and (4) summarize molecular findings and pathogenesis of these lesions.
    Advances in anatomic pathology 01/2011; 18(1):90-7. · 3.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thyroid and lung cancers, two malignancies with similar immunohistological characteristics, have vastly different biologic behaviors and treatment approaches. As thyroid cancers commonly spread to the lungs, metastatic thyroid cancer should be included in the differential diagnosis of a pulmonary lesion or lesions. A 54-year-old woman with a remote history of stage IV nonsmall cell lung cancer was found to have FDG avidity in the thyroid and right cervical lymph nodes. Subsequent ultrasonographic findings and FNA cytology led to a total thyroidectomy, bilateral central lymphadenectomy, and right modified radical lymph node dissection for primary thyroid cancer. Reviews and comparisons of the pulmonary and cervical surgical specimens revealed that the patient had been misdiagnosed for the previous 6 years; she had metastatic papillary thyroid cancer to the lung. The patient's original diagnosis of stage IV lung cancer was based upon the original lung biopsy showing positive thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) immunostaining. The original diagnosis was questioned because of her long survival when she was diagnosed with locally advanced papillary thyroid cancer. Further analyses of the immunohistological characteristics of both surgical specimens--including staining for TTF-1, thyroglobulin, CD57, S-100, and CEA--documented the correct diagnosis. A thorough understanding of the natural history and surgical pathology, including immunohistology, of lung and thyroid cancers is necessary for a correct and timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Because TTF-1 expression is seen in both thyroid and lung cancers, careful consideration should be given to both malignancies when evaluating patients with thyroid and pulmonary nodules.
    Thyroid: official journal of the American Thyroid Association 01/2011; 21(3):319-23. · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) commonly presents with lymph node (LN) metastases, and has a worse prognosis than papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Tumor size and LN involvement have been shown to affect stage of disease; however, to our knowledge, ours is the first study that attempts to correlate anterior neck pain on presentation with the extent of disease.Methods: We performed a retrospective review of patients with MTC who underwent an operation from February 1998 through December 2008. We compared the symptom of anterior neck pain with the pathologic extent of disease. Our control group comprised patients who underwent an operation for PTC. Analysis was performed using the Fisher's exact test and the Mann-Whitney test.Results: Of the 109 patients with MTC, 50 (46%) met our inclusion criteria. Of the 50 patients with MTC, 11 presented with neck pain, compared to 3 of the 50 patients with PTC (p = 0.041). Of those 11 patients, 9 (82%) had LN involvement on final pathology, as compared with 14 (36%) of the 39 without neck pain (p = 0.014). Of patients with neck pain, 18% were diagnosed at stage I to II and 82% at stage III to IV, compared to 64% at stage I to II and 36% at stage III to IV (p = 0.014).Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that more patients with MTC present with anterior neck pain than do patients with PTC and that patients with MTC and neck pain have an increased risk of LN metastases. The results of this study suggest that MTC patients, who present with concomitant neck pain, should undergo a total thyroidectomy, prophylactic bilateral central neck dissection, and ipsilateral lateral neck dissection.
    Journal of Cancer. 01/2011; 2:200-5.
  • Journal of Surgical Research - J SURG RES. 01/2011; 165(2):296-297.
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    ABSTRACT: Approximately 30% of fine needle aspiration biopsies of the thyroid have inconclusive results. We conducted a prospective trial to determine whether clinical and molecular markers could be used in combination to improve the accuracy of thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsy. Clinical, tumor genotyping for common somatic mutations (BRAF V600E, NRAS, KRAS, RET/PTC1, RET/PTC3, and NTRK1), and the gene expression levels of 6 candidate diagnostic markers were analyzed by univariate and multivariate methods in 341 patients to determine whether they could distinguish reliably benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms, and a scoring model was derived. By a multivariate analysis, fine needle aspiration biopsy cytology classification, the presence of a NRAS mutation, and the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 expression level were associated jointly with malignancy. The overall accuracy of the scoring model, including these 3 variables, to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid tumors was 91%, including 67% for the indeterminate and 77% for the suspicious FNA subgroups. Fine needle aspiration biopsy cytology classification, the presence of NRAS mutation, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 messenger RNA expression levels in combination provide a greater diagnostic accuracy than fine needle aspiration biopsy cytology alone to allow selection of more definitive initial operative treatment. The sensitivity of the scoring model, however, was too low to avoid the need for diagnostic thyroidectomies for indeterminate fine needle aspiration biopsy findings.
    Surgery 12/2010; 148(6):1170-6; discussion 1176-7. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsies are the cornerstone of preoperative evaluation of thyroid nodules, but FNA diagnostic performance has varied across different studies. In the course of collecting thyroid FNA specimens for the development of a molecular diagnostic test, local cytology and both local and expert panel surgical pathology results were reviewed. Prospective FNAs were collected at 21 clinical sites. Banked FNAs were collected from two academic centers. Cytology and corresponding local and expert panel surgical pathology results were compared to each other and to a meta-review of 11 recently published U.S.-based thyroid FNA studies. FNA diagnostic performance was comparable between the study specimens and the meta-review. Histopathology malignancy rates for prospective clinic FNAs were 34% for cytology indeterminate cases and 98% for cytology malignant cases, comparable to the figures found in the meta-review (34% and 97%, respectively). However, histopathology malignancy rates were higher for cytology benign cases in the prospective clinic FNA subcohort (11%) than in the meta-review (6%, with meta-review rates of 10% at community sites and 2% at academic centers, p < 0.0001). Resection rates for prospective clinic FNAs were also comparable to the meta-review for both cytology indeterminate cases (62% vs. 59%, respectively) and cytology malignant cases (82% vs. 81%, respectively). Surgical pathology categorical disagreement (benign vs. malignant diagnosis) was higher between local pathology and a consensus of the two expert panelists (11%) than between the two expert panelists both pre- (8%) and postconferral (3%). Although recent guidelines for FNA biopsy and interpretation have been published, the rates of false-positive and false-negative results remain a challenge. Two-thirds of cytology indeterminate cases were benign postoperatively and may decrease with the development of an accurate molecular diagnostic test. High disagreement rates between local and expert panel histopathology diagnosis suggests that central review for surgical diagnoses should be used when developing diagnostic tests based on resected thyroid specimens.
    Thyroid: official journal of the American Thyroid Association 12/2010; 21(3):243-51. · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy is indeterminate or suspicious in up to 30% of cases and these patients are commonly subjected to at least a diagnostic hemithyroidectomy. If malignant on histology, a completion thyroidectomy is usually performed, which may be associated with higher morbidity. To determine the clinical utility of genetic testing in thyroid FNA biopsy, we conducted a prospective clinical trial. Four hundred seventeen patients with 455 thyroid nodules were enrolled and had genetic testing for common somatic mutations (BRAF, NRAS, KRAS) and gene rearrangements (RET/PTC1, RET/PTC3, RAS, TRK1) by PCR and direct sequencing and by nested PCR, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of genetic testing in thyroid FNA biopsy were determined based on the histologic diagnosis. One hundred twenty-five of 455 thyroid nodule FNA biopsies were indeterminate or suspicious on cytologic examination. Overall, 50 mutations were identified (23 BRAF, 4 RET/PTC1, 2 RET/PTC3, 21 NRAS) in the thyroid FNA biopsies. There were significantly more mutations detected in malignant thyroid nodules than in benign (P = 0.0001). For thyroid FNA biopsies that were indeterminate or suspicious, genetic testing had a sensitivity of 12%, specificity of 98%, PPV of 38%, and NPV of 65%. Genetic testing for somatic mutations in thyroid FNA biopsy samples is feasible and identifies a subset of malignant thyroid neoplasms that are indeterminate or suspicious on FNA biopsy. Genetic testing for common somatic genetic alterations thus could allow for more definitive initial thyroidectomy in those with positive results.
    World Journal of Surgery 11/2010; 34(11):2589-94. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The molecular factors that control parathyroid tumorigenesis are poorly understood. In the absence of local invasion or metastasis, distinguishing benign from malignant parathyroid neoplasm is difficult on histologic examination. We studied the microRNA (miRNA) profile in normal, hyperplastic, and benign and malignant parathyroid tumors to better understand the molecular factors that may play a role in parathyroid tumorigenesis and that may serve as diagnostic markers for parathyroid carcinoma. miRNA arrays containing 825 human microRNAs with four duplicate probes per miRNA were used to profile parathyroid tumor (12 adenomas, 9 carcinomas, and 15 hyperplastic) samples normalized to four reference normal parathyroid glands. Differentially expressed miRNA were validated by real-time quantitative TaqMan polymerase chain reaction (PCR). One hundred fifty-six miRNAs in parathyroid hyperplasia, 277 microRNAs in parathyroid adenoma, and 167 microRNAs in parathyroid carcinomas were significantly dysregulated as compared with normal parathyroid glands [false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05]. By supervised clustering analysis, all parathyroid carcinomas clustered together. Three miRNAs (miR-26b, miR-30b, and miR-126*) were significantly dysregulated between parathyroid carcinoma and parathyroid adenoma. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis showed mir-126* was the best diagnostic marker, with area under the curve of 0.776. Most miRNAs are downregulated in parathyroid carcinoma, while in parathyroid hyperplasia most miRNAs are upregulated. miRNA profiling shows distinct differentially expressed miRNAs by tumor type which may serve as helpful adjunct to distinguish parathyroid adenoma from carcinoma.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 11/2010; 18(4):1158-65. · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs ( approximately 22 bp) that post-transcriptionally regulate protein expression and are found to be differentially expressed in a number of human cancers. There is increasing evidence to suggest that miRNAs could be useful in cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy. We performed miRNA microarray expression profiling on a cohort of 12 benign and 12 malignant pheochromocytomas and identified a number of differentially expressed miRNAs. These results were validated in a separate cohort of ten benign and ten malignant samples using real-time quantitative RT-PCR; benign samples had a minimum follow-up of at least 2 years. It was found that IGF2 as well as its intronic miR-483-5p was over-expressed, while miR-15a and miR-16 were under-expressed in malignant tumours compared with benign tumours. These miRNAs were found to be diagnostic and prognostic markers for malignant pheochromocytoma. The functional role of miR-15a and miR-16 was investigated in vitro in the rat PC12 pheochromocytoma cell line, and these miRNAs were found to regulate cell proliferation via their effect on cyclin D1 and apoptosis. These data indicate that miRNAs play a pivotal role in the biology of malignant pheochromocytoma, and represent an important class of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets warranting further investigation.
    Endocrine Related Cancer 09/2010; 17(3):835-46. · 5.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To report the limitations of frozen section examination and the value of intraoperative tissue aspiration for parathyroid hormone assay to distinguish parathyroid adenomas from metastatic thyroid carcinoma. We describe 2 patients with a biochemical diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism who underwent intraoperative frozen section analysis of suspected parathyroid tumors. Parathyroid gland aspiration for parathyroid hormone was also performed for confirmation. The intraoperative frozen section examination of the suspected parathyroid tumors inaccurately identified the tumors as follicular carcinomas. The parathyroid gland aspirate, however, accurately substantiated the presence of parathyroid adenomas, rather than follicular cancers. Aspiration of a suspected parathyroid tumor for parathyroid hormone assay accurately determines whether a nodule is a parathyroid gland and facilitates intraoperative decision making, especially when frozen section diagnosis is misleading.
    Endocrine Practice 07/2009; 15(5):454-7. · 2.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is a significant gender and age disparity in thyroid cancer incidence and outcome. The molecular basis for these divergent clinical presentations and outcome are essentially unknown. The primary tumor genotype in 217 patients with papillary thyroid cancer was determined for six common somatic genetic alterations (RET/PTC1, RET/PTC3, and NTRK1 rearrangements, and BRAF V600E, KRAS, and NRAS hotspot mutations) by PCR and direct sequencing, and nested PCR. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the association of genetic changes and age, gender, and other clinicopathologic factors. One hundred twenty-one of the 190 conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma samples (63.7%) had at least one genetic alteration, and 27 of the samples (14.2%) had more than one alteration. In the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas, 13 of the 27 samples (48.1%) had at least one genetic alteration and three of the 27 samples (11.1%) had more than one. The presence of multiple genetic alterations was associated with younger age at diagnosis (P=0.034), mean difference of 8 y earlier. We found no significant association with the number or type of genetic alterations present by gender, tumor size, extent of tumor differentiation, multicentricity, lymph node metastasis, distant metastases, TNM stage, and the AMES risk group. The association of multiple genetic alterations and younger age were independent of tumor size, lymph node or distant metastasis, TNM stage, or AMES risk group. Multiple genetic alterations are more common in younger patients with papillary thyroid cancer, but there is no difference in the type or number of genetic alterations by gender. Our findings suggest that multiple genetic alterations in thyroid cancer may be associated with earlier disease initiation and or progression.
    Journal of Surgical Research 06/2009; 160(2):179-83. · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mitogen-inducible gene-6 (Mig-6) is an immediate early response gene that negatively regulates signaling. EGFR overexpression and activating mutations in MAPK signaling effectors are common events in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). The purpose of this study was to determine if Mig-6 expression is associated with EGFR expression or surgical outcomes in PTC. We determined Mig-6 transcript levels from a microarray in 19 patients with PTC who underwent thyroidectomy. We established a maximally selected cutoff to discriminate Kaplan-Meier survival estimates. For cross-validation, we performed quantitative RT-PCR on resected well-differentiated PTC from an additional 106 patients. Mig-6 and EGFR mRNA levels correlated directly (P < .0001). Mig-6 expression above the cutoff of 1.10 (2;-dCt[Mig6-GUS]) was associated with greater survival (P = .008). When this cutoff was applied in the cross-validation, high Mig-6 expression was associated with longer survival (P = .03) and disease-free survival (P = .07). Furthermore, high Mig-6 expression was independently predictive of greater disease-free survival in BRAF(V600E)-positive PTC. High Mig-6 expression in PTC is associated with favorable outcomes. Mig-6 is a novel tumor suppressor that may be a candidate for targeted cancer therapeutics in patients with PTC refractory to conventional therapy.
    Surgery 01/2009; 144(6):908-13; discussion 913-4. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is frequently difficult to establish histologically whether a parathyroid tumor is a parathyroid carcinoma, parathyromatosis, or an atypical adenoma. The authors asked whether these tumors have a distinctive molecular profile, whether benign tumors could be distinguished from malignant tumors, and whether parathyromatosis is a low-grade parathyroid carcinoma or is benign tissue that can invade other organs. Samples of parathyroid carcinoma, atypical adenoma, parathyromatosis, parathyroid adenoma, and hyperplasia were obtained for tissue microarray studies. The molecular expression of genes involved in parathyroid tumor progression (HRPT2 ["parafibromin"], galectin-3, Ki-67, Rb, p27, and mdm-2) was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Complete loss of parafibromin expression was seen in 5 of 16 (31.3%) parathyroid carcinomas; all parathyromatosis, atypical adenomas, adenomas, and hyperplasia stained positive for parafibromin. Loss of Rb expression was seen in 5 (33.3%) of 15 parathyroid carcinomas and 1 (7.1%) of 14 parathyroid hyperplasias; all parathyromatosis, atypical adenomas, and adenomas stained positive. Galectin-3 stained strongly positive in 14 (93.3%) of 15 parathyroid carcinomas, and positive in 3 (18.7%) of 16 cases of parathyromatosis, 2 (100%) of 2 atypical adenomas, 1 (5.6%) of 18 adenomas, and 2 (14.3%) of 14 hyperplasias. The Ki-67 proliferative index was high in 9 (60%) of 15 parathyroid carcinomas, 1 (6.7%) of 15 cases of parathyromatosis, 1 (5.6%) of 18 adenomas, and no atypical adenomas or hyperplasia. P27 and mdm-2 protein expression did not differ appreciably among the tumor types. No single diagnostic marker currently determines whether a parathyroid tumor is a parathyroid carcinoma, but loss of parafibromin and Rb expression, and overexpression of galectin-3, generally distinguish parathyroid carcinoma from other parathyroid tumors. Parathyromatosis does not appear to be a low-grade parathyroid carcinoma.
    Cancer 01/2009; 115(2):334-44. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The gene expression profiles of benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors are different. Genomewide gene expression profiling and validation. Tertiary medical center. Eighty-five patients with benign adrenocortical tumors (n = 74) and adrenocortical carcinoma (n = 11). Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in 89 adrenocortical tissue samples (11 malignant and 78 benign). The criteria for differentially expressed genes between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors were a false discovery rate of less than 5% and an adjusted P < .01. Genes differentially expressed by 8-fold higher or lower were validated by RT-PCR. The diagnostic accuracy of differentially expressed genes as determined by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). We found 37 genes differentially expressed by 8-fold higher or lower. Fifteen genes were downregulated and 22 were upregulated in adrenocortical carcinoma. Of the 37 genes, 29 differentially expressed by microarray correlated with the gene expression levels by quantitative RT-PCR (P < or = .01). Of the 37 genes validated by RT-PCR, 22 were significantly differentially expressed between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors (P < .05). Five of these 22 genes had an AUC of 0.80 or greater (the AUC for IL13RA2 was 0.90; HTR2B, 0.87; CCNB2, 0.86; RARRES2, 0.86; and SLC16A9, 0.80), indicating high diagnostic accuracy for distinguishing benign from malignant adrenocortical tumors. We identified 37 genes that are dysregulated in adrenocortical carcinoma, and several of the differentially expressed genes have excellent diagnostic accuracy for distinguishing benign from malignant adrenocortical tumors.
    Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill.: 1960) 10/2008; 143(9):841-6; discussion 846. · 4.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 3-gene (PCSK2, PLAB, CCND2) assay has been reported to have high accuracy for distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid tumors that are often indeterminate on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy. The aim of the current study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the 3-gene assay in thyroid tissue and in FNA biopsy for distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms. The messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression level of 3 genes (PCSK2, PLAB, CCND2) was analyzed by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in 261 frozen thyroid tissue samples (138 benign and 123 malignant), and prospectively, in 144 clinical thyroid FNA samples. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of the 3-gene assay, the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic curve for each gene individually and in combination was determined. PCSK2 and CCND2 mRNA expression levels were found to be significantly different between benign and malignant thyroid tissue samples (P < .0001 and P = .0007, respectively), but PLAB mRNA expression level was not (P = .099). In the thyroid tissue samples, the AUC was 0.67 for PCSK2 and 0.62 for CCND2. In the thyroid FNA samples, PCSK2 and CCND2 were significantly differentially expressed between benign and malignant samples (P = .039 and P = .023, respectively). The AUC was 0.59 for PCSK2 and 0.61 for CCND2. Although PCSK2 and CCND2 were significantly differentially expressed between benign and malignant thyroid tumors both in tissue and in FNA samples, the diagnostic accuracy of the 3-gene assay was low. These findings demonstrate that it is essential for studies to validate the diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of emerging candidate diagnostic thyroid cancer markers if they are to be translated into clinically useful markers for making patient care decisions.
    Cancer 09/2008; 113(5):930-5. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A fine needle aspiration (FNA) diagnosis of a Hürthle cell neoplasm is associated with a 20% risk of malignancy. We sought to determine if the primary tumor size correlated with the risk of malignancy in patients with a preoperative FNA diagnosis of a Hürthle cell neoplasm. Between January 2000 and November 2006, 57 patients underwent a thyroidectomy with a preoperative FNA diagnosis of a Hürthle cell neoplasm. Patient histories, FNA reports, operative notes, and pathology reports were retrospectively reviewed. Statistical analysis was performed. The overall rate of malignancy in patients with Hürthle cell neoplasms was 21%. The average tumor size was 3.2 cm, with malignant tumors being significantly larger than benign tumors (5.0 vs. 2.7 cm, p<0.01). The risk of malignancy directly correlated with tumor size. No malignancies were seen in tumors 2 cm or smaller (0/15). The risk of malignancy was only 13% (6/46) in tumors 4 cm or smaller and increased to 55% (6/11) in tumors larger than 4 cm. All tumors larger than 6 cm were malignant (4/4). Tumor size correlates directly with malignant potential in patients with Hürthle cell neoplasms of the thyroid. Among our patients, malignancy was not present in any tumors 2 cm or smaller and was present in all tumors larger than 6 cm. Because the risk of malignancy is greater than 50% in patients with a tumor larger than 4 cm, consideration should be given for an initial total thyroidectomy in these patients.
    World Journal of Surgery 06/2008; 32(5):702-7. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Follicular neoplasms of the thyroid are associated with an approximately 20% risk of malignancy. We sought to determine whether the presence of additional thyroid nodules on preoperative ultrasound decreased the risk of malignancy in a patient with a follicular neoplasm. Between January 2000 and November 2006, 325 patients underwent thyroidectomy with a fine needle aspiration diagnosis of either follicular neoplasm, Hürthle cell neoplasm, or indeterminate (not including suspicious for papillary thyroid cancer). Records were reviewed retrospectively and statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (SPSS Corporation, Chicago, Ill). The rate of malignancy in our patient population was 20% (23% in follicular neoplasm, 19% in Hürthle cell neoplasm, 9% in indeterminate). Overall, 57% of patients had multiple thyroid nodules on preoperative ultrasound. The risk of malignancy was lower in patients with greater than or equal to 1 additional nodule in comparison with those with a solitary nodule (16.6% vs 28.0%, P = .02). The risk of malignancy was lowest in those with 1-3 additional nodules in comparison with those with greater than or equal to 4 nodules (14.5% vs 21.7%, P = .04). The presence of additional thyroid nodules on preoperative ultrasound is associated with a lower risk of malignancy in a patient with a follicular neoplasm.
    Surgery 01/2008; 142(6):851-7; discussion 857.e1-2. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To report a case of nonfunctioning parathyroid carcinoma that was incidentally found during a thyroidectomy for multinodular goiter. We present a case report, detailing the clinical course and histologic findings in a patient with a nonfunctional parathyroid carcinoma. The related literature is also reviewed. A 67-year-old woman presented with a 30-year history of a multinodular goiter that was symptomatic. A total thyroidectomy was performed. Histologic examination revealed not only a multinodular thyroid but also a mass in the left lobe, which was diagnostic of a parathyroid carcinoma. Serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels were normal postoperatively. Eleven months after the initial operation, a suprasternal mass developed, and she underwent neck reexploration and subtotal resection of an invasive recurrent nonfunctioning parathyroid carcinoma. The serum parathyroid hormone and calcium levels were normal before and after the operation. Postoperatively, the patient underwent radiation therapy. Twenty-three months after the initial operation, a computed tomographic scan of the chest revealed an interval increase in size of a nodule in the left lower lobe of the lung, and 30 months after her initial operation, she underwent resection of an isolated, 1-cm (greatest diameter), metastatic parathyroid carcinoma in the left lower lobe of the lung. The patient is currently doing well without evidence of recurrent disease. Nonfunctioning parathyroid carcinomas are difficult to diagnose and to treat. Recurrent disease after operation is common, and radiation therapy may help stabilize tumor growth. Patients with nonfunctioning parathyroid carcinomas appear to have a poorer prognosis than do those with functioning parathyroid cancers.
    Endocrine Practice 11/2007; 13(7):750-7. · 2.49 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

322 Citations
64.50 Total Impact Points


  • 2011
    • University of Rochester
      • Department of Surgery
      Rochester, NY, United States
    • The University of Arizona
      • Department of Surgery
      Tucson, AZ, United States
    • University of Wisconsin, Madison
      • Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
      Madison, MS, United States
  • 2010–2011
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      Maryland, United States
  • 2007–2011
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • • Department of Pathology
      • • Department of Surgery
      San Francisco, CA, United States
  • 2008
    • J. David Gladstone Institutes
      San Francisco, California, United States