ABSTRACT: Differential diagnosis of neonatal adrenal masses (NAM) is often based on empirical criteria. Expectant management relies on spontaneous regression, described either for NB as for adrenal hemorrhage (AH). Histology was available for biopsied cases only. Aim of the study was to correlate clinical, laboratory and imaging data of a series of NAM, to final diagnosis.
Records of 23 NAM, diagnosed before or after birth, were reviewed, collecting data about: obstetrical history, clinical features, imaging, laboratory data, surgical findings, outcome.
M/F ratio was 1.6/1. Size of the lesion ranged from 17 to 50 mm.. Doppler sonography (PD) showed no flow in 14/23. Urinary catecholamines (UCM) were elevated in 5/23. Reduction in a mean time of 3 months occurred in 14/23. MIBG and CT scans resulted positive in 8 and 9 cases among 16 NAM, unvaried or increased at one month. Three cases developed as IV S NB; diagnosis was confirmed by CT guided biopsy; regression occurred within 20 months. Surgery was decided for 6 unchanged/increasing NAM after 3-6 months; they were all NB. Predictive value for NB was high for MIBG and CT scan and was lower for high UCM level and positive PD findings.
Clear criteria to differentiate AH from NB are still missing. Despite spontaneous regression is thought to indirectly confirm a non neoplastic lesion, benign evolution has also been documented for NB. As histology is available only in operated or biopsied cases, we still lack a reliable set of signs for early differentiation and to reduce repeated, invasive investigations.
Minerva pediatrica 06/2012; 64(3):313-8.
ABSTRACT: Primary gastrointestinal perforations have an incidence of between 1% and 3% in NICU patients. The 3 Centers participating in this study cover nearly 40% of the NICU population of the Lazio Region--Italy. The aim of this study is to discuss factors affecting survival in patients affected by a primary intestinal perforation.
From 1991 to 2001, 67 cases of 85 with a neonatal gastrointestinal perforation, were related to primary bowel lesions. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) was not always the cause of perforation and in many patients an isolated bowel lesion without signs of NEC was found. The aim of this study was to examine clinical and intraoperative findings of NEC and non NEC perforations and their impact on survival. A relevant number of these patients were extremely low-birth weight (ELBW). Controversies about treatment of this category of neonates are discussed.
Patients were 37 males and 30 females (mean birth weight 1 274.8 g, mean gestational age 28.9 weeks, mean age at perforation 10 days). Overall survival was 56.8%. Patients were divided by intraoperative findings in 2 groups: NEC (n=48), or isolated intestinal perforation (IIP) without signs of NEC (n=19). Differences between these 2 groups with regard to birth weight, maturity, associated cardiac anomalies (patent ductus arteriosus, PDA) were significant. NEC and IIP behaved as 2 distinct entities, each with peculiar clinical (age at perforation, oral feeding, need of ventilatory support) and radiological aspects. At surgery, multiple lesion on necrotic bowel were typical of NEC versus single, isolated perforations on healthy bowel typical of IIP. Overall survival was almost identical in the 2 groups (59% vs 58%). ELBW patients (55% of the total neonatal intestinal perforations) were also studied. There were 21 patients with NEC and 16 with IIP. The 2 groups were different in age at perforation, previous oral feeding and associated cardiac anomalies (PDA). Overall survival was 62% for NEC and 50% for IIP. A laparotomy was always performed. Temporary peritoneal drainage was done in 4 cases only. Results were better when intestinal diversion was performed rather than resection and primary anastomosis. Almost all NEC patients had multiple perforations and extended bowel necrosis.
NEC is the most frequent cause of neonatal intestinal perforation. This is a quite distinct entity from IIP, which must always be differentiated preoperatively and which is most frequently found among low birth weight newborns. As far as surgical treatment of perforation among ELBW neonates is concerned, peritoneal drainage might be reasonably performed when a single lesion on healthy bowel as in IIP is clearly diagnosed but it could be inadequate for NEC patients.
Minerva pediatrica 07/2004; 56(3):335-9.
ABSTRACT: A large series of malignant and benign conditions are generally collected under the term of abdominal masses. Their common aspect is the lack, in most of the cases, of peculiar clinical features which may help early differential diagnosis. In many cases the mass is detected late after a long period of vague, aspecific symptoms. 40% of these space occupying lesions of the abdomen are of malignant origin and delayed detection and investigation affect clinical course. Preoperative study of abdominal masses is a problem of primary importance in pediatric surgical practice. A changing attitude is registered towards many diagnostic procedures and the role of largely diffused techniques like angiography is controversial. The introduction of ultrasonography makes in many cases intensive radiologic investigation unwarranted and academic. The Authors discuss the real role and targets of preoperative investigations of abdominal masses and refer on their experience based on 52 cases, to underline some clinical aspects and analyse their diagnostic approach to this pathology.
La Pediatria medica e chirurgica: Medical and surgical pediatrics 3(1):87-91.