Amie L Meditz

University of Colorado, Denver, CO, United States

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Publications (24)97.39 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Simple and reproducible tools to assess antiretroviral adherence are needed. A level of tenofovir diphosphate (TFV-DP) in dried blood spots (DBS) <1250 fmol/punch is predicted to identify imperfect adherence. Herein we evaluated TFV-DP DBS as a measure of adherence among HIV-infected women. DBS and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected twice (~1 week apart), in 35 well-controlled HIV-infected women (median age 42 years, 14 African American/Black [AA]) receiving daily co-formulated tenofovir/emtricitabine and either atazanavir/ritonavir (n=20) or raltegravir (n=16). TFV-DP in DBS and PBMCs was quantified by LC-MS/MS. Six-month adherence was measured as average days between monthly pharmacy refills. Data were loge transformed for analysis and presented as median (range); the correlation between continuous variables was analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient. The average TFV-DP between the 2 visits (aTFV-DP) in DBS and PBMCs was 1874 (706-3776) fmol/punch and 125 (1-278) fmol/106cells, respectively. AA women had lower levels of aTFV-DP in DBS compared to whites (1660 vs. 1970 fmol/punch; P=0.04), with a viremic patient having the lowest drug level (706 fmol/punch). Days between pharmacy refills were 34 (30-54) vs. 30 (26-40) in women with TFV-DP in DBS <1250 vs. ≥1250 fmol/punch (P=0.006). TFV-DP in DBS was negatively correlated with increasing number of days between refills (r=-0.56, P=0.002). TFV-DP DBS was a reliable and objective measure of adherence in HIV-infected women based on a strong inverse relationship with pharmacy refill adherence.
    AIDS research and human retroviruses. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Most HIV-1 replication occurs in secondary lymphoid tissues, and evaluating these tissues is crucial to investigations of pathogenesis. Inguinal lymph nodes (LN) are obtained frequently for these studies as they are readily detectable in most individuals and provide abundant numbers of cells. Knowledge of the outcomes of inguinal LN excision for research purposes is important to inform accurately study participants and researchers of the potential risks. Methods: Data on surgical complications were collected in real time in HIV-1-infected subjects who underwent excisional inguinal LN biopsies for research purposes from February 1997 through June 2011. Data were analyzed retrospectively to determine the frequency of surgical complications using the Fisher exact test and non-parametric testing. Results: Eighty-seven research subjects underwent a total of 95 LN excisions. Thirty-six percent of subjects were female, 53% were white, 26% were black, 16% Hispanic, and 2% Native American. Median age was 36 y (22-52). The median CD4+ T cell count was 478 cell/mm(3) (range, 57-1117) and the median plasma HIV-1 RNA concentration was 4.1 log10copies/mL (range, 1.7-5.9). Minor complications including seroma, transient lymphedema, hematoma, and allergic reaction to surgical tape, occurred in 10% of procedures. Complications that required medical attention occurred in an additional 10% of procedures, and included cellulitis (5%), superficial incisional surgical site infection (3%), and seroma requiring aspiration (1%). Subjects with complications had a lower BMI (25; range, 16-38; n=12) than others (28; range, 19-57; n=40; p=0.05) and tended to have higher platelets, (median, 259×10(9)/L; range, 196-332; vs. 233×10(9)/L; range, 44-633; p=0.07). No other clinical or laboratory characteristics were associated with complications (p≥0.3). Conclusions: Lymph node excision for research purposes is generally safe in a diverse group of chronically HIV-1-infected women and men, but can result in complications in a minority of subjects. No predictors of complications were identified.
    Surgical Infections 05/2014; · 1.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. HIV-1-infected women have lower viral loads (VL) than men, but similar rates of disease progression. We hypothesized that sex differences in CCR5 expression mediate VL differences.Methods. CCR5 was analyzed by flow cytometry in disaggregated lymph node (LN) cells from untreated HIV-1-infected women (n=28) and men (n=27). LN HIV-1 RNA+ cells/mm(2) were determined by in situ hybridization. Linear and generalized linear regression models were utilized.Results. %CCR5+CD3+CD4+ cells was lower in women (mean, 12%) than men (mean, 16%; p=0.034). Neither %CCR5+CD3+CD4+ cells nor CCR5 density predicted VL or LN RNA+ cells (p>0.24), after adjusting for CD4, race, and age. Women had marginally fewer RNA+ cells (mean, 0.21/mm(2)) compared to men (mean, 0.44/mm(2); p=0.046). After adjusting for RNA+ cells and potential confounders, women had 0.46 log10 lower VL than men (p=0.018).Conclusions. Reduced LN CCR5 expression in women did not account for VL sex differences. CCR5 expression did not predict VL or RNA+ cells indicating that physiologic levels of CCR5 do not limit HIV-1 replication in LN. Less plasma virus was associated with each RNA+ cell in women compared to men, suggesting that women may either produce fewer virions per productively infected cell or more effectively clear extracellular virus.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 10/2013; · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, a pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in a variety of biological processes including oxidative stress, has been associated with vascular dysfunction in aged and ovariectomized animals. We determined whether acute inhibition of TNF-α improves vascular endothelial function and decreases arterial stiffness in estrogen-deficient postmenopausal women. Arterial stiffness (carotid artery compliance) and endothelial function (brachial artery flow-mediated dilation [FMD]) were measured in postmenopausal women (n = 23; 57 ± 1 years, mean ± SE) before and following randomization to two days of either transdermal estradiol (0.05 mg/d, N = 12) or placebo (N = 11) alone and following a single subcutaneous injection of the TNF-α inhibitor, etanercept (25 mg), and in premenopausal (n = 9; 33 ± 2 years) before and following etanercept. Baseline carotid artery compliance and brachial artery FMD were lower in postmenopausal than premenopausal women (P < 0.0001). In postmenopausal women, carotid artery compliance (n = 12; 0.59 ± 0.05-0.78 ± 0.06 mm(2)/mmHg × 10(-1), P < 0.001) and FMD (4.1 ± 0.6-6.0 ± 0.7%, P = 0.02) increased in response to estradiol but not placebo (n = 11). Carotid artery compliance (0.71 ± 0.06-0.81 ± 0.06 mm(2)/mmHg × 10(-1), P = 0.02) and FMD (5.2 ± 0.7-7.5 ± 0.9%, P = 0.003) increased with etanercept in the placebo group but had no effect in postmenopausal randomized to estradiol or premenopausal women. These results suggest that TNF-α contributes to impaired endothelial-dependent vasodilation and arterial stiffening in estrogen-deficient postmenopausal women.
    Atherosclerosis 10/2013; 230(2):390-6. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (LC), tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) assay for the determination of tenofovir (TFV) and emtricitabine (FTC) in dried blood spots (DBS) from human whole blood was developed and validated. Whole blood samples were spotted, dried, and a 3mm punch was extracted with methanol for analysis by LC-MS/MS utilizing stable isotope labeled internal standards. The assay was validated over the range of 2.5-1000ng/mL for TFV and 2.5-5000ng/mL for FTC. The method was accurate (within ±15% of control) and precise (coefficient of variation ≤15%) for hematocrit concentrations ranging from 25% to 76%; using edge punches vs. center punches; and spot volumes of 10-50μL. Analytes were stable for five freeze/thaw cycles and up to 6 days at room temperature, whereas long-term storage required -20°C or -80°C. Comparison of TFV and FTC in DBS vs. plasma yielded r(2)≥0.96, indicating that DBS can be used as a plasma alternative for pharmacokinetic analyses in vivo.
    Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis 08/2013; 88C:144-151. · 2.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context:The stages of the menopause transition are characterized by changes in ovarian hormones and increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and vasomotor symptoms that may adversely affect vascular health.Objective:We tested the hypothesis that endothelial function, a predictor of CVD, would be reduced across the stages of the menopause transition, independent of CVD risk factors and vasomotor symptoms.Design, Setting, and Participants:This was a cross-sectional study of 132 healthy women from the general community aged 22-70 yr, categorized as premenopausal (n = 33, 32 ± 6 yr; mean ± sd), early perimenopausal (n = 20, 49 ± 3 yr) or late perimenopausal (n = 22, 50 ± 4 yr), or early (n = 30, 55 ± 3 yr) or late postmenopausal (n = 27, 61 ± 4 yr).Main Outcome:Endothelial-dependent vasodilation was measured by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) using ultrasound.Results:Brachial artery FMD was significantly different among the groups (P < 0.001). It was highest in premenopausal women (9.9 ± 2.1%) with progressive decrements in perimenopausal (early: 8.2 ± 2.5%; late: 6.5 ± 1.9%) and postmenopausal women (early: 5.5 ± 1.9%; late: 4.7 ± 1.7%). Adjustment for risk factors, vasomotor symptoms, and sex hormones did not alter the association (P < 0.001). In subgroup analyses of women aged 50-59 yr, brachial artery FMD was lower in late peri- and early and late postmenopausal compared with early perimenopausal women (P < 0.001) but was not different between late perimenopausal and either early or late postmenopausal women.Conclusions:Our findings suggest that a decline in endothelial function begins during the early stages of menopause (perimenopause) and worsens with the loss of ovarian function and prolonged estrogen deficiency. These data add to the accumulating evidence that the perimenopausal window is a critical time period for adverse changes in CVD risk.
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 09/2012; · 6.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Tenofovir (TFV) disoproxil fumarate (TDF)±emtricitabine (FTC) are widely used for HIV treatment and chemoprophylaxis, but variable adherence may lead to suboptimal responses. Methods that quantify adherence would allow for interventions to improve treatment and prevention outcomes. Our objective was to characterize the pharmacokinetics of TFV-diphosphate (TFV-DP) and FTC-triphosphate (FTC-TP) in red blood cells (RBCs) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs); to extend the RBC analysis to dried blood spots (DBSs); and to model how RBC/DBS monitoring could inform recent and cumulative drug exposure/adherence. Blood samples were collected from 17 HIV-negative adults at 5 visits over a 30-day pharmacokinetics study of daily oral TDF/FTC. Dosing was discontinued on day 30 and blood was collected on days 35, 45, and 60 during the washout period. Plasma/RBCs/PBMCs/DBSs were all quantified by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. DBSs were paired with RBCs and plasma for comparisons. The median (interquartile range) RBC TFV-DP half-life was 17.1 (15.7-20.2) versus 4.2 (3.7-5.2) days in PBMCs. At steady state, TFV-DP was 130 fmol/10(6) RBCs versus 98 fmol/10(6) PBMCs. FTC-TP was not quantifiable in most RBC samples. TFV-DP in RBCs versus DBSs yielded an r(2)=0.83. TFV-DP in DBSs was stable at -20°C. Simulations of TFV-DP in RBCs/DBSs, when dosed from one to seven times per week, demonstrated that each dose per week resulted in an average change of approximately 19 fmol/10(6) RBCs and 230 fmol/punch. TFV and FTC in plasma versus DBSs was defined by y=1.4x; r(2)=0.96 and y=0.8x; r(2)=0.99, respectively. We conclude that DBSs offer a convenient measure of recent (TFV/FTC) and cumulative (TFV-DP in RBCs) drug exposure with potential application to adherence monitoring.
    AIDS research and human retroviruses 08/2012; · 2.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cellular pharmacology of zidovudine (ZDV) and lamivudine (3TC) in vivo is not completely understood. This prospective longitudinal study investigated the relationship between HIV-1 serostatus, sex, race, and time on therapy with intracellular and plasma ZDV and 3TC concentrations. Of 20 HIV-seronegative and 23 HIV-seropositive volunteers enrolled, 16 (8 women) and 21 (5 women) completed all 12 study days, respectively. Volunteers began ZDV-3TC therapy (plus a third active drug in HIV-seropositive volunteers), and steady-state concentrations (C(ss)) were determined after days 1, 3, 7, and 12. A repeated-measures mixed model was utilized. HIV-seronegative status was associated with 22% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0%, 50%) and 37% (15%, 67%) higher C(ss) estimates compared to those of HIV-seropositive individuals for intracellular ZDV-TP and 3TC-TP levels, respectively. African-Americans had 36% (8%, 72%) higher ZDV-TP estimates than non-African-Americans. Sex was not associated with ZDV-TP or 3TC-TP (P > 0.19). Women had 36% (4%, 78%) higher plasma ZDV, but the effect was lessened when normalized by lean body weight (5% [-19%, 38%]; P = 0.68). Plasma 3TC was 19% (0%, 41%) higher in HIV-seropositive volunteers and 22% (0%, 48%) higher in African American volunteers, but these effects were not significant when corrected for creatinine clearance (7% [-9%, 20%] and -5% [-26%, 12%] for HIV serostatus and race, respectively; P > 0.35). These results suggest that HIV-seropositive status decreases and African American race elevates the cellular triphosphates of ZDV and 3TC. This information extends knowledge of ZDV and 3TC cellular pharmacology in vivo and provides new leads for future cellular pharmacology studies aimed at optimizing HIV prevention/treatment with these agents.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 03/2012; 56(6):3011-9. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanisms mediating arterial stiffening with aging and menopause are not completely understood. We determined whether administration of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)), a critical cofactor for endothelial nitric oxide synthase to produce nitric oxide, would increase vascular endothelial-dependent vasodilatory tone and decrease arterial stiffness in estrogen-deficient postmenopausal women. Additionally, we examined whether the beneficial effects of estrogen on vascular function were possibly related to BH(4). Arterial stiffness (carotid artery compliance) and endothelial-dependent vasodilation [brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD)] were measured in postmenopausal (n = 24; 57 ± 1 yr, mean ± SE) and eumenorrheic premenopausal (n = 9; 33 ± 2 yr) women before and 3 h after the oral administration of BH(4). Subsequently, in postmenopausal women, vascular testing (before and after BH(4)) was repeated following randomization to either 2 days of transdermal estradiol or placebo. Baseline carotid artery compliance and brachial artery FMD were lower in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women (P < 0.0001). BH(4) administration increased carotid artery compliance (0.61 ± 0.05 to 0.73 ± 0.04 mm(2)·mmHg(-1)·10(-1) vs. baseline, P < 0.0001) and brachial artery FMD (P < 0.001) in postmenopausal women but had no effect in premenopausal women (P = 0.62). Carotid artery compliance (0.59 ± 0.05 to 0.78 ± 0.06 mm(2)·mmHg(-1)·10(-1), P < 0.001) and FMD increased in postmenopausal women in response to estradiol (P = 0.02) but were not further improved with the coadministration of BH(4), possibly because estrogen increased BH(4) bioavailability. Carotid artery compliance and FMD increased with BH(4) in the placebo group (P = 0.02). Although speculative, these results suggest that reduced vascular BH(4) may be an important contributor to arterial stiffening in estrogen-deficient postmenopausal women, related in part to reduced endothelial-dependent vasodilatory tone.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 03/2012; 302(5):H1211-8. · 4.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: New HIV-1 infections are increasing in older American women largely through heterosexual transmission. Activated CD4+ T cells and CCR5 expression are linked to HIV-1 susceptibility, but whether these parameters are altered in the cervix of older women is unknown. Whole blood and in some instances endocervical brush samples were collected from healthy premenopausal (n = 22) and postmenopausal women (n = 24). Percentages of HLA-DR(DR)+CD38(38)+CD4+ T cells and HIV-1 chemokine coreceptor expression were determined by flow cytometry. Percentages of DR+38+CD4+ T cells were 6 times greater in cervix (median: 6.4%) than blood (median: 1.1%; P < 0.001) but did not differ within each compartment between premenopausal and postmenopausal women (P = 0.2). Postmenopausal women had greater percentages of CCR5+CD4+ and CCR5+DR+38+CD4+ T cells compared with premenopausal women in cervix (median: 70% vs. 42%, P = 0.005; and 80% vs. 57%; P = 0.05, respectively) and blood (medians: 22% vs. 13%, and 76% vs. 62%, respectively; P < 0.001). Postmenopausal women had more CCR5 molecules on cervical DR+38+CD4+ T cells (median: 3176) than premenopausal women (median: 1776; P = 0.02). Age and percent CCR5+CD4+ and CCR5+DR+38+CD4+ cells were linearly related in cervix (r(2) = 0.47, P < 0.001 and r(2) = 0.25, P = 0.01, respectively) and blood (r(2) = 0.20, P = 0.001 and r(2) = 0.31, P < 0.001; respectively), but confounding of age with menopause could not be excluded. Cervical CXCR4 expression did not differ substantially between premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Elevated cervical CCR5 expression in postmenopausal women may increase their risk for HIV-1 acquisition. Studies are needed to confirm whether elevated CCR5 expression confers increased HIV-1 susceptibility in postmenopausal women, and if it is related to hormonal or nonhormonal effects of aging.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 11/2011; 59(3):221-8. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Raltegravir, an inhibitor of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) integrase enzyme, is a preferred component of antiretroviral regimens for both treatment-naïve and -experienced patients. Compared with other antiretroviral agents, raltegravir has less toxicity and fewer drug interactions since it is not a substrate, inhibitor, or inducer of cytochrome P450 enzymes. However, raltegravir is not devoid of drug interactions. We describe a 39-year-old, HIV-1-infected man who experienced virologic failure while receiving a raltegravir-containing antiretroviral regimen with concomitant calcium administration. The patient was prescribed protease inhibitor-based combination antiretroviral therapy, and within 2 months, he achieved undetectable plasma HIV-1 RNA levels. Seven months after starting therapy, he developed a focal cerebral vasculitis of unknown etiology, which was treated with prednisone, aspirin, and acyclovir. Due to the potential for drug interactions between prednisone and protease inhibitors, the patient was switched to an antiretroviral regimen containing raltegravir. In addition, calcium carbonate 1 g-vitamin D3 400 IU 3 times/day was started for prevention of osteoporosis associated with long-term glucocorticoid use. After 10 months of an undetectable plasma HIV-1 RNA level and clinical evidence of a high level of adherence, he subsequently developed detectable HIV-1 RNA levels with documented resistance to raltegravir. His antiretroviral therapy was changed back to a protease inhibitor-based regimen, and his HIV-1 RNA level rapidly resuppressed. Calcium binding to the divalent metal ion-chelating motif of raltegravir may have led to subtherapeutic raltegravir levels in this patient. It is important for clinicians to be aware of the potential interaction between polyvalent cation-containing agents, such as calcium, and raltegravir.
    Pharmacotherapy 10/2011; 31(10):1042. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Percentages of activated T cells correlate with HIV-1 disease progression, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We hypothesized that HLA-DR(+) CD38(+) (DR(+) 38(+)) CD4(+) T cells produce the majority of HIV-1 due to elevated expression of CCR5 and CXCR4. In phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated CD8-depleted peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) infected with HIV-1 green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter viruses, DR(-) 38(+) T cells constituted the majority of CCR5 (R5)-tropic (median, 62%) and CXCR4 (X4)-tropic HIV-1-producing cells (median, 61%), although cell surface CCR5 and CXCR4 were not elevated in this subset of cells. In lymph nodes from untreated individuals infected with R5-tropic HIV-1, percentages of CCR5(+) cells were elevated in DR(+) 38(+) CD4(+) T cells (median, 36.4%) compared to other CD4(+) T-cell subsets (median values of 5.7% for DR(-) 38(-) cells, 19.4% for DR(+) 38(-) cells, and 7.6% for DR(-) 38(+) cells; n = 18; P < 0.001). In sorted CD8(-) lymph node T cells, median HIV-1 RNA copies/10(5) cells was higher for DR(+) 38(+) cells (1.8 × 10(6)) than for DR(-) 38(-) (0.007 × 10(6)), DR(-) 38(+) (0.064 × 10(6)), and DR(+) 38(-) (0.18 × 10(6)) subsets (n = 8; P < 0.001 for all). After adjusting for percentages of subsets, a median of 87% of viral RNA was harbored by DR(+) 38(+) cells. Percentages of CCR5(+) CD4(+) T cells and concentrations of CCR5 molecules among subsets predicted HIV-1 RNA levels among CD8(-) DR/38 subsets (P < 0.001 for both). Median HIV-1 DNA copies/10(5) cells was higher in DR(+) 38(+) cells (5,360) than in the DR(-) 38(-) (906), DR(-) 38(+) (814), and DR(+) 38(-) (1,984) subsets (n = 7; P ≤ 0.031). Thus, DR(+) 38(+) CD4(+) T cells in lymph nodes have elevated CCR5 expression, are highly susceptible to infection with R5-tropic virus, and produce the majority of R5-tropic HIV-1. PBMC assays failed to recapitulate in vivo findings, suggesting limited utility. Strategies to reduce numbers of DR(+) 38(+) CD4(+) T cells may substantially inhibit HIV-1 replication.
    Journal of Virology 08/2011; 85(19):10189-200. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is unknown whether sex and race influence clinical outcomes following primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Data were evaluated from an observational, multicenter, primarily North American cohort of HIV-1 seroconverters. Of 2277 seroconverters, 5.4% were women. At enrollment, women averaged .40 log₁₀ fewer copies/mL of HIV-1 RNA (P < .001) and 66 more CD4(+) T cells/μL (P = .006) than men, controlling for age and race. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) was less likely to be initiated at any time point by nonwhite women and men compared to white men (P < .005), and by individuals from the southern United States compared to others (P = .047). Sex and race did not affect responses to ART after 6 months (P > .73). Women were 2.17-fold more likely than men to experience >1 HIV/AIDS-related event (P < .001). Nonwhite women were most likely to experience an HIV/AIDS-related event compared to all others (P = .035), after adjusting for intravenous drug use and ART. Eight years after diagnosis, >1 HIV/AIDS-related event had occurred in 78% of nonwhites and 37% of whites from the southern United States, and 24% of whites and 17% of nonwhites from other regions (P < .001). Despite more favorable clinical parameters initially, female HIV-1-seroconverters had worse outcomes than did male seroconverters. Elevated morbidity was associated with being nonwhite and residing in the southern United States.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 02/2011; 203(4):442-51. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The use of antiretroviral medications in HIV-negative individuals as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising approach to prevent HIV infection. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and emtricitabine exhibit desirable properties for PrEP including: favourable pharmacokinetics that support infrequent dosing; few major drug-drug or drug-food interactions; an excellent clinical safety record; and pre-clinical evidence for efficacy. Several large, randomized, controlled clinical trials are evaluating the safety and efficacy of TDF and emtricitabine for this new indication. A thorough understanding of variability in drug response will help determine future investigations in the field and/or implementation into clinical care. Because tenofovir and emtricitabine are nucleos(t)ide analogues, the HIV prevention and toxicity effects depend on the triphosphate analogue formed intracellularly. This review identifies important cellular pharmacology considerations for tenofovir and emtricitabine, which include drug penetration into relevant tissues and cell types, race/ethnicity/pharmacogenetics, gender, cellular activation state and appropriate episodic or alternative dosing strategies based on pharmacokinetic principles. The current state of knowledge in these areas is summarized and the future utility of intracellular pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics for the PrEP field is discussed.
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 11/2010; 66(2):240-50. · 5.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Raltegravir's divalent metal ion chelating motif may predispose the drug to interactions with divalent cations. We determined whether a divalent cation-containing antacid interacted with raltegravir. Twelve HIV-1-seronegative subjects were enrolled in this randomized, prospective, crossover study of single-dose raltegravir (400 mg) with and without an antacid. Subjects underwent two intensive pharmacokinetic visits in the fasted state separated by a 5- to 12-day washout period. With simultaneous antacid administration, time to peak raltegravir concentration occurred 2 h sooner (P = 0.002) and there was a 67% lower raltegravir concentration at 12 h postdose (P < 0.0001) than with administration of raltegravir alone. The raltegravir area under the-concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 h and maximum concentration were unchanged with the addition of an antacid. Studies are needed to determine the clinical relevance of this interaction, whether it remains after multiple dosing to steady state, whether it is mitigated by temporal separation, and whether raltegravir interacts with divalent cation-containing vitamins, supplements, or foods.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 10/2010; 54(12):4999-5003. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reduced frequencies of myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cell (DC) subsets (mDCs and pDCs, respectively) have been observed in the peripheral blood of HIV-1-infected individuals throughout the course of disease. Accumulation of DCs in lymph nodes (LNs) may partly account for the decreased numbers observed in blood, but increased DC death may also be a contributing factor. We used multiparameter flow cytometry to evaluate pro- and antiapoptotic markers in blood mDCs and pDCs from untreated HIV-1-infected donors, from a subset of infected donors before and after receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), and from uninfected control donors. Blood mDCs, but not pDCs, from untreated HIV-1-infected donors expressed lower levels of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 than DCs from uninfected donors. A subset of HIV-1-infected donors had elevated frequencies of proapoptotic caspase-3(+) blood mDCs, and positive correlations were observed between caspase-3(+) mDC frequencies and plasma viral load and CD8(+) T-cell activation levels. Caspase-3(+) mDC frequencies, but not mDC Bcl-2 expression, were reduced with viral suppression on ART. Apoptosis markers on DCs in blood and LN samples from a cohort of untreated, HIV-1-infected donors with chronic disease were also evaluated. LN mDCs displayed higher levels of Bcl-2 and lower caspase-3(+) frequencies than did matched blood mDCs. Conversely, LN pDCs expressed lower Bcl-2 levels than their blood counterparts. In summary, blood mDCs from untreated HIV-1-infected subjects displayed a proapoptotic profile that was partially reversed with viral suppression, suggesting that DC death may be a factor contributing to blood DC depletion in the setting of chronic, untreated HIV disease.
    Journal of Virology 10/2010; 85(1):397-409. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple impairments in HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTL) have been reported, but derangements in HIV-1-specific CD8+ T-cell chemotaxis have not been described previously. We assessed migration to SDF-1alpha (stromal cell-derived factor 1-alpha) and CX3CL1 in vitro and expression of cognate receptors, CXCR4 and CX3CR1, by flow cytometry in peripheral blood and lymph node CD8+ T cells from HIV-1-seropositive and -seronegative individuals. Compared with seronegative individuals, percentages of CXCR4+CD8+ T cells were reduced (median, 26% versus 74%, p < 0.001) and percentages of CX3CR1+CD8+ T cells were increased (median, 33% versus 15%, p = 0.03) in seropositive individuals. Robust migration of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) CD8+ T cells to SDF-1alpha (1 alphag/ml) was observed in both HIV-1-seropositive (median chemotactic index [CI] 4.9) and -seronegative (median CI 2.8) subjects (p = 0.46). CI to SDF-1alpha was not significantly related to percentage of CXCR4+CD8+ T cells or density of CXCR4, but correlated inversely with plasma HIV-1 RNA concentration (r = -0.82, p = 0.03). Little chemotaxis was observed in response to CX3CL1 and it was unrelated to CX3CR1 expression. Lymph node CD8+ T-cell chemotaxis to SDF-1alpha and CX3CL1 in four subjects demonstrated the same patterns observed in PBMC. HIV-1-specific tetramer-staining CD8+ T cells exhibited chemotaxis of similar magnitude as PBMC CD8+ T cells in a subset of subjects. These data suggest that SDF-1alpha is a potent chemoattractant for HIV-1-specific CTL, but that impairments in migration of HIV-1-specific CTL may exist at high viral loads. Improved understanding of the determinants of CTL localization may provide insight into novel therapies to enhance delivery of CTL to sites of HIV-1 replication.
    AIDS research and human retroviruses 07/2008; 24(7):977-85. · 2.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DCs) from HIV-1-infected individuals display numeric and functional defects, and recent evidence suggests that HIV-1 can directly and indirectly activate DCs in vitro. The in vivo activation state and compartmentalization of DC subsets during HIV-1 infection remain poorly understood, however. We evaluated phenotypic and functional characteristics of myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) directly ex vivo in peripheral blood and lymphoid tissue from HIV-1-infected and HIV-seronegative individuals. Analysis of a wide range of chemokine receptors and activation/maturation markers on circulating DCs from viremic HIV-1-infected donors revealed a phenotype indicative of partial activation. Yet, blood DCs from viremic subjects still achieved full maturation when stimulated in vitro. In addition, blood pDCs from viremic individuals had a reduced capacity to migrate to CXCL12 in vitro. Total numbers of both DC subsets were increased in lymph nodes of asymptomatic untreated HIV-1-infected subjects, consistent with DC accumulation in the lymphoid compartment. Lymph node DCs also expressed high levels of CD40 in the absence of increases of other typical activation/maturation markers. Activation and depletion of DCs in blood with accumulation in lymphoid tissue may contribute to HIV-associated chronic immune activation and T-cell dysfunction.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 06/2008; 48(1):1-12. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Concentrations of zidovudine (ZDV)- and lamivudine (3TC)-triphosphates (TP) have been quantified in unfractionated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from HIV+ patients. The objective of this study was to determine whether concentrations of ZDV-TP and 3TC-TP in PBMC reflect the concentrations within CD4 T cells in HIV-seronegative adults. Volunteers had taken 300 mg of ZDV plus 150 mg of 3TC twice daily for > or = 7 days. Blood (60 mL) was collected 2 or 5 h post observed dose. PBMC were processed into three cell fractions using CD4 magnetic immunobeads: CD4-purified cells; unfractionated PBMC; and CD4-depleted PBMC. TP were determined in each cell fraction with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared across cell types by non-parametric analyses. Six males and two females participated. The median (range) percentage of CD4 T cells (CD4%) in each fraction were: CD4-purified, 99%; unfractionated, 63% (range, 53-70); and CD4-depleted, 14% (range, 4-29). Corresponding median (range) ZDV-TP concentrations were 8.0 (5.3-10.3), 26.5 (12.9-42.2), and 34.2 (16.4-52.2) fmol/1 x 10 cells (Friedman P = 0.0008). The 3TC-TP values were 4.6 (2.3-6.7), 4.8 (3.5-8.8), and 6.8 (4.0-13.1) pmol//1 x 10 cells (Friedman P = 0.01). In mixed model analyses: ZDV-TP (fmol/1 x 10 cells) = 42-0.32 (CD4%); P < 0.001 and 3TC-TP (pmol/1 x 10 cells) = 7.3-0.03(CD4%); P = 0.003. In HIV-seronegative volunteers, 3TC-TP concentrations in PBMC reflected the concentrations within CD4 T cells, but ZDV-TP concentrations were more than 70% lower in CD4 T cells than in PBMC. Thus, TP concentrations differ according to cell type in vivo with corresponding efficacy and toxicity implications for cells with low or high triphosphates.
    AIDS 09/2007; 21(14):1849-54. · 6.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Functional impairment of HIV-specific CD4(+) T cells during chronic HIV infection is closely linked to viral replication and thought to be due to T cell exhaustion. Programmed death 1 (PD-1) has been linked to T cell dysfunction in chronic viral infections, and blockade of the PD-1 pathway restores HIV-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell function in HIV infection. This study extends those findings by directly examining PD-1 expression on virus-specific CD4(+) T cells. To investigate the role of PD-1 in HIV-associated CD4(+) T cell dysfunction, we measured PD-1 expression on blood and lymph node T cells from HIV-infected subjects with chronic disease. PD-1 expression was significantly higher on IFN-gamma-producing HIV-specific CD4(+) T cells compared with total or CMV-specific CD4(+) T cells in untreated HIV-infected subjects (p = 0.0001 and p < 0.0001, respectively). PD-1 expression on HIV-specific CD4(+) T cells from subjects receiving antiretroviral therapy was significantly reduced (p = 0.007), and there was a direct correlation between PD-1 expression on HIV-specific CD4(+) T cells and plasma viral load (r = 0.71; p = 0.005). PD-1 expression was significantly higher on HIV-specific T cells in the lymph node, the main site of HIV replication, compared with those in the blood (p = 0.0078). Thus, PD-1 expression on HIV-specific CD4(+) T cells is driven by persistent HIV replication, providing a potential target for enhancing the functional capacity of HIV-specific CD4(+) T cells.
    The Journal of Immunology 09/2007; 179(3):1979-87. · 5.52 Impact Factor