[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The control of mitochondrial function is a cardinal issue in the field of cardiac bioenergetics, and the analysis of mitochondrial regulations is central to basic research and in the diagnosis of many diseases. Interaction between cytoskeletal proteins and mitochondria can actively participate in mitochondrial regulation. Potential candidates for the key roles in this regulation are the cytoskeletal proteins plectin and tubulin. Analysis of cardiac cells has revealed regular arrangement of β-tubulin II, fully co-localized with mitochondria. β-Tubulin IV demonstrated a characteristic staining of branched network, β-tubulin III was matched with Z-lines, and β-tubulin I was diffusely spotted and fragmentary polymerized. In contrast, HL-1 cells were characterized by the complete absence of β-tubulin II. Comparative analysis of cardiomyocytes and HL-1 cells revealed a dramatic difference in the mechanisms of mitochondrial regulation. In the heart, colocalization of β-tubulin isotype II with mitochondria suggests that it can participate in the coupling of ATP-ADP translocase (ANT), mitochondrial creatine kinase (MtCK), and VDAC (ANT-MtCK-VDAC). This mitochondrial supercomplex is responsible for the efficient intracellular energy transfer via the phosphocreatine pathway. Existing data suggest that cytoskeletal proteins may control the VDAC, contributing to maintenance of mitochondrial and cellular physiology.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondria are dynamic structures for which fusion and fission are well characterized for rapidly dividing cells in culture. Based on these data, it has recently been proposed that high respiratory activity is the result of fusion and formation of mitochondrial reticulum, while fission results in fragmented mitochondria with low respiratory activity. In this work we test the validity of this new hypothesis by analyzing our own experimental data obtained in studies of isolated heart mitochondria, permeabilized cells of cardiac phenotype with different mitochondrial arrangement and dynamics. Additionally, we reviewed published data including electron tomographic investigation of mitochondrial membrane-associated structures in heart cells. Oxygraphic studies show that maximal ADP-dependent respiration rates are equally high both in isolated heart mitochondria and in permeabilized cardiomyocytes. On the contrary, these rates are three times lower in NB HL-1 cells with fused mitochondrial reticulum. Confocal and electron tomographic studies show that there is no mitochondrial reticulum in cardiac cells, known to contain 5,000-10,000 individual, single mitochondria, which are regularly arranged at the level of sarcomeres and are at Z-lines separated from each other by membrane structures, including the T-tubular system in close connection to the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The new structural data in the literature show a principal role for the elaborated T-tubular system in organization of cell metabolism by supplying calcium, oxygen and substrates from the extracellular medium into local domains of the cardiac cells for calcium cycling within Calcium Release Units, associated with respiration and its regulation in Intracellular Energetic Units.
Journal of Bioenergetics 12/2012; · 1.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The permeabilized cells and muscle fibres technique allows one to study the functional properties of mitochondria without their isolation, thus preserving all of the contacts with cellular structures, mostly the cytoskeleton, to study the whole mitochondrial population in the cell in their natural surroundings and it is increasingly being used in both experimental and clinical studies. The functional parameters (affinity for ADP in regulation of respiration) of mitochondria in permeabilized myocytes or myocardial fibres are very different from those in isolated mitochondria in vitro. In the present study, we have analysed the data showing the dependence of this parameter upon the muscle contractile state. Most remarkable is the effect of recently described Ca(2+)-independent contraction of permeabilized muscle fibres induced by elevated temperatures (30-37°C). We show that very similar strong spontaneous Ca(2+)-independent contraction can be produced by proteolytic treatment of permeabilized muscle fibres that result in a disorganization of mitochondrial arrangement, leading to a significant increase in affinity for ADP. These data show that Ca(2+)-insensitive contraction may be related to the destruction of cytoskeleton structures by intracellular proteases. Therefore the use of their inhibitors is strongly advised at the permeabilization step with careful washing of fibres or cells afterwards. A possible physiologically relevant relationship between Ca(2+)-regulated ATP-dependent contraction and mitochondrial functional parameters is also discussed.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This review describes the recent experimental data on the importance of the VDAC-cytoskeleton interactions in determining the mechanisms of energy and metabolite transfer between mitochondria and cytoplasm in cardiac cells. In the intermembrane space mitochondrial creatine kinase connects VDAC with adenine nucleotide translocase and ATP synthase complex, on the cytoplasmic side VDAC is linked to cytoskeletal proteins. Applying immunofluorescent imaging and Western blot analysis we have shown that β2-tubulin coexpressed with mitochondria is highly important for cardiac muscle cells mitochondrial metabolism. Since it has been shown by Rostovtseva et al. that αβ-heterodimer of tubulin binds to VDAC and decreases its permeability, we suppose that the β-tubulin subunit is bound on the cytoplasmic side and α-tubulin C-terminal tail is inserted into VDAC. Other cytoskeletal proteins, such as plectin and desmin may be involved in this process. The result of VDAC-cytoskeletal interactions is selective restriction of the channel permeability for adenine nucleotides but not for creatine or phosphocreatine that favors energy transfer via the phosphocreatine pathway. In some types of cancer cells these interactions are altered favoring the hexokinase binding and thus explaining the Warburg effect of increased glycolytic lactate production in these cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: VDAC structure, function, and regulation of mitochondrial metabolism.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 01/2012; 1818(6):1545-54. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A broad spectrum of beneficial effects has been ascribed to creatine (Cr), phosphocreatine (PCr) and their cyclic analogues cyclo-(cCr) and phospho-cyclocreatine (PcCr). Cr is widely used as nutritional supplement in sports and increasingly also as adjuvant treatment for pathologies such as myopathies and a plethora of neurodegenerative diseases. Additionally, Cr and its cyclic analogues have been proposed for anti-cancer treatment. The mechanisms involved in these pleiotropic effects are still controversial and far from being understood. The reversible conversion of Cr and ATP into PCr and ADP by creatine kinase, generating highly diffusible PCr energy reserves, is certainly an important element. However, some protective effects of Cr and analogues cannot be satisfactorily explained solely by effects on the cellular energy state. Here we used mainly liposome model systems to provide evidence for interaction of PCr and PcCr with different zwitterionic phospholipids by applying four independent, complementary biochemical and biophysical assays: (i) chemical binding assay, (ii) surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (SPR), (iii) solid-state (31)P-NMR, and (iv) differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). SPR revealed low affinity PCr/phospholipid interaction that additionally induced changes in liposome shape as indicated by NMR and SPR. Additionally, DSC revealed evidence for membrane packing effects by PCr, as seen by altered lipid phase transition. Finally, PCr efficiently protected against membrane permeabilization in two different model systems: liposome-permeabilization by the membrane-active peptide melittin, and erythrocyte hemolysis by the oxidative drug doxorubicin, hypoosmotic stress or the mild detergent saponin. These findings suggest a new molecular basis for non-energy related functions of PCr and its cyclic analogue. PCr/phospholipid interaction and alteration of membrane structure may not only protect cellular membranes against various insults, but could have more general implications for many physiological membrane-related functions that are relevant for health and disease.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(8):e43178. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This review describes developments in historical perspective as well as recent results of investigations of cellular mechanisms of regulation of energy fluxes and mitochondrial respiration by cardiac work - the metabolic aspect of the Frank-Starling law of the heart. A Systems Biology solution to this problem needs the integration of physiological and biochemical mechanisms that take into account intracellular interactions of mitochondria with other cellular systems, in particular with cytoskeleton components. Recent data show that different tubulin isotypes are involved in the regular arrangement exhibited by mitochondria and ATP-consuming systems into Intracellular Energetic Units (ICEUs). Beta II tubulin association with the mitochondrial outer membrane, when co-expressed with mitochondrial creatine kinase (MtCK) specifically limits the permeability of voltage-dependent anion channel for adenine nucleotides. In the MtCK reaction this interaction changes the regulatory kinetics of respiration through a decrease in the affinity for adenine nucleotides and an increase in the affinity for creatine. Metabolic Control Analysis of the coupled MtCK-ATP Synthasome in permeabilized cardiomyocytes showed a significant increase in flux control by steps involved in ADP recycling. Mathematical modeling of compartmentalized energy transfer represented by ICEUs shows that cyclic changes in local ADP, Pi, phosphocreatine and creatine concentrations during contraction cycle represent effective metabolic feedback signals when amplified in the coupled non-equilibrium MtCK-ATP Synthasome reactions in mitochondria. This mechanism explains the regulation of respiration on beat to beat basis during workload changes under conditions of metabolic stability. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Local Signaling in Myocytes."
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 07/2011; 52(2):419-36. · 5.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Physiological role of creatine (Cr) became first evident in the experiments of Belitzer and Tsybakova in 1939, who showed that oxygen consumption in a well-washed skeletal muscle homogenate increases strongly in the presence of creatine and with this results in phosphocreatine (PCr) production with PCr/O(2) ratio of about 5-6. This was the beginning of quantitative analysis in bioenergetics. It was also observed in many physiological experiments that the contractile force changes in parallel with the alteration in the PCr content. On the other hand, it was shown that when heart function is governed by Frank-Starling law, work performance and oxygen consumption rate increase in parallel without any changes in PCr and ATP tissue contents (metabolic homeostasis). Studies of cellular mechanisms of all these important phenomena helped in shaping new approach to bioenergetics, Molecular System Bioenergetics, a part of Systems Biology. This approach takes into consideration intracellular interactions that lead to novel mechanisms of regulation of energy fluxes. In particular, interactions between mitochondria and cytoskeleton resulting in selective restriction of permeability of outer mitochondrial membrane anion channel (VDAC) for adenine nucleotides and thus their recycling in mitochondria coupled to effective synthesis of PCr by mitochondrial creatine kinase, MtCK. Therefore, Cr concentration and the PCr/Cr ratio became important kinetic parameters in the regulation of respiration and energy fluxes in muscle cells. Decrease in the intracellular contents of Cr and PCr results in a hypodynamic state of muscle and muscle pathology. Many experimental studies have revealed that PCr may play two important roles in the regulation of muscle energetics: first by maintaining local ATP pools via compartmentalized creatine kinase reactions, and secondly by stabilizing cellular membranes due to electrostatic interactions with phospholipids. The second mechanism decreases the production of lysophosphoglycerides in hypoxic heart, protects the cardiac cells sarcolemma against ischemic damage, decreases the frequency of arrhythmias and increases the post-ischemic recovery of contractile function. PCr is used as a pharmacological product Neoton in cardiac surgery as one of the components of cardioplegic solutions for protection of the heart against intraoperational injury and injected intravenously in acute myocardial ischemic conditions for improving the hemodynamic response and clinical conditions of patients with heart failure.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondria play central roles in cell life as a source of energy and in cell death by inducing apoptosis. Many important functions of mitochondria change in cancer, and these organelles can be a target of chemotherapy. The widely used anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) causes cell death, inhibition of cell cycle/proliferation and mitochondrial impairment. However, the mechanism of such impairment is not completely understood. In our study we used confocal and two-photon fluorescence imaging together with enzymatic and respirometric analysis to study short- and long-term effects of doxorubicin on mitochondria in various human carcinoma cells. We show that short-term (<30 min) effects include i) rapid changes in mitochondrial redox potentials towards a more oxidized state (flavoproteins and NADH), ii) mitochondrial depolarization, iii) elevated matrix calcium levels, and iv) mitochondrial ROS production, demonstrating a complex pattern of mitochondrial alterations. Significant inhibition of mitochondrial endogenous and uncoupled respiration, ATP depletion and changes in the activities of marker enzymes were observed after 48 h of DOX treatment (long-term effects) associated with cell cycle arrest and death.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 03/2011; 1813(6):1144-52. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondria-cytoskeleton interactions were analyzed in adult rat cardiomyocytes and in cancerous non-beating HL-1 cells of cardiac phenotype. We show that in adult cardiomyocytes βII-tubulin is associated with mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM). βI-tubulin demonstrates diffused intracellular distribution, βIII-tubulin is colocalized with Z-lines and βIV-tubulin forms microtubular network. HL-1 cells are characterized by the absence of βII-tubulin, by the presence of bundles of filamentous βIV-tubulin and diffusely distributed βI- and βIII-tubulins. Mitochondrial isoform of creatine kinase (MtCK), highly expressed in cardiomyocytes, is absent in HL-1 cells. Our results show that high apparent K(m) for exogenous ADP in regulation of respiration and high expression of MtCK both correlate with the expression of βII-tubulin. The absence of βII-tubulin isotype in isolated mitochondria and in HL-1 cells results in increased apparent affinity of oxidative phosphorylation for exogenous ADP. This observation is consistent with the assumption that the binding of βII-tubulin to mitochondria limits ADP/ATP diffusion through voltage-dependent anion channel of MOM and thus shifts energy transfer via the phosphocreatine pathway. On the other hand, absence of both βII-tubulin and MtCK in HL-1 cells can be associated with their more glycolysis-dependent energy metabolism which is typical for cancer cells (Warburg effect).
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 02/2011; 1807(4):458-69. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this review we analyze the recent important and remarkable advancements in studies of compartmentation of adenine nucleotides in muscle cells due to their binding to macromolecular complexes and cellular structures, which results in non-equilibrium steady state of the creatine kinase reaction. We discuss the problems of measuring the energy fluxes between different cellular compartments and their simulation by using different computer models. Energy flux determinations by (18)O transfer method have shown that in heart about 80% of energy is carried out of mitochondrial intermembrane space into cytoplasm by phosphocreatine fluxes generated by mitochondrial creatine kinase from adenosine triphosphate (ATP), produced by ATP Synthasome. We have applied the mathematical model of compartmentalized energy transfer for analysis of experimental data on the dependence of oxygen consumption rate on heart workload in isolated working heart reported by Williamson et al. The analysis of these data show that even at the maximal workloads and respiration rates, equal to 174 μmol O(2) per min per g dry weight, phosphocreatine flux, and not ATP, carries about 80-85% percent of energy needed out of mitochondria into the cytosol. We analyze also the reasons of failures of several computer models published in the literature to correctly describe the experimental data.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2011; 12(12):9296-331. · 2.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Doxorubicin (DXR) belongs to the most efficient anticancer drugs. However, its clinical application is limited by the risk of severe cardiac-specific toxicity, for which an efficient treatment is missing. Underlying molecular mechanisms are not sufficiently understood so far, but nonbiased, systemic approaches can yield new clues to develop targeted therapies. Here, we applied a genome-wide transcriptome analysis to determine the early cardiac response to DXR in a model characterized earlier, that is, rat heart perfusion with 2 muM DXR, leading to only mild cardiac dysfunction. Single-gene and gene set enrichment analysis of DNA microarrays yielded robust data on cardiac transcriptional reprogramming, including novel DXR-responsive pathways. Main characteristics of transcriptional reprogramming were 1) selective upregulation of individual genes or gene sets together with widespread downregulation of gene expression; 2) repression of numerous transcripts involved in cardiac stress response and stress signaling; 3) modulation of genes with cardiac remodeling capacity; 4) upregulation of "energy-related" pathways; and 5) similarities to the transcriptional response of cancer cells. Some early responses like the induction of glycolytic and Krebs cycle genes may have compensatory function. Only minor changes in the cardiac energy status or the respiratory activity of permeabilized cardiac fibers have been observed. Other responses potentially contribute to acute and also chronic toxicity, in particular, those in stress-responsive and cardiac remodeling transcripts. We propose that a blunted response to stress and reduced "danger signaling" is a prime component of toxic DXR action and can drive cardiac cells into pathology.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this review is to analyze the results of experimental research of mechanisms of regulation of mitochondrial respiration in cardiac and skeletal muscle cells in vivo obtained by using the permeabilized cell technique. Such an analysis in the framework of Molecular Systems Bioenergetics shows that the mechanisms of regulation of energy fluxes depend on the structural organization of the cells and interaction of mitochondria with cytoskeletal elements. Two types of cells of cardiac phenotype with very different structures were analyzed: adult cardiomyocytes and continuously dividing cancerous HL-1 cells. In cardiomyocytes mitochondria are arranged very regularly, and show rapid configuration changes of inner membrane but no fusion or fission, diffusion of ADP and ATP is restricted mostly at the level of mitochondrial outer membrane due to an interaction of heterodimeric tubulin with voltage dependent anion channel, VDAC. VDAC with associated tubulin forms a supercomplex, Mitochondrial Interactosome, with mitochondrial creatine kinase, MtCK, which is structurally and functionally coupled to ATP synthasome. Due to selectively limited permeability of VDAC for adenine nucleotides, mitochondrial respiration rate depends almost linearly upon the changes of cytoplasmic ADP concentration in their physiological range. Functional coupling of MtCK with ATP synthasome amplifies this signal by recycling adenine nucleotides in mitochondria coupled to effective phosphocreatine synthesis. In cancerous HL-1 cells this complex is significantly modified: tubulin is replaced by hexokinase and MtCK is lacking, resulting in direct utilization of mitochondrial ATP for glycolytic lactate production and in this way contributing in the mechanism of the Warburg effect. Systemic analysis of changes in the integrated system of energy metabolism is also helpful for better understanding of pathogenesis of many other diseases.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 01/2010; 1797(6-7):678-97. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent advances in mitochondrial imaging have revealed that in many cells mitochondria can be highly dynamic. They can undergo fission/fusion processes modulated by various mitochondria-associated proteins and also by conformational transitions in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Moreover, precise mitochondrial distribution can be achieved by their movement along the cytoskeleton, recruiting various connector and motor proteins. Such movement is evident in various cell types ranging from yeast to mammalian cells and serves to direct mitochondria to cellular regions of high ATP demand or to transport mitochondria destined for elimination. Existing data also demonstrate that many aspects of mitochondrial dynamics, morphology, regulation and intracellular organization can be cell type-/tissue-specific. In many cells like neurons, pancreatic cells, HL-1 cells, etc., complex dynamics of mitochondria include fission, fusion, small oscillatory movements of mitochondria, larger movements like filament extension, retraction, fast branching in the mitochondrial network and rapid long-distance intracellular translocation of single mitochondria. Alternatively, mitochondria can be rather fixed in other cells and tissues like adult cardiomyocytes or skeletal muscles with a very regular organelle organization between myofibrils, providing the bioenergetic basis for contraction. Adult cardiac cells show no displacement of mitochondria with only very small-amplitude rapid vibrations, demonstrating remarkable, cell type-dependent differences in the dynamics and spatial arrangement of mitochondria. These variations and the cell-type specificity of mitochondrial dynamics could be related to specific cellular functions and demands, also indicating a significant role of integrations of mitochondria with other intracellular systems like the cytoskeleton, nucleus and endoplasmic reticulum (ER).
The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 11/2009; 41(10):1928-39. · 4.89 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied possible connections of tubulin, microtubular system, and microtubular network stabilizing STOP protein with mitochondria in rat and mouse cardiac and skeletal muscles by confocal microscopy and oxygraphy. Intracellular localization and content of tubulin was found to be muscle type-specific, with high amounts in oxidative muscles, and much lower in glycolytic skeletal muscle. STOP protein localization and content in muscle cells was also muscle type-specific. In isolated heart mitochondria, addition of 1 microM tubulin heterodimer increased apparent K(m) for ADP significantly. Dissociation of microtubular system into free tubulin by colchicine treatment only slightly decreased initially high apparent K(m) for ADP in permeabilized cells, and diffusely distributed free tubulin stayed inside the cells, obviously connected to the intracellular structures. To identify the genes that are specific for oxidative muscle, we developed and applied a method of kindred DNA. The results of sequencing and bioinformatic analysis of isolated cDNA pool common for heart and m. soleus showed that in adult mice the beta-tubulin gene is expressed predominantly in oxidative muscle cells. It is concluded that whereas dimeric tubulin may play a significant role in regulation of mitochondrial outer membrane permeability in the cells in vivo, its organization into microtubular network has a minor significance on that process.
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 11/2009; 337(1-2):239-49. · 2.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to measure energy fluxes from mitochondria in isolated permeabilized cardiomyocytes. Respiration of permeabilized cardiomyocytes and mitochondrial membrane potential were measured in presence of MgATP, pyruvate kinase - phosphoenolpyruvate and creatine. ATP and phosphocreatine concentrations in medium surrounding cardiomyocytes were determined. While ATP concentration did not change in time, mitochondria effectively produced phosphocreatine (PCr) with PCr/O(2) ratio equal to 5.68 +/- 0.14. Addition of heterodimeric tubulin to isolated mitochondria was found to increase apparent Km for exogenous ADP from 11 +/- 2 microM to 330 +/- 47 microM, but creatine again decreased it to 23 +/- 6 microM. These results show directly that under physiological conditions the major energy carrier from mitochondria into cytoplasm is PCr, produced by mitochondrial creatine kinase (MtCK), which functional coupling to adenine nucleotide translocase is enhanced by selective limitation of permeability of mitochondrial outer membrane within supercomplex ATP Synthasome-MtCK-VDAC-tubulin, Mitochondrial Interactosome.
Journal of Bioenergetics 07/2009; 41(3):259-75. · 1.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The main focus of this investigation is steady state kinetics of regulation of mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized cardiomyocytes in situ. Complete kinetic analysis of the regulation of respiration by mitochondrial creatine kinase was performed in the presence of pyruvate kinase and phosphoenolpyruvate to simulate interaction of mitochondria with glycolytic enzymes. Such a system analysis revealed striking differences in kinetic behaviour of the MtCK-activated mitochondrial respiration in situ and in vitro. Apparent dissociation constants of MgATP from its binary and ternary complexes with MtCK, Kia and Ka (1.94+/-0.86 mM and 2.04+/-0.14 mM, correspondingly) were increased by several orders of magnitude in situ in comparison with same constants in vitro (0.44+/-0.08 mM and 0.016+/-0.01 mM, respectively). Apparent dissociation constants of creatine, Kib and Kb (2.12+/-0.21 mM 2.17+/-0.40 Mm, correspondingly) were significantly decreased in situ in comparison with in vitro mitochondria (28+/-7 mM and 5+/-1.2 mM, respectively). Dissociation constant for phosphocreatine was not changed. These data may indicate selective restriction of metabolites' diffusion at the level of mitochondrial outer membrane. It is concluded that mechanisms of the regulation of respiration and energy fluxes in vivo are system level properties which depend on intracellular interactions of mitochondria with cytoskeleton, intracellular MgATPases and cytoplasmic glycolytic system.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 05/2009; 1787(9):1089-105. · 4.66 Impact Factor