[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Targeting most-at-risk individuals with HIV preventive interventions is cost-effective. We developed gender-specific indices to measure risk of HIV among sexually active individuals in Rakai, Uganda.
We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models to estimate time-to-HIV infection associated with candidate predictors. Reduced models were determined using backward selection procedures with Akaike's information criterion (AIC) as the stopping rule. Model discrimination was determined using Harrell's concordance index (c index). Model calibration was determined graphically. Nomograms were used to present the final prediction models.
We used samples of 7,497 women and 5,783 men. 342 new infections occurred among females (incidence 1.11/100 person years,) and 225 among the males (incidence 1.00/100 person years). The final model for men included age, education, circumcision status, number of sexual partners, genital ulcer disease symptoms, alcohol use before sex, partner in high risk employment, community type, being unaware of a partner's HIV status and community HIV prevalence. The Model's optimism-corrected c index was 69.1 percent (95% CI = 0.66, 0.73). The final women's model included age, marital status, education, number of sex partners, new sex partner, alcohol consumption by self or partner before sex, concurrent sexual partners, being employed in a high-risk occupation, having genital ulcer disease symptoms, community HIV prevalence, and perceiving oneself or partner to be exposed to HIV. The models optimism-corrected c index was 0.67 (95% CI = 0.64, 0.70). Both models were well calibrated.
These indices were discriminative and well calibrated. This provides proof-of-concept that population-based HIV risk indices can be developed. Further research to validate these indices for other populations is needed.
PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e92015. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Contact investigation remains an essential component of tuberculosis (TB) control, yet missed opportunities to trace, medically examine, and treat close contacts of newly diagnosed index TB cases persist. We report a new case of active TB in a 21 year-old woman who was a household contact of a known TB index case in Kampala, Uganda. She was identified during a house-to-house TB case finding survey using chronic cough (≥2 weeks). This case study re-emphasizes two important public health issues in relation to TB control in developing countries; the need to promote active contact investigations by National TB programs and the potential complementary role of active case finding in minimizing delays in TB detection especially in high burden settings like Uganda.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ultimate success of medical male circumcision for HIV prevention may depend on targeting male infants and children as well as adults, in order to maximally reduce new HIV infections into the future.
We conducted a cross-sectional study among heterosexual HIV serodiscordant couples (a population at high risk for HIV transmission) attending a research clinic in Kampala, Uganda on perceptions and attitudes about medical circumcision for male children for HIV prevention. Correlates of willingness to circumcise male children were assessed using generalized estimating equations methods.
318 HIV serodiscordant couples were interviewed, 51.3% in which the female partner was HIV uninfected. Most couples were married and cohabiting, and almost 50% had at least one uncircumcised male child of ≤18 years of age. Overall, 90.2% of male partners and 94.6% of female partners expressed interest in medical circumcision for their male children for reduction of future risk for HIV infection, including 79.9% of men and 87.6% of women who had an uncircumcised male child. Among both men and women, those who were knowledgeable that circumcision reduces men's risk for HIV (adjusted prevalence ratio [APR] 1.34 and 1.14) and those who had discussed the HIV prevention effects of medical circumcision with their partner (APR 1.08 and 1.07) were significantly (p≤0.05) more likely to be interested in male child circumcision for HIV prevention. Among men, those who were circumcised (APR 1.09, p = 0.004) and those who were HIV seropositive (APR 1.09, p = 0.03) were also more likely to be interested in child circumcision for HIV prevention.
A high proportion of men and women in Ugandan heterosexual HIV serodiscordant partnerships were willing to have their male children circumcised for eventual HIV prevention benefits. Engaging both parents may increase interest in medical male circumcision for HIV prevention.
PLoS ONE 07/2011; 6(7):e22254. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite considerable research, the causal relationship remains unclear between HIV/AIDS complacency, measured as reduced HIV/AIDS concern because of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and HIV risk behavior. Understanding the directionality and underpinnings of this relationship is critical for programs that target HIV/AIDS complacency as a means to reduce HIV incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM). This report uses structural equation modeling to evaluate a theory-based, HIV/AIDS complacency model on 1,593 MSM who participated in a venue-based, cross-sectional survey in six U.S. cities, 1998-2000. Demonstrating adequate fit and stability across geographic samples, the model explained 15.0% of the variance in HIV-acquisition behavior among young MSM. Analyses that evaluated alternative models and models stratified by perceived risk for HIV infection suggest that HIV/AIDS complacency increases acquisition behavior by mediating the effects of two underlying HAART-efficacy beliefs. New research is needed to assess model effects on current acquisition risk behavior, and thus help inform prevention programs designed to reduce HIV/AIDS complacency and HIV incidence among young MSM.
AIDS and Behavior 05/2011; 15(4):788-804. · 3.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This qualitative study of task shifting examined tuberculosis (TB) therapy under modified community-based directly observed treatment short-course (CB-DOTS) in Kampala, Uganda. New TB patients selected one of two strategies: home-based DOTS and clinic-based DOTS. Relevant socio-economic characteristics, treatment-seeking experiences and outcomes were assessed over eight months of follow-up. Of 107 patients recruited, 89 (83%) selected home-based DOTS. Sixty-two patients (70%) under home-based DOTS and 16 patients (89%) under clinic-based DOTS had successful outcomes following completion of tuberculosis therapy. Treatment supporters' provision of social support beyond observing drug ingestion contributed to successful outcomes under both strategies. Home-based DOTS provides continuity of social support during therapy, strengthening the potential for treatment success. Conventional health facility-based DOTS can be modified in resource-limited urban Africa to offer a viable DOTS strategy that is sensitive to personal preference. Shifting the task of DOTS support away from only qualified health workers to include laypersons in the patients' social-support network may contribute to meeting World Health Organization (WHO) treatment targets. We recommend an intervention evaluating this modified DOTS strategy on a larger scale in TB high-burden, resource-poor urban settings.
Global Public Health 02/2011; 7(3):270-84. · 0.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States, the influence of HIV/AIDS complacency and beliefs about the efficacy of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on HIV-infection risk is unknown.
We analyzed data from a 1998-2000 cross-sectional 6-city survey of 1575 MSM aged 23 to 29 years who had never tested for HIV or had last tested HIV-negative to assess these plausible influences overall and by race/ethnicity.
Measured as strong endorsement for reduced HIV/AIDS concern due to HAART, HIV/AIDS complacency was associated with reporting ≥10 male sex partners (odds ratio [OR], 2.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.12-4.07), unprotected anal intercourse with an HIV-positive or HIV-unknown-status male partner (OR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.51-2.81), and testing HIV-positive (adjusted OR [AOR], 2.35; 95% CI, 1.38-3.98). Strong endorsement of the belief that HAART mitigates HIV/AIDS severity was more prevalent among black (21.8%) and Hispanic (21.3%) than white (9.6%) MSM (P < 0.001), and was more strongly associated with testing HIV-positive among black (AOR, 4.65; 95% CI, 1.97-10.99) and Hispanic (AOR, 4.12; 95% CI, 1.58-10.70) than white (AOR, 1.62; 95% CI, 0.64-4.11) MSM.
Young MSM who are complacent about HIV/AIDS because of HAART may be more likely to engage in risk behavior and acquire HIV. Programs that target HIV/AIDS complacency as a means to reduce HIV incidence among young MSM should consider that both the prevalence of strong HAART-efficacy beliefs and the effects of these beliefs on HIV-infection risk might differ considerably by race/ethnicity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Correlates of main reasons for not HIV testing, HIV testing intentions, and potential use of an over-the-counter rapid HIV test (OTCRT) among men who have sex with men who have never tested for HIV (NTMSM) are unknown.
We evaluated these correlates among 946 NTMSM from 6 US cities who participated in an internet-based survey in 2007.
Main reasons for not testing were low perceived risk (32.2%), structural barriers (25.1%), and fear of testing positive (18.1%). Low perceived risk was associated with having fewer unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) partners and less frequent use of the internet for HIV information; structural barriers were associated with younger age and more UAI partners; fear of testing positive was associated with black and Hispanic race/ethnicity, more UAI partners, and more frequent use of the internet for HIV information. Strong testing intentions were held by 25.9% of all NTMSM and 14.8% of those who did not test because of low perceived risk. Among NTMSM who were somewhat unlikely, somewhat likely, and very likely to test for HIV, 47.4%, 76.5%, and 85.6% would likely use an OTCRT if it was available, respectively.
Among NTMSM who use the internet, main reasons for not testing for HIV vary considerably by age, race/ethnicity, UAI, and use of the internet for HIV information. To facilitate HIV testing of NTMSM, programs should expand interventions and services tailored to address this variation. If approved, OTCRT might be used by many NTMSM who might not otherwise test for HIV.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is a risk factor for HIV-1 infection. We characterized HSV-2 serology assay performance in HIV-positive and HIV-negative Africans. Serostatus for HSV-2 and HIV-1 was determined in 493 serum specimens stored from a community HSV-2 prevalence survey in Kampala, Uganda. HSV-2 serology by Focus HerpeSelect ELISA, Biokit HSV-2 rapid assay and Kalon HSV-2 was compared with HSV-2 Western blot (WB) according to HIV-1 serostatus. Sensitivity/specificity was: 99.5%/70.2% for Focus, 97.0%/86.4% for Biokit and 97.5%/96.2% for Kalon. Focus with Biokit confirmation improved sensitivity/specificity (99.4%/96.8%, respectively). Use of a higher Focus index value cut-off of 2.2 instead of 1.1 increased specificity from 70.2% to 92.4%. Kalon had higher specificity than Focus (P < 0.001). Of commercially available HSV-2 serological assays, Kalon alone, or Focus ELISA followed by Biokit confirmation perform best. Improved HSV-2 assays are needed for HSV-2 and HIV-1 public health activities in Africa.
International Journal of STD & AIDS 09/2010; 21(9):611-6. · 1.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Male circumcision for HIV-1 prevention will require high uptake among at-risk populations. 318 HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in Kampala, Uganda [155 (48.7%) with HIV-1 uninfected male partners] were interviewed about male circumcision for HIV-1 prevention. 77.1% of men and 89.6% of women were aware that circumcision reduces men's risk for HIV-1 acquisition. Almost all understood the partial protective efficacy of circumcision for HIV-1 acquisition and lack of reduced HIV-1 transmission from circumcising HIV-1 infected men. Among couples with uncircumcised HIV-1 negative men (n = 92), 53.3% of men and 88.1% of female partners expressed interest in male circumcision. Previous discussion within the couple about circumcision for HIV-1 prevention was significantly associated with interest in the procedure. HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in Uganda demonstrated a high level of understanding of the partial protective effect of male circumcision for HIV-1 prevention, but only half of HIV-1 uninfected uncircumcised men expressed interest in the procedure.
AIDS and Behavior 04/2010; 14(5):1190-7. · 3.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We determined whether human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection affects body cell mass and fat mass wasting among adults with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB).
We screened 967 Ugandan adults for PTB and HIV infection in a cross-sectional study. We compared anthropometric and bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) body composition parameters among HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative men and women with or without PTB by using a non-parametric test.
We found that poor nutritional status associated with TB differed among men and women. Anthropometric and BIA body composition did not differ between HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative patients regardless of gender. Average weight group difference in men consisted of body cell mass and fat mass in equal proportions of 43%. In women, average weight group difference consisted predominantly of fat mass of 73% and body cell mass of 13%. Compared to individuals without TB, patients with TB had lower body mass index, weight, body cell mass, and fat mass regardless of gender and HIV status.
Gender, but not HIV status, was associated with body composition changes in TB. TB appears to be the dominant factor driving the wasting process among co-infected patients.
Annals of epidemiology 03/2010; 20(3):210-6. · 2.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many studies using DNA fingerprinting to differentiate Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains reveal single strains in cultures, suggesting that most disease is caused by infection with a single strain. However, recent studies using molecular epidemiological tools that amplify multiple targets have demonstrated simultaneous infection with multiple strains of MTB. We aimed to determine the prevalence of MTB multiple strain infections in Kampala, and the impact of these infections on clinical presentation of tuberculosis (TB) and response to treatment.
A total of 113 consecutive smear and culture positive patients who previously enrolled in a house-hold contact study were included in this study. To determine whether infection with multiple MTB strains has a clinical impact on the initial presentation of patients, retrospective patient data (baseline clinical, radiological and drug susceptibility profiles) was obtained. To determine presence of infections with multiple MTB strains, MIRU-VNTR (Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit-Variable-Number Tandem Repeats) -PCR was performed on genomic DNA extracted from MTB cultures of smear positive sputum samples at baseline, second and fifth months.
Of 113 patients, eight (7.1%) had infection with multiple MTB strains, coupled with a high rate of HIV infection (37.5% versus 12.6%, p = 0.049). The remaining patients (105) were infected with single MTB strains. The proportions of patients with MTB smear positive cultures after two and five months of treatment were similar. There was no difference between the two groups for other variables.
Infection with multiple MTB strains occurs among patients with first episode of pulmonary tuberculosis in Kampala, in a setting with high TB incidence. Infection with multiple MTB strains had little impact on the clinical course for individual patients. This is the first MIRU-VNTR-based study from in an East African country.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Data on the effect of HIV-1 viral subtype on CD4 T-cell decline are limited.
We assessed the rate of CD4 T-cell decline per year among 312 HIV seroincident persons infected with different HIV-1 subtypes. Rates of CD4 decline by HIV-1 subtype were determined by linear mixed effects models, using an unstructured convariance structure.
A total of 59.6% had D, 15.7% A, 18.9% recombinant viruses (R), and 5.8% multiple subtypes (M). For all subtypes combined, the overall rate of CD4 T-cell decline was -34.5 [95% confidence interval (CI), -47.1, -22.0] cells/ microL per yr, adjusted for age, sex, baseline CD4 counts, and viral load. Compared with subtype A, the adjusted rate of CD4 cell loss was -73.7/microL/yr (95% CI, -113.5, -33.8, P < 0.001) for subtype D, -43.2/microL/yr (95% CI, -90.2, 3.8, P = 0.072) for recombinants, and -63.9/microL/yr (95% CI, -132.3, 4.4, P = 0.067) for infection with multiple HIV subtypes. Square-root transformation of CD4 cell counts did not change the results.
Infection with subtype D is associated with significantly faster rates of CD4 T-cell loss than subtype A. This may explain the more rapid disease progression for subtype D compared with subtype A.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV testing is an entry point to comprehensive HIV/AIDS prevention and care. In Uganda, Routine Testing and Counseling for HIV (RTC) is not widely offered as part of standard medical care in acute care settings. This study determined the acceptance of RTC in a medical emergency setting at Mulago national referral hospital. We interviewed 233 adult patients who were offered HIV testing. Overall, 83% were unaware of their HIV serostatus and 88% of these had been to a health unit in the previous six months. Of the 208 eligible for HIV testing, 95% accepted to test. Half the patients were HIV infected and 77% of these were diagnosed during the study. HIV testing was highly acceptable and detected a significant number of undiagnosed HIV infections. We recommend adoption of RTC as standard of care in the medical emergency unit in order to scale HIV diagnosis and linkage to HIV/AIDS care.
AIDS and Behavior 10/2007; 11(5):753-8. · 3.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: National Tuberculosis (TB) Treatment Centre, Makerere University Medical School and Joint Clinical Research Centre, Kampala, Uganda.
To evaluate the introduction of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based assay for identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) into routine practice.
Routine diagnostic specimens were processed and inoculated into Bactec 12B vials and monitored daily. At a growth index (GI) > or =10, 0.5 ml of the 12B broth was removed and assayed with PCR. The same 12B vial was analyzed using the Bactec NAP method at GI > or =500. Vials at various levels of GI were included. Recurrent cost and time required to perform PCR and NAP were compared.
Initially, 71 specimens were analyzed; of these, 68 were NAP-positive while 69 were PCR-positive for MTC. PCR resulted in a 75% reduction in cost for a single test compared with Bactec NAP. PCR has been successfully incorporated into routine practice, and 432 samples have been analyzed. In addition, isolates from solid media were also well identified by PCR. With PCR, more samples can be analyzed at a time, it is faster and is less labor intensive.
PCR is a reliable and cheaper alternative for the identification of MTC.
The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 11/2006; 10(11):1262-7. · 2.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Diagnosis of pediatric tuberculosis (TB) is a challenge. Mycobacterial culture is not routinely available in most resource-limited settings, thus making the diagnosis of culture-confirmed (CC) TB more difficult. Knowing predictors of CC TB in children could ease the diagnostic challenge and help direct scarce resources.
Methods: A retrospective analysis of pediatric household contacts diagnosed with TB from 1995-2005.
Results: Of 77 pediatric household contacts, 34 had CC TB and 43 were culture negative (CN). Median age was 2 years (0-15); 41 (53%) were females; 66 (86%) were HIV negative; 50 (65%) had a BCG scar. There were no significant differences in these characteristics between CC and CN. Subjects in both groups had similar levels of exposure to the index TB case. Time to diagnosis was longer in CN (median days 37 vs 11, p=0.029). The following were more likely among CC than CN subjects: tuberculin skin test (TST) ≥5mm (91% vs 69%, p=0.019); cough (91% vs 72%, p=0.036); peripheral adenopathy (53% vs 16%, p=0.001); abnormal chest radiograph (82% vs 58%, p=0.028); offspring of the index case (79% vs 56%, p=0.030); index with cough ≥120 days (53% vs 27%, p=0.034); and index with cavitary disease (94% vs 63%, p=0.003). The composite of cough or peripheral adenopathy was more sensitive for CC TB than for CN TB (100% vs 74%, p=0.001). In a logistic regression analysis, when controlling for TST status and duration of the index case’s cough, cavitary disease in the index (OR 11.2, CI 1.6-80.2) and peripheral adenopathy (OR 4.9, CI 1.2-20.2) were significantly associated with CC TB in the contact case.
Conclusion: Culture-confirmed TB is more likely in a household contact if he/she is the offspring of an adult with cavitary disease who has been coughing for at least 4 months. Pediatric household contacts who are TST positive, have an abnormal chest radiograph, or are coughing or have peripheral adenopathy are more likely to have definitive TB than other pediatric household contacts diagnosed with TB.
Infectious Diseases Society of America 2005 Annual Meeting; 10/2005
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe the clinical characteristics of Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) from three regions in Kenya at different altitudes with a view towards understanding the contribution of local environmental factors.
Prospective cross-sectional study.
Kenyatta National Hospital and seven provincial hospitals in Kenya.
Histologically proven cases of Burkitt's lymphoma in patients less than 16 years of age were clinically examined and investigated.
For every case the following parameters were documented: chief complaint(s); physical examination, specifically pallor, jaundice, oedema, lymphadenopathy, presence of masses, splenomegaly and hepatomegaly. Reports of evaluation of chest radiograph, abdominal ultrasound/scan, bone marrow aspiration, cerebral spinal fluid cytology, liver and kidney function tests, urinalysis, stool occult blood and full blood count results. Stage of disease was assigned A, B, C or D. Cases of BL from three provinces of Kenya with diverse geographical features were analysed: Central, Coast, and Western.
This study documented 471 BL cases distributed as follows: Central 61 (males 39 and 22 females), M:F ratio 1.8:1; Coast 169 (111 males and 58 females), M:F ratio 1.9:1; and Western 241 (140 males and 101 females), M:F ratio 1.4:1. The major presenting complaints were: abdominal swelling--Central 36%, Coast 4% and Western 26%; swelling on the face--Central 31%, Coast 81% and Western 64%; and proptosis--Central 3%, Coast 1% and Western 9%. The mean duration of these complaints in weeks were Central 6.9, Coast 6.08, and Western 5.05. The initial physical finding was a tumour mass in 39%, 72% and 54% of cases for Central, Coast and Western respectively. Tumour stage at diagnosis was: stage A--Central 21%, Coast 43% and Western 34%; stage B--Central 10%, Coast 5% and Western 10%; stage C--Central 41%, Coast 34% and Western 30%; and stage D--Central 28%, Coast 17% and Western 26%. For the age and sex matched cases the results show that commonly involved sites were: abdomen--Central 35%, Coast 9% and Western 14%; jaw (mandible)--Central 24%, Coast 22% and Western 31%; maxilla--Central 6%, Coast 24% and Western 11%; and lymph nodes--Central 10%, Coast 4% and Western 8%. The disease stage was A--Central 33%, Coast 44% and Western 36%; stage B--Central 11%, Coast 10% and Western 27%; stage C--Central 39%, Coast 34% and Western 27%; and stage D--Central 21%, Coast 13% and Western 37%.
This study shows that clinical features of childhood BL vary with geographical region. The variations are documented in proportion of jaw, maxilla, abdominal and lymph nodal sites involvement. The differences observed are potentially due to the local environmental factors within these provinces. BL cases from Western province had features, intermediate between endemic and sporadic. Coastal province BL cases were similar to endemic BL, while BL cases from Central province resembled more or less sporadic BL subtypes. Strategies to explain and investigate the local environmental factors associated with the observed differences may certainly contribute towards improved understanding and clinical management of BL.
East African medical journal 10/2005; 82(9 Suppl):S135-43.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic.
An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies.
A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned.
In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.
Cancer Detection and Prevention 02/2005; 29(2):133-45. · 2.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical features of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), in patients with and without HIV infection, were investigated in a tertiary referral centre in Kenya between 1997 and 1999. Although 186 cases were identified prospectively, the data analysis was restricted to the 91 (49%) cases who had pathological confirmation of Kaposi's sarcoma and documented HIV serostatus. Among these 91 subjects (58% of whom were male), the age-group holding the largest number of KS cases was that of individuals aged 31-40 years; most of the paediatric cases were aged 6-10 years. The ratio of HIV-seropositives to HIV-seronegatives was 8.5:1 for the adult cases and 0.9:1 for the paediatric. Of the signs and symptoms of Kaposi's sarcoma seen at presentation, only peripheral lympadenopathy was found to be significantly associated with underlying HIV infection (P = 0.05). The median survival was 104 days. It is apparent that, as the HIV epidemic advances in regions of the world with endemic KS, the clinical presentation and natural history of the endemic KS are blending with those of the epidemic or AIDS-associated disease, leading to a reduction in the mean age of the cases and a nearly identical incidence in men and women. In regions of the world where patients have ready access to such chemotherapy, the impact of treatment with highly active antiretroviral drugs on the incidence and natural history of KS has been dramatic. It will be important to monitor the clinico-pathological features of KS in the developing world, as more active antiretroviral regimens become available in clinical practice there.
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 02/2005; 99(1):81-91. · 1.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To show the geographical (Provincial), age, gender and ethnic distribution of Burkitt's lymphoma in patients in Kenya.
A retrospective review of patients' records for the years 1988-1992 and a prospective evaluation of patients with BL between 1993 and 1997. These were descriptive and hospitals based studies.
Kenyatta National Hospital; Kenya's main referral and teaching hospital and seven provincial hospitals.
For each tissue proven Burkitt's lymphoma case the following were required; province of birth and residence, tribe, age, sex, chief complains, physical examination findings, investigation results and tissues result confirming the diagnosis of BL.
Mainly proportions were used to compare variables, however Pearson's liner correlation was used to assess the time trends.
This study registered 1005 patients; 961 (95.6%) children and 44 (4.4%) adults. 0-14 years the age standardized incidence rate (ASR) of 0.83. Variations documented in the provinces' BL ASR range; 1.8 Coast to 0.23 Rift Valley and increasing yearly trend for both children and adults. The major tribes in Kenya consisted; Luo 29.5%. Luhya (24.1%) and Coastal (16.5%). No patient of Asian or European or Arab extraction was recorded in the study. The age distribution showed no case below two years, a rapid rise from three year 3 (5.6%), and peak at 6 (19.5%) for children and at 17 years (13.6%) years for the adult. Age group 5-9 years had the highest ASR. The male to female (M:F) ratios were; 1.5:1 and 1:1 in children and adults respectively, provincial ratios range; 2.6:1 in Nairobi to 1.2:1 in Nyanza, the tribes range; 3.5:1 in Somali to 1:1 in other tribes between 2 and 14 years old when also males were more than females. Peak time of presentation of symptoms was 4 weeks. Tumour sites were in children; jaw 51.6%, abdomen (25%), combined jaw and abdomen 13.8% and others 9.6% and adults; jaw (4.5%), abdomen (43.2%), combined jaw and abdomen (25%) and other sites (27.3%) 67.6% males and 42.4% female adults had HIV infection and disseminated BL disease.
The study demonstrates that Burkitt's lymphoma is a childhood disease. The disease distribution is consistent with intermediate risk Burkitt's lymphoma level. Furthermore the distribution varied by province, tribe, age and gender. The variations could be due to environmental factors.