Stefanie Dimmeler

Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt, Hesse, Germany

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Publications (406)3766.24 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The amyloid beta peptide is the major protein constituent of neuritic plaques in Alzheimer disease and appears to play a central role in vascular inflammation pathophysiology. This study sought to determine the clinical value of amyloid-beta 1-40 (Abeta40) measurement in predicting cardiovascular (CV) mortality in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and arterial stiffness progression in young healthy subjects. Abeta40 was retrospectively measured in blood samples collected from 3 independent prospective cohorts and 2 case-control cohorts (total N = 1,464). Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were assessed in the 2 prospective cohorts (n = 877) followed for a median of 4.4 years. To look at effects on subclinical disease, arterial stiffness was evaluated at baseline and after 5-year follow-up (n = 107) in young healthy subjects. The primary endpoint was the predictive value of Abeta40 for CV mortality and outcomes in patients with CHD. In Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, sex, estimated glomerular filtration rate, left ventricular ejection fraction, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and high-sensitivity troponin T, Abeta40 independently predicted CV death and MACE in patients with CHD (p < 0.05 for all). After multivariate adjustment, Abeta40 levels conferred a substantial enhancement of net reclassification index and integrated discrimination improvement of individuals at risk in the total combined CHD cohort over the best predictive model. Further cohort-based analysis revealed that Abeta40 levels were significantly and independently associated with arterial stiffness progression, incident subclinical atherosclerosis, and incident CHD. Measuring blood levels of Abeta40 identified patients at high risk for CV death. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 03/2015; 65(9):904-16. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2014.12.035 · 15.34 Impact Factor
  • Shizuka Uchida, Stefanie Dimmeler
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    ABSTRACT: In recent year, increasing evidence suggests that noncoding RNAs play important roles in the regulation of tissue homeostasis and pathophysiological conditions. Besides small noncoding RNAs (eg, microRNAs), >200-nucleotide long transcripts, namely long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), can interfere with gene expressions and signaling pathways at various stages. In the cardiovascular system, studies have detected and characterized the expression of lncRNAs under normal physiological condition and in disease states. Several lncRNAs are regulated during acute myocardial infarction (eg, Novlnc6) and heart failure (eg, Mhrt), whereas others control hypertrophy, mitochondrial function and apoptosis of cardiomyocytes. In the vascular system, the endothelial-expressed lncRNAs (eg, MALAT1 and Tie-1-AS) can regulate vessel growth and function, whereas the smooth-muscle-expressed lncRNA smooth muscle and endothelial cell-enriched migration/differentiation-associated long noncoding RNA was recently shown to control the contractile phenotype of smooth muscle cells. This review article summarizes the data on lncRNA expressions in mouse and human and highlights identified cardiovascular lncRNAs that might play a role in cardiovascular diseases. Although our understanding of lncRNAs is still in its infancy, these examples may provide helpful insights how lncRNAs interfere with cardiovascular diseases. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
    Circulation Research 02/2015; 116(4):737-750. DOI:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.116.302521 · 11.09 Impact Factor
  • Reinier A Boon, Stefanie Dimmeler
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    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that block translation or induce degradation of mRNA and thereby control patterns of gene expression. Acute myocardial infarction is a common cardiovascular event that results in cardiac remodelling and can consequently lead to the development of chronic heart failure. Several miRNAs have been shown to control important processes that contribute to the pathophysiological consequences of acute myocardial infarction. miRNAs can either promote or inhibit cardiomyocyte cell death, and also regulate postischaemic neovascularization. Cardiac regeneration can also be regulated by miRNAs that control cardiomyocyte proliferation or interfere with cardioprotective effects mediated by stem or progenitor cells. miRNAs can also be used for direct reprogramming of cardiac fibroblasts into cardiomyocytes. In this Review, we focus on the current understanding of the role of miRNAs in these processes, and particularly discuss the therapeutic potential of miRNAs in treating acute myocardial infarction.
    Nature Reviews Cardiology 12/2014; 12(3). DOI:10.1038/nrcardio.2014.207 · 10.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cellular metabolism was recently shown to regulate endothelial cell phenotype profoundly. Whether the atheroprotective biomechanical stimulus elicited by laminar shear stress modulates endothelial cell metabolism is not known.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 10/2014; DOI:10.1161/ATVBAHA.114.304277 · 5.53 Impact Factor
  • Stefanie Dimmeler, Seppo Ylä-Herttuala
    Circulation Research 09/2014; 115(8):680-2. DOI:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.114.304973 · 11.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cell therapy of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMC) resulted in a modest improvement of cardiac function, but clinical trial results were heterogeneous. After isolation, BMC are maintained in medium supplemented with complements such as autologous serum to maintain optimal cell viability until administration. In the REPAIR-AMI trial, serum was prepared using tubes containing coagulation accelerators, but the regulatory agency recommended using additive-free tubes for the pivotal BAMI trial. Here, we show that serum obtained from patients with anti-thrombotic therapy in tubes without coagulation accelerators induces clotting, thereby rendering the cell product unsuitable for intra-coronary application. Specifically, systemic treatment of patients with low doses of heparin prevented efficient coagulation ex vivo, and the resulting partially clotted plasma induced cell aggregation within 1-18 h in the cell product. Utmost care has to be taken to test autologous components of cell products before clinical use. The development of media including the appropriate recombinant growth factors for maintaining cell functionality ex vivo may be warranted.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research 09/2014; 7(7). DOI:10.1007/s12265-014-9584-2 · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    Stefanie Dimmeler, Sheng Ding, Thomas A Rando, Alan Trounson
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    ABSTRACT: The scientific community is currently witnessing substantial strides in understanding stem cell biology in humans; however, major disappointments in translating this knowledge into medical therapies are flooding the field as well. Despite these setbacks, investigators are determined to better understand the caveats of regeneration, so that major pathways of repair and regrowth can be exploited in treating aged and diseased tissues. Last year, in an effort to contribute to this burgeoning field, Nature Medicine, in collaboration with the Volkswagen Foundation, organized a meeting with a panel of experts in regenerative medicine to identify the most pressing challenges, as well as the crucial strategies and stem cell concepts that can best help advance the translational regenerative field. Here some experts who participated in the meeting provide an outlook at some of those key issues and concepts.
    Nature Medicine 08/2014; 20(8):814-21. DOI:10.1038/nm.3627 · 28.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To assess the effect of long-term pharmacological inhibition of miR-21 in a model of metabolic syndrome and obesity.Design and Methods Aged db/db mice were treated with locked nucleic acid-modified anti-miRs directed against miR-21 (LNA-21), control LNAs or PBS for 18 weeks. Cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography and the effect on body weight and white adipose tissue (WAT) was evaluated.ResultsMiR-21 expression was efficiently inhibited in the heart and WAT with no apparent liver toxicity or deterioration of kidney function. MiR-21 inhibition had no effect on cardiac hypertrophy as well as systolic and diastolic cardiac functions. However, levels of cardiac collagen 1 were modestly reduced in LNA-21 treated mice. MiR-21 inhibition reduced body weight, as well as adipocyte size and serum triglycerides were significantly decreased. The miR-21 targets TGFβ-receptor 2 (TGFBR2) and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) were derepressed in WAT of LNA-21 treated mice and Sprouty1 and 2 were increased after miR-21 inhibition.Conclusions Long-term treatment with LNA-21 is safe and efficiently suppresses miR-21 expression. Cardiac function was not affected. LNA-21 treatment led to a significant weight loss and reduces adipocyte size as well as derepression of the targets TGFRB2, PTEN, and Sprouty1 and 2.
    Obesity 08/2014; DOI:10.1002/oby.20852 · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) emerged as key regulators of gene expression. Germline hemizygous deletion of the gene that encodes the miR-17∼92 miRNA cluster was associated with microcephaly, short stature and digital abnormalities in humans. Mice deficient for the miR-17∼92 cluster phenocopy several features such as growth and skeletal development defects and exhibit impaired B cell development. However, the individual contribution of miR-17∼92 cluster members to this phenotype is unknown. Here we show that germline deletion of miR-92a in mice is not affecting heart development and does not reduce circulating or bone marrow-derived hematopoietic cells, but induces skeletal defects. MiR-92a-/- mice are born at a reduced Mendelian ratio, but surviving mice are viable and fertile. However, body weight of miR-92a-/- mice was reduced during embryonic and postnatal development and adulthood. A significantly reduced body and skull length was observed in miR-92a-/- mice compared to wild type littermates. µCT analysis revealed that the length of the 5th mesophalanx to 5th metacarpal bone of the forelimbs was significantly reduced, but bones of the hindlimbs were not altered. Bone density was not affected. These findings demonstrate that deletion of miR-92a is sufficient to induce a developmental skeletal defect.
    PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e101153. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0101153 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aims MicroRNA (miR)-92a is an important regulator of endothelial proliferation and angiogenesis after ischaemia, but the effects of miR-92a on re-endothelialization and neointimal lesion formation after vascular injury remain elusive. We tested the effects of lowering miR-92a levels using specific locked nucleic acid (LNA)-based antimiRs as well as endothelial-specific knock out of miR-92a on re-endothelialization and neointimal formation after wire-induced injury of the femoral artery in mice. Methods and results MiR-92a was significantly up-regulated in neointimal lesions following wire-induced injury. Pre-miR-92a overexpression resulted in repression of the direct miR-92a target genes integrin alpha 5 and sirtuin1, and reduced eNOS expression in vitro. MiR-92a impaired proliferation and migration of endothelial cells but not smooth muscle cells. In vivo, systemic inhibition of miR-92a expression with LNA-modified antisense molecules resulted in a significant acceleration of re-endothelialization of the denuded vessel area. Genetic deletion of miR-92a in Tie2-expressing cells, representing mainly endothelial cells, enhanced re-endothelialization, whereas no phenotype was observed in mice lacking miR-92a expression in haematopoietic cells. The enhanced endothelial recovery was associated with reduced accumulation of leucocytes and inhibition of neointimal formation 21 days after injury and led to the de-repression of the miR-92a targets integrin a5 and sirtuin1. Conclusion Our data indicate that inhibition of endothelial miR-92a attenuates neointimal lesion formation by accelerating re-endothelialization and thus represents a putative novel mechanism to enhance the functional recovery following vascular injury.
    Cardiovascular Research 06/2014; 103(4). DOI:10.1093/cvr/cvu162 · 5.81 Impact Factor
  • Reinier A Boon, Stefanie Dimmeler
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 05/2014; 34(7). DOI:10.1161/ATVBAHA.114.303572 · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background In the REPAIR-AMI trial, intracoronary infusion of bone marrow-derived cells (BMCs) was associated with a significantly greater recovery of contractile function in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) at 4-month follow-up than placebo infusion. The current analysis investigates clinical outcome and predictors of event-free survival at 5 years. Methods and results In the multicentre, placebo-controlled, double-blind REPAIR-AMI trial, 204 patients received intracoronary infusion of BMCs (n = 101) or placebo (n = 103) into the infarct vessel 3-7 days following successful percutaneous coronary intervention. Fifteen patients died in the placebo group compared with seven patients in the BMC group (P = 0.08). Nine placebo-treated patients and five BMC-treated patients required rehospitalization for chronic heart failure (P = 0.23). The combined endpoint cardiac/cardiovascular/unknown death or rehospitalisation for heart failure was more frequent in the placebo compared with the BMC group (18 vs. 10 events; P = 0.10). Univariate predictors of adverse outcomes were age, the CADILLAC risk score, aldosterone antagonist and diuretic treatment, changes in left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular end-systolic volume, and N-terminal pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide (all P < 0.01) at 4 months in the entire cohort and in the placebo group. In contrast, in the BMC group, only the basal (P = 0.02) and the stromal cell-derived factor-1-induced (P = 0.05) migratory capacity of the administered BMC were associated with improved clinical outcome. Conclusion In patients of the REPAIR-AMI trial, established clinical parameters are associated with adverse outcome at 5 years exclusively in the placebo group, whereas the migratory capacity of the administered BMC determines event-free survival in the BMC-treated patients. These data disclose a potency-effect relationship between cell therapy and long-term outcome in patients with AMI.
    European Heart Journal 05/2014; 35(19):1275-1283. DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/ehu062 · 14.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the most important complications in hospitalized patients and its pathomechanisms are not completely elucidated. We hypothesize that signaling via toll-like receptor (TLR)-3, a receptor that is activated upon binding of double-stranded nucleotides, might play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of AKI following ischemia and reperfusion (IR). Male adult C57Bl6 wild-type (wt) mice and TLR-3 knock-out (-/-) mice were subjected to 30 minutes bilateral selective clamping of the renal artery followed by reperfusion for 30 min 2.5h and 23.5 hours or subjected to sham procedures. TLR-3 down-stream signaling was activated already within 3 h of ischemia and reperfusion in post-ischemic kidneys of wt mice lead to impaired blood perfusion followed by a strong pro-inflammatory response with significant neutrophil invasion. In contrast, this effect was absent in TLR-3-/- mice. Moreover, the quick TLR-3 activation resulted in kidney damage that was histomorphologically associated with significantly increased apoptosis and necrosis rates in renal tubules of wt mice. This finding was confirmed by increased kidney injury marker NGAL in wt mice and a better preserved renal perfusion after IR in TLR-3-/- mice than wt mice. Overall, the absence of TLR-3 is associated with lower cumulative kidney damage and maintained renal blood perfusion within the first 24 hours of reperfusion. Thus, we conclude that TLR-3 seems to participate in the pathogenesis of early acute kidney injury.
    PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e94366. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0094366 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Yosif Manavski, Reinier A Boon, Stefanie Dimmeler
    Circulation Research 03/2014; 114(7):1077-9. DOI:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.114.303452 · 11.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The human genome harbors a large number of sequences encoding for RNAs that are not translated but control cellular functions by distinct mechanisms. The expression and function of the longer transcripts namely the long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the vasculature is largely unknown. Here, we characterized the expression of lncRNAs in human endothelial cells and elucidated the function of the highly expressed metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1; also known as MALAT-1 or NEAT2). Endothelial cells of different origin express high levels of the conserved lncRNAs MALAT1, TUG1, MEG3, linc00657 and linc00493. MALAT1 was significantly increased by hypoxia and controls a phenotypic switch in endothelial cells. Silencing of MALAT1 by siRNAs or GapmeRs induced a pro-migratory response and increased basal sprouting and migration, whereas proliferation of endothelial cells was inhibited. When angiogenesis was further stimulated by VEGF, MALAT1 siRNAs induced discontinuous sprouts indicative of defective proliferation of stalk cells. In vivo studies confirmed that genetic ablation of MALAT1 inhibited proliferation of endothelial cells and reduced neonatal retina vascularization. Pharmacological inhibition of MALAT1 by GapmeRs reduced blood flow recovery and capillary density after hind limb ischemia. Gene expression profiling followed by confirmatory qRT-PCR demonstrated that silencing of MALAT1 impaired the expression of various cell cycle regulators. Silencing of MALAT1 tips the balance from a proliferative to a migratory endothelial cell phenotype in vitro and its genetic deletion or pharmacological inhibition reduces vascular growth in vivo.
    Circulation Research 03/2014; 114(9). DOI:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.114.303265 · 11.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: β1-Integrins are essential for angiogenesis. The mechanisms regulating integrin function in endothelial cells (EC) and their contribution to angiogenesis remain elusive. Brag2 is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the small Arf-GTPases Arf5 and Arf6. The role of Brag2 in EC and angiogenesis and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. siRNA-mediated Brag2-silencing reduced EC angiogenic sprouting and migration. Brag2-siRNA transfection differentially affected α5β1- and αVβ3-integrin function: specifically, Brag2-silencing increased focal/fibrillar adhesions and adhesion on β1-integrin ligands (fibronectin and collagen), while reducing the adhesion on the αVβ3-integrin ligand, vitronectin. Consistent with these results, Brag2-silencing enhanced surface expression of α5β1-integrin, while reducing surface expression of αVβ3-integrin. Mechanistically, Brag2-mediated αVβ3-integrin-recycling and β1-integrin endocytosis and specifically of the active/matrix-bound α5β1-integrin present in fibrillar/focal adhesions (FA), suggesting that Brag2 contributes to the disassembly of FA via β1-integrin endocytosis. Arf5 and Arf6 are promoting downstream of Brag2 angiogenic sprouting, β1-integrin endocytosis and the regulation of FA. In vivo silencing of the Brag2-orthologues in zebrafish embryos using morpholinos perturbed vascular development. Furthermore, in vivo intravitreal injection of plasmids containing Brag2-shRNA reduced pathological ischemia-induced retinal and choroidal neovascularization. These data reveal that Brag2 is essential for developmental and pathological angiogenesis by promoting EC sprouting through regulation of adhesion by mediating β1-integrin internalization and link for the first time the process of β1-integrin endocytosis with angiogenesis.
    Archiv für Kreislaufforschung 03/2014; 109(2):404. DOI:10.1007/s00395-014-0404-2 · 5.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigates the diabetes-associated alterations present in cardiac mesenchymal cells (CMSC) obtained from normoglycaemic (ND-CMSC) and Type-2 diabetes patients (D-CMSC), identifying the histone acetylase (HAT) activator pentadecylidenemalonate 1b (SPV106) as a potential pharmacological intervention to restore cellular function. D-CMSC were characterized by a reduced proliferation rate, diminished phosphorylation at histone H3 Serine 10 (H3S10P), decreased differentiation potential and premature cellular senescence. A global histone code profiling of D-CMSC revealed that acetylation on histone H3 Lysine 9 and Lysine 14 (H3K9Ac; H3K14Ac) was decreased while the trimethylation of histone H3 Lysine 9 and Lysine 27 (H3K9Me3; H3K27Me3) significantly increased. These observations were paralleled by a down-regulation of the GCN5-Related N-acetyltransferases (GNAT) p300/CBP associated factor (PCAF) and its isoform 5-alpha General Control of Amino Acid Synthesis (GCN5a), determining a relative decrease in total HAT activity. DNA CpG island hyper methylation was detected at promoters of genes involved in cell growth control and genomic stability. Remarkably, treatment with the GNAT pro-activator SPV106, restored normal levels of H3K9Ac and H3K14Ac, reduced DNA CpG hyper methylation and recovered D-CMSC proliferation and differentiation. These results suggest that epigenetic interventions may reverse alterations in human cardiac mesenchymal cells obtained from diabetic patients.
    Diabetes 01/2014; 63(6). DOI:10.2337/db13-0731 · 7.90 Impact Factor
  • Konstantinos Stellos, Stefanie Dimmeler
    Circulation Research 01/2014; 114(1):3-4. DOI:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.113.302762 · 11.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Disruption of the renal endothelial integrity is pivotal for the development of a vascular leak, tissue edema and consequently acute kidney injury. Kidney ischemia amplifies endothelial activation and up-regulation of pro-inflammatory mechanisms. After restoring a sufficient blood flow, the kidney is damaged through complex pathomechanisms that are classically referred to as ischemia and reperfusion injury, where the disruption of the inter-endothelial connections seems to be a crucial step in this pathomechanism. Focusing on the molecular cell-cell interaction, the fibrinopeptide Bβ15-42 prevents vascular leakage by stabilizing these inter-endothelial junctions. The peptide associates with vascular endothelial-cadherin, thus preventing early kidney dysfunction by preserving blood perfusion efficacy, edema formation and thus organ dysfunction. We intended to demonstrate the early therapeutic benefit of intravenously administered Bβ15-42 in a mouse model of renal ischemia and reperfusion. After 30 minutes of ischemia, the fibrinopeptide Bβ15-42 was administered intravenously before reperfusion was commenced for 1 and 3 hours. We show that Bβ15-42 alleviates early functional and morphological kidney damage as soon as 1 h and 3 h after ischemia and reperfusion. Mice treated with Bβ15-42 displayed a significantly reduced loss of VE-cadherin, indicating a conserved endothelial barrier leading to less neutrophil infiltration which in turn resulted in significantly reduced structural renal damage. The significant reduction in tissue and serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels reinforced our findings. Moreover, renal perfusion analysis by color duplex sonography revealed that Bβ15-42 treatment preserved resistive indices and even improved blood velocity. Our data demonstrate the efficacy of early therapeutic intervention using the fibrinopeptide Bβ15-42 in the treatment of acute kidney injury resulting from ischemia and reperfusion. In this context Bβ15-42 may act as a potent renoprotective agent by preserving the endothelial and vascular integrity.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e84432. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0084432 · 3.53 Impact Factor
    This article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched format
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    Stefanie Dimmeler, Céline Carret, Roberto Buccione
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    ABSTRACT: The new EMBO Press publishing platform reinforces the standing of EMBO Molecular Medicine as the journal that matches high quality and novel research with rigorous editorial and ethical standards, and cements the journal's global reach and relevance.
    EMBO Molecular Medicine 01/2014; 6(1):1. DOI:10.1002/emmm.201303745 · 8.25 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

42k Citations
3,766.24 Total Impact Points


  • 1997–2015
    • Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main
      • • Zentrum für Molekulare Medizin
      • • Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive-Care Medicine and Pain Therapy
      • • Center for Internal Medicine
      Frankfurt, Hesse, Germany
    • University of Wuerzburg
      • Department of Internal Medicine II
      Würzburg, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2014
    • Dallas Zoo
      Dallas, Texas, United States
  • 2011–2014
    • CardioVasculäres Centrum Frankfurt
      Frankfurt, Hesse, Germany
    • University of Padova
      Padua, Veneto, Italy
  • 1997–2012
    • University Hospital Frankfurt
      Frankfurt, Hesse, Germany
  • 2008
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Division of Cardiology
      San Diego, CA, United States
  • 2007
    • Universität Heidelberg
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    • Westchester Medical Center
      Valhalla, New York, United States
  • 2005
    • Universität Ulm
      Ulm, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    • Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
      Torrance, California, United States
  • 2004
    • University of Leicester
      Leiscester, England, United Kingdom
    • Tufts University
      Бостон, Georgia, United States
    • University of Hamburg
      Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
  • 1996–2003
    • University of Freiburg
      • Institute of Forensic Medicine
      Freiburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    • University of Cologne
      • Center for Experimental Medicine
      Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2002
    • Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
      Mayence, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany
  • 2001
    • Evangelische Hochschule Freiburg, Germany
      Freiburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 1991–1994
    • Universität Konstanz
      • Molecular Toxicology
      Constance, Baden-Württemberg, Germany