C Z Lee

National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taipei, Taiwan

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Publications (20)73.16 Total impact

  • Journal de Chirurgie. 09/2005; 142(5):324.
  • Journal De Chirurgie - J CHIR. 01/2005; 142(5):324-324.
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    ABSTRACT: Aim:We sought to evaluate whether serum HBV DNA levels correlates with the liver free HBV DNA levels in chronic hepatitis B.Methods:Thirty-three consecutive chronic hepatitis B patients with cirrhosis were included in this study. Twenty cases had detectable serum HBV DNA (> 1.8 pg/ml). All had detectable free liver HBV DNA.Results:There was a strong correlation between the serum and liver HBV DNA levels (P = 0.0018, r = 0.717). Thirteen cases had undetectable serum HBV DNA. Among them, six cases still had detectable liver free HBV DNA. Eight cases were HBeAg-positive. Among them, seven cases were positive for both serum and liver HBV DNA, and one case was negative for both serum and liver HBV DNA. Twenty-five cases were HBeAg-negative and anti-HBe-positive. Among them, 13 cases were positive for serum HBV DNA, and 19 cases were positive for liver HBV DNA. No significant difference was noted for positivity of serum HBV DNA or liver free HBV DNA between HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative groups. The level of serum HBV DNA(491 ± 772 pg/ml versus 203 ± 447 pg/ml, p = 0.07) and liver free HBV DNA (33 ± 81 pg/µg versus 6 ± 15 pg/µg, p = 0.13) was also not statistically different.Conclusion:In conclusion, serum HBV DNA levels is strongly correlated with liver HBV DNA levels in chronic hepatitis B with cirrhosis. Liver free HBV DNA can still be detected in about half of the cirrhotic patients with undetectable serum HBV DNA. Serum HBeAg is not a good predictor of serum or liver HBV DNA levels in cirrhotic patients.
    Liver international: official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver 01/2002; 22(2). · 3.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel transfusion-transmissible human DNA virus, TT virus (TTV), has been discovered recently. An attempt was made to determine the incidence and clinical outcome of TTV infection in recipients of blood transfusion. Serial serum samples collected as part of a prospective study of posttransfusion hepatitis were examined for TTV DNA by a nested PCR assay. Among 150 adults undergoing cardiac surgery, posttransfusion specimens from 59 individuals were positive for TTV DNA. Pretransfusion sera were found to be positive in 13 of these individuals. Therefore, 46 (33.6%) of the 137 previously uninfected patients developed new TTV viremia after transfusion. Among the 46 patients, 3 were coinfected with HCV, 5 were coinfected with HGV, and 38 were infected with TTV alone. No apparent symptoms or signs were noted in the 38 patients infected by TTV alone or the 5 infected with HGV plus TTV. The average peak serum ALT activity was 31 IU per L, with persistently normal levels in 34 of the 38 patients with TTV infection alone. In 8 other patients who subsequently developed well-documented non-A-G hepatitis, 3 were positive for TTV (3/8 vs. 46/137, p = 0.8). In 12 patients followed for more than 1 year, TTV viremia persisted in every case. In this population, TTV is transmitted by transfusion to approximately 30 percent of patients who undergo cardiac surgery. Most of the infections appear to become persistent. Despite the high prevalence rate, TTV does not appear to cause hepatitis on its own.
    Transfusion 06/2000; 40(5):596-601. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To better understand the roles of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 37 surgically resected HCCs and corresponding nontumorous liver tissue specimens were collected and the expression of these two factors was quantified by Western blot analysis. Both HGF and PCNA expression levels were significantly higher in tumor tissue than in nontumorous liver tissue. However, their expression levels in HCC tissue and nontumorous tissue did not show any significant correlation with the recurrence of HCC. In addition, HGF and PCNA did not correlate with Edmondson's grade, invasiveness of tumor, presence of tumor capsule, or tumor size. No correlation was found between the expression levels of HGF and PCNA in HCC tissue. We conclude that, although both HGF and PCNA are present at higher levels in HCC tissue than in nontumorous liver tissue, they play little role in the clinicopathologic manifestations of this tumor. HGF appears to contribute little, if at all, to the proliferative activity of HCC cells.
    Journal of the Formosan Medical Association 03/1999; 98(2):92-6. · 1.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Telomerase activity is activated and telomere length altered in various types of cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A total of 39 HCC tissues and the corresponding non-tumour livers were analysed and correlated with clinical parameters. Telomere length was determined by terminal restriction fragment assay, and telomerase activity was assayed by telomeric repeat amplification protocol. Telomerase activity was positive in 24 of the 39 tumour tissues (1.15-285.13 total product generated (TPG) units) and in six of the 39 non-tumour liver tissues (1.05-1.73 TPG units). In the 28 cases analysed for telomere length, telomere length was shortened in 11 cases, lengthened in six cases, and unaltered in 11 cases compared with non-tumour tissues. Neither telomere length nor telomerase activity was correlated to any clinical parameters.
    European Journal of Cancer 12/1998; 34(12):1946-9. · 5.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study attempted to identify a possible antibody response to Helicobacter pylori, which is associated with patients with adeno-carcinoma of the stomach. By using proteins of H. pylori as the antigen, pooled sera from gastric cancer and non-cancer patients were used as the first antibody for Western blot analysis. Antibody responses to a 26 kD secreted protein were observed in pooled cancer sera, but not in pooled sera from non-cancer patients. The protein was purified, while amino acid sequences revealed that it was a H. pylori species specific protein. The gene of this protein was cloned and a recombinant protein was expressed in E. coli. In addition, an antibody to the recombinant protein was tested in each individual patient using Western blot analysis. None of the forty non-gastric cancer patients were positive for the antibody to the recombinantly expressed 26 kD species specific protein. Meanwhile, six of the twenty four cancer patients tested positive (0/40 vs 6/24, p < 0.01). Results presented herein demonstrate that the species specific protein of H. pylori can be useful in detecting H. pylori associated with adenocarcinoma of the stomach.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 03/1998; 244(2):360-3. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study the incidence and outcome of GB virus C (GBV-C) infection in blood recipients. Serum samples collected in a prospective study were examined for GBV-C RNA by a nested polymerase chain reaction assay. Among the 400 adults who underwent cardiac surgery, 40 were positive for GBV-C RNA, including six whose pretransfusion sera were already positive and seven coinfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) during transfusion. The risk of transmission was estimated to be approximately 0.46% per donor. GBV-C viremia was detectable 1 week after transfusion and could persist for 8 years. However, no evident symptoms or signs were noted in the 25 patients infected by GBV-C alone, and the average peak serum alanine aminotransferase activity was 31 IU/L only (range, 12 to 123), with persistently normal levels in 20 patients. In the seven patients coinfected with HCV, the clinical courses of posttransfusion hepatitis were similar to those infected by HCV alone. In eight patients with posttransfusion non-A approximately E hepatitis, only one was positive for GBV-C RNA. Sixty samples were chosen to test hepatitis G virus (HGV) sequences, 26 of the 30 GBV-C positives were positive for HGV RNA in contrast to none of the 30 GBV-C negative samples. In conclusion, GBV-C can be transmitted by transfusion in approximately 9% of patients who underwent cardiac surgery. Nevertheless, this virus does not seem to cause classic hepatitis in most instances.
    Blood 10/1996; 88(5):1881-6. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    C Z Lee, P J Chen, D S Chen
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) encodes two proteins, the small delta antigen (SHDAg) and large delta antigen (LHDAg). The latter is identical to the former except for the presence of additional 19 amino acids at the C terminus. While SHDAg is required for HDV replication, LHDAg inhibits replication and, together with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), is required for the assembly of HDV. The last 19 C-terminal amino acids of LHDAg are essential for HDV assembly. Most of LHDAg (amino acids 19 to 146 and 163 to 195) had been shown to be dispensable for packaging with HBsAg. To discern whether the last 19 C-terminal amino acids solely constitute the signal for packaging with HBsAg, we constructed two LHDAg deletion mutants and tested their abilities to be packaged with HBsAg in cotransfection experiments. We found that deletion of amino acids 2 to 21 and 142 to 165 did not affect LHDAg packaging. This result suggested that only the last 19 C-terminal amino acids of LHDAg are required for packaging. We further constructed two plasmids which expressed c-H-ras with or without additional 19 C-terminal amino acids identical to those in LHDAg. Only c-H-ras with additional 19 amino acids could be cosecreted with HBsAg in the cotransfection experiment. This result confirmed that the C-terminal 19 amino acids are the packaging signal for HBsAg. We also tested the trans activation activity and trans-dominant inhibitory activity of the deletion mutants of SHDAg and LHDAg, respectively. In contrast to deletion of amino acids 142 to 165, deletion of amino acids 2 to 21 impaired the trans-dominant inhibitory activity of LHDAg. Deletion of amino acids 2 to 21 and 142 to 165 did not affect the trans activation activity of SHDAg. This result suggested that a functional domain which is important for the trans-dominant inhibitory activity of LHDAg exists in the amino terminus of HDAg.
    Journal of Virology 10/1995; 69(9):5332-6. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Serum samples from 116 patients with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), from 7 patients without detectable HBsAg and from 71 healthy blood donors were tested by a branched DNA signal amplification (bDNA) method. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA was detected in 39 (34%) of the 116 samples with HBsAg, including 19 (70%) of the 27 patients who were also positive for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg). In contrast, one of the 7 patients without HBsAg and none of the 71 blood donors were positive for HBV DNA. The titers of serum HBV DNA did not correlate with the serum alanine aminotransferase levels. All the samples positive by the bDNA assay were positive by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, 59% of the PCR-positive samples were bDNA-negative. None of the PCR-negative samples was positive by the bDNA method. Although the sensitivity of bDNA method is not entirely satisfactory, it showed excellent specificity and reproducibility. Thus it may be considered as an alternative for quantitative detection of HBV DNA in serum samples of patients with relatively high titers of HBV viremia.
    Journal of Virological Methods 06/1995; 53(1):131-7. · 1.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The genotypes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in 81 patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were investigated by the polymerase chain reaction using type-specific primers. All the patients were positive for HCV RNA in the serum. Forty-two patients had LC with HCC, while the remaining 39 patients had LC without HCC. Genotype II was detected in 47 samples (58.0%), type III in 6 samples (7.4%), and type IV in 4 (6.2%). No evidence of genotype I was found. Mixed infection was detected in 11 samples (13.6%). The prevalence of genotype II in LC with HCC patients (69.0%) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in the LC without HCC patients (46.2%). It is concluded that genotype II is the most predominant type in patients with LC or HCC in Taiwan, and is found more frequently in patients who had LC with HCC than in those who had LC alone.
    Journal of Medical Virology 12/1994; 44(3):234-6. · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is composed of four specific components. The first component is envelope protein which contains hepatitis B surface antigens. The second and third components are nucleocapsid proteins, referred to as small and large hepatitis delta antigens (HDAgs). The final component is a single-stranded circular RNA molecule known as the viral genome. In order to study the mechanism of HDV RNA packaging, a four-plasmid cotransfection system in which each viral component was provided by a separate plasmid was employed. Virus-like particles released from Huh-7 cells receiving such a cotransfection were found to contain HDV RNA along with three proteins. Therefore, the four-plasmid cotransfection system could lead to successful HDV RNA packaging in vitro. The system was then used to show that the large HDAg alone was able to achieve a low level of HDV RNA packaging. Analysis of a variety of large HDAg mutants revealed that the RNA-binding domain was essential for viral RNA packaging. By increasing the incorporation of small HDAg into virus-like particles, we found a three- to fourfold enhancement of HDV RNA packaging. This effect was probably through a direct binding of HDV RNA, independent from that of large HDAg, with the small HDAg. The subsequent RNA-protein complex was packaged into particles. The results provided insight into the roles and functional domains of small and large HDAgs in HDV RNA packaging.
    Journal of Virology 11/1994; 68(10):6363-71. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) encodes two proteins, the small hepatitis delta antigen (SHDAg) and large hepatitis delta antigen (LHDAg). Both proteins are identical except for the presence of additional 19 amino acids at the C terminus of LHDAg. While SHDAg is required for HDV RNA replication, LHDAg inhibits replication and is required together with hepatitis B surface antigen for the assembly of HDV. The C-terminal last 4 amino acids of LHDAg (Cys-Arg-Pro-Gln) is an isoprenylation motif. It has previously been shown that the mutation of the Cys inhibited the assembly of HDV. In order to discern whether this effect is due to change of amino acid residue or abolition of isoprenylation, we constructed several LHDAg mutants of the terminal three amino acid residues and tested their abilities to be packaged with HBsAg by cotransfection experiments. We also made GST-fusion proteins of these mutants and tested their abilities to be isoprenylated in rabbit reticulocyte lysate system. We found that some, but not all, of the substitutions of the amino acid residues other than the Cys also inhibited isoprenylation and that the status of isoprenylation of these mutant proteins correlated well with their abilities to be packaged with HBsAg into virions. This result indicates that isoprenylation, rather than the primary amino acid sequence, is required for LHDAg packaging. Furthermore, we found that the attachment of an isoprenylation motif to SHDAg did not enable it to be packaged with HBsAg and that the deletions of any 5 amino acids in the last 15 amino acids (amino acids 196 to 210) unique to the LHDAg abolished the packaging ability. In contrast, the deletion of 33 amino acids (amino acids 163 to 195) upstream of the last C-terminal 19 amino acids of LHDAg did not interfere with its packaging ability. Therefore, we conclude that the 15 amino acids upstream of the isoprenylation site of LHDAg are also essential for HDV assembly, and a large portion of the alleged C-terminal Pro/Gly-rich region (amino acids 146 to 195) is not required for the assembly process.
    Virology 03/1994; 199(1):169-75. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg) is an RNA-binding protein with binding specificity for hepatitis delta virus (HDV) RNA (J. H. Lin, M. F. Chang, S. C. Baker, S. Govindarajan, and M. M. C. Lai, J. Virol. 64:4051-4058, 1990). By amino acid sequence homology search, we have identified within its RNA-binding domain two stretches of an arginine-rich motif (ARM), which is present in many prokaryotic and eukaryotic RNA-binding proteins. The first one is KERQDHRRRKA and the second is EDEKRERRIAG, and they are separated by 29 amino acids. Deletion of either one of these ARM sequences resulted in the total loss of the in vitro RNA-binding activity of HDAg. Thus, HDAg is different from other RNA-binding proteins in that it requires two ARM-like sequences for its RNA-binding activity. Replacement of the spacer sequence between the two ARMs with a shorter stretch of sequence also reduced RNA binding in vitro. Furthermore, site-specific mutations of the basic amino acid residues in both ARMs resulted in the total loss or reduction of RNA-binding activity. The biological significance of the RNA-binding activity was studied by examining the trans-activating activity of the RNA-binding mutants. The plasmids expressing HDAgs with various mutations in the RNA-binding motifs were cotransfected with a replication-defective HDV dimer cDNA construct into COS cells. It was found that all the HDAg mutants which had lost the in vitro RNA-binding activity also lost the ability to complement the defect of HDV RNA replication. We conclude that the trans-activating function of HDAg requires its binding to HDV RNA.
    Journal of Virology 05/1993; 67(4):2221-7. · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • Progress in clinical and biological research 02/1993; 382:21-7.
  • S B Hwang, C Z Lee, M M Lai
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) encodes only one protein, the hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg). Two forms of HDAg, a large (27 kDa) and a small (24 kDa) one, participate in the various steps of HDV replication. To further understand the properties of HDAg, we have constructed recombinant baculoviruses and expressed both forms of the HDAg in insect cells. The gene encoding HDAg was placed under the control of the polyhedrin promoter of Autographa Californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV) by homologous recombination. When Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells were infected with the recombinant viruses, both the small HDAg and the large HDAg were expressed at high levels. The HDAgs produced by the recombinants were similar in size and antigenic properties to those of the proteins produced in mammalian hepatoma cell lines. It was also localized exclusively in the nuclei. In addition, both proteins bound to HDV RNA in an in vitro assay. No difference in the RNA-binding affinity was noted between the two forms of HDAg, suggesting that the trans-dominant inhibitory activity of the large HDAg on HDV replication is not due to its competition with the small HDAg for RNA binding. Two RNA-protein complexes could be detected, suggesting either that there are at least two binding sites on the HDV RNA or that HDAg binds to HDV RNA in two multimeric forms. We have further shown that both the large and the small HDAgs are phosphoproteins, with the former having an approximately sixfold higher level of phosphorylation. Finally, it was demonstrated that the large HDAg was isoprenylated, while the small one was not. These differences in post-translational modifications are the first differences in biochemical properties demonstrated between the two forms and may explain the differential effects of the large and small HDAgs on HDV RNA replication and virus packaging.
    Virology 10/1992; 190(1):413-22. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Serial serum samples from 35 patients with posttransfusion non-A, non-B hepatitis in a prospective study were tested for antibody to hepatitis C virus (HCV) by a multiple recombinant antigen based immunoassay [anti-HCV (2nd); Abbott]. Of them, 23 were positive for anti-C100, and 27 were positive for HCV RNA by polymerase chain reaction. By anti-HCV (2nd), 28 patients were positive, and all except 1 of the 28 patients were positive for HCV RNA. A total of 24 patients, who became HCV RNA positive at the acute stage and who were negative for both anti-C100 and anti-HCV (2nd) before transfusion, were considered to have posttransfusion hepatitis C. The mean time to seroconversion for anti-HCV (2nd) was 7.5 or 12.1 weeks after the onset of hepatitis or the date of transfusion, respectively, and was generally 6 weeks earlier than that detected by anti-C100. However, seroconversion was delayed in 2 hepatitis B surface antigen carriers as compared with anti-C100. The anti-C100 assay detected 20 (83%) and the anti-HCV (2nd) all 24 patients with documented posttransfusion hepatitis C. The second-generation test is, therefore, better than conventional anti-C100 for the early diagnosis of HCV infection.
    Vox Sanguinis 02/1992; 62(1):21-4. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cellular and nuclear DNA content was measured by flow cytometry and the fraction of binucleated cells by fluorescence microscopy in normal adult human livers, hepatocellular carcinomas, cirrhotic livers surrounding tumors, and in some benign liver conditions. In five normal livers about one-half of the hepatocytes were polyploid; the majority of these were binucleated tetraploids containing two diploid nuclei. Thus, polyploidization in human liver does not progress as far as, for example, in the rat, where 80%-90% of adult hepatocytes are polyploid, mostly with tetraploid or octoploid nuclei. In five human euploid hepatocellular carcinomas and one investigated case of focal nodular hyperplasia, the percentage of polyploid cells was significantly reduced. Four other carcinomas exhibited a prominent aneuploid (hypotetraploid) peak in addition to the diploid peak. An abnormally low fraction of binucleated cells was also indicated in these tumors. Liver tissue surrounding the tumors had a ploidy distribution similar to that of normal liver. The results suggest that, like in several models of experimental hepatocarcinogenesis, human hepatocellular tumor growth is associated with a decreased polyploidization tendency and a corresponding increase in diploid, divisional growth, which may give the tumors a growth advantage relative to the surrounding liver.
    JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute 12/1988; 80(18):1480-5. · 14.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For the treatment of small hepatocellular carcinoma, intratumor injection of absolute ethanol under ultrasound guidance was performed in 27 tumors in 23 patients, with a tumor diameter of between 1.0 and 3.3 cm. The initially elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein levels in 15 patients decreased during treatment, with 13 returning to normal after this regimen. In the 6 patients who finally received surgical resection, 4 had complete necrosis of the tumor, while the other 2 had a small peripheral residual cancer nest. In the remaining non-resected 17 cases, follow-up CT, multiple biopsies and angiography revealed evidence of viable tumor in only 3 cases. After additional ethanol injections, these 3 cases were successfully treated. Inhomogeneous distribution of the injected ethanol and difficulty in identifying the tumor after previous injections accounted for the incomplete necrosis of the tumor. To cope with these problems, a steel coil was implanted in the tumor before treatment, and a needle with multiple side holes was used in the last 3 cases, with satisfactory results. Ethanol injection is promising and may even be curative in the treatment of small hepatocellular carcinoma.
    Hepato-gastroenterology 01/1988; 34(6):255-61. · 0.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A national screening programme for antibody to hepatitis C virus (HCV) in blood donors in Taiwan began in July 1992 using a second-generation immunoassay. To study the impact of this screening on post-transfusion hepatitis in Taiwan, a prospective study on post-transfusion hepatitis, that was started in 1987, was continued. As of June 1994, 245 patients who received a blood transfusion after July 1992 had completed a follow-up period for more than 6 months post-transfusion. Of them, seven (2.8%) recipients developed acute post-transfusion hepatitis. The hepatitis in six cases could not be attributed to infection by hepatitis A, B, C, D, E viruses or cytomegalovirus (CMV) or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The remaining patient seroconverted to both IgG and IgM anti-CMV. All seven patients recovered in 6 months without development of chronicity, and the mean peak alanine aminotransferase level was lower compared with that of the cases before anti-HCV screening (i.e. pre-July 1992). These results indicate that the current anti-HCV screening has effectively interrupted HCV transmission through blood transfusion in Taiwan.
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 10(4):454-8. · 3.33 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

417 Citations
73.16 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1988–2000
    • National Taiwan University
      • • College of Medicine
      • • School of Medicine
      • • Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine
      Taipei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 1992–1998
    • National Taiwan University Hospital
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 1995
    • Taipei Medical University
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Taipei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 1993
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      North Carolina, United States
    • Howard Hughes Medical Institute
      Maryland, United States