[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan have attracted considerable political and media interest in the mental health of UK military personnel. As a result of the close operational collaboration between US and UK forces, there have inevitably been many comparisons drawn between the mental health status of the two forces. Considerable research activity suggests that the mental health of UK forces appear to have remained relatively resilient in spite of their considerable exposure to traumatic events; one stark exception to this is the high rates of alcohol misuse which seem to be related to deployment. This paper explores the recently published literature relating to UK military forces and attempts to draw conclusions about the reasons for the apparent resilience shown by the majority of the regular forces.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Research of military personnel who deployed to the conflicts in Iraq or Afghanistan has suggested that there are differences in mental health outcomes between UK and US military personnel.
To compare the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), hazardous alcohol consumption, aggressive behaviour and multiple physical symptoms in US and UK military personnel deployed to Iraq.
Data were from one US (n = 1560) and one UK (n = 313) study of post-deployment military health of army personnel who had deployed to Iraq during 2007-2008. Analyses were stratified by high- and low-combat exposure.
Significant differences in combat exposure and sociodemographics were observed between US and UK personnel; controlling for these variables accounted for the difference in prevalence of PTSD, but not in the total symptom level scores. Levels of hazardous alcohol consumption (low-combat exposure: odds ratio (OR) = 0.13, 95% CI 0.07-0.21; high-combat exposure: OR = 0.23, 95% CI 0.14-0.39) and aggression (low-combat exposure: OR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.19-0.68) were significantly lower in US compared with UK personnel. There was no difference in multiple physical symptoms.
Differences in self-reported combat exposures explain most of the differences in reported prevalence of PTSD. Adjusting for self-reported combat exposures and sociodemographics did not explain differences in hazardous alcohol consumption or aggression.
The British journal of psychiatry: the journal of mental science 01/2014; · 6.62 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore the psychological consequences of improvised explosive device (IED) exposure as IEDs have been the greatest threat to UK military personnel in Afghanistan though the mental health consequences of IED exposure are largely unknown.
Deployed UK military personnel completed a survey while deployed in Afghanistan. Combat personnel and those dealing specifically with the IED threat were compared with all other deployed personnel; the relationship between IED exposure, general combat experiences, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) and General Health Questionnaire scores were evaluated.
The response rate was 98% (n=2794). Half reported IED-related concerns, a third experienced exploding IEDs and a quarter gave medical aid to IED casualties. Combat and counter-IED threat personnel had higher levels of IED exposure than other deployed personnel. 18.8% of personnel who witnessed exploding IEDs scored positive for common mental disorder (General Health Questionnaire-12 scores ≥4) and 7.6% scored positive for probable PTSD symptoms (PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version scores ≥44). After adjusting for general combat exposure and other observed confounders, PTSD symptoms were associated with IED exposure whereas common mental disorder symptoms were not. IED exposure, IED-related concerns and functional impairment accumulated during deployment but functional impairment was related to factors other than IED exposure alone.
In Afghanistan, a substantial proportion of personnel were exposed to exploding IEDs however, the majority of exposed personnel were psychologically healthy. Psychological effects were similar for combat personnel and those dealing specifically with the IED threat but both groups were at greater psychological risk than other deployed personnel.
Occupational and environmental medicine 01/2014; · 3.64 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most accounts of deployment mental health in UK armed forces personnel rely on retrospective assessments.
We present data relating to the burden of mental ill health and the effect of support measures including operational, family, welfare and medical support obtained on two occasions some 18 months apart.
A total of 2794 personnel completed a survey while deployed to Afghanistan; 1363 in 2011 and 1431 in 2010. Their responses were compared and contrasted.
The prevalence of self-report mental health disorder was low and not significantly different between the surveys; the rates of probable post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were 2.8% in 2010 and 1.8% in 2011; for common mental health disorders the rates were 17.0% and 16.0% respectively. Remembering receiving predeployment psychoeducation, perceptions of good leadership and good family support were all significantly associated with better mental health. Seeking support from non-medical sources and reporting sick for medical reasons were both significantly associated with poorer mental health.
Over a period of 18 months, deployment mental health symptoms in UK armed forces personnel were fewer than those obtained from a military population sample despite continuing deployment in a high-threat context and were associated with perceptions of support.
The British journal of psychiatry: the journal of mental science 11/2013; · 6.62 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BackgroundA major incident involving multiple fatalities occurred in Cumbria, England on 2 June 2010. The Cumbrian Constabulary deployed an organizational peer support response for personnel involved known as trauma risk management (TRiM).AimsTo examine data routinely gathered during the TRiM process to evaluate the relationship of the intervention to sickness absence.Methods
Using incident databases, details were gathered regarding exposure to the murders and type of TRiM intervention, including an assessment of the psychological risk to the individual of developing a trauma-related mental health problem. Sociodemographic information was collated by the occupational health department. Cumulative sickness absence data in the 2 months following the murders were used as a proxy for mental health status.ResultsA total of 717 police officers and civilian support staff were identified. High levels of traumatic exposure were associated with subsequent receipt of a TRiM intervention. The majority of psychological risk indices reduced between the initial and subsequent evaluation. Greater traumatic exposure was associated with longer sickness absence lengths. Engagement in the TRiM process was associated with a reduction in sickness absence especially in more junior ranks.Conclusions
In this study, we found that TRiM deployed within a police force responding to a major event offered a way of structuring a response for those involved. Our data suggest that TRiM may offer a way of assessing psychological risk so that officers can be offered early supportive interventions. Our data suggest that TRiM may help to ameliorate some of the negative effects of high trauma exposure.
Occupational Medicine 10/2013; · 1.45 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare attitudes to mental illness in the U.K. military and in the general population in England.
Using data from a cross-sectional survey of 821 U.K. military personnel and a separate cross-sectional survey of 1,729 members of the general population in England, levels of agreement with five statements about mental illness were compared in the military and the general population.
The majority of respondents from both populations showed positive attitudes toward mental illness. The general population showed slightly more positive attitudes toward integrating people with mental illness into the community (68.0% [65.7%-70.1%] agreed that "People with mental illness have the same rights to a job as everyone else," vs. 56.7% [51.5%-61.7%] of the military). However, the general population showed more negative attitudes about the causes of mental illness (62.4% [60.1%-64.6%] disagreed that "One of the main causes of mental illness is a lack of self-discipline and willpower," vs. 81.3% [77.0%-84.9%] of the military).
Overall, attitudes toward mental illness are comparable in the general population in England and the U.K. military. Differences included the military holding more positive attitudes about the causes of mental illness, but more negatives attitudes about job rights of those with mental illness. Strategies aiming to improve attitudes toward mental illness could focus particularly on personnel's concerns around mental illness impacting on their career.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stigmatizing beliefs about seeking help for mental health conditions and perceived barriers to care (BTC) may influence the decision to seek support and treatment in U.K. military personnel. Many coalition partners, including the U.K. Armed Forces (UKAF), have made considerable efforts to reduce stigma/BTC although the impact of these efforts over time has not been assessed. We surveyed a total of 23,101 UKAF personnel who deployed to Afghanistan and Iraq between 2008 and 2011 and examined whether stigma/BTC levels changed during this time. The results suggested that stigma, including the fear of being treated differently by commanders and loss of trust among peers, was greater than perceived BTC. The likelihood of reporting stigma/BTC, although significantly greater during deployment than postdeployment, reduced significantly over the survey period. A similar reduction was less apparent during postdeployment phase. These findings support the notion that UKAF's anti-stigma campaigns may have had some positive effects, particularly among deployed personnel. However, we suggest that stigma still plays a part in inhibiting help-seeking, particularly during deployment when stigma rates are higher, and that a careful balance must be struck between encouraging help-seeking and maintaining the operational effectiveness of deployed personnel.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The Department of Community Mental Health (DCMH) at RAF Brize Norton runs a regular anxiety management day (AMD) which is a group intervention for regular military personnel who have been diagnosed with anxiety-related disorders. The AMD is a 1 day course for up to 20 participants run by two community mental health nurses based at the DCMH. It contains a combination of psycho-education and generic anxiety management techniques.AimsTo establish whether the AMD is acceptable to full time regular military personnel who have been referred to the DCMH.Methods
The acceptability of the AMD was assessed using a standardized feedback form, which asked about the patient's perception of the quality of the AMD and the course content. Feedback data were collected over a 12 month period between September 2010 and August 2011.ResultsClinical and sociodemographic data were available for 91 of the 97 (94%) participants who participated in the AMD over the period from September 2010 to August 2011. Ninety-two per cent (89/97) of participants completed a post course survey immediately after they completed the AMD. Respectively, 95 and 93% considered the format and content of the AMD to be of good quality.Conclusions
The AMD fits well with the stepped care approach of the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies programme and resulted in a good level of patient satisfaction.
Occupational Medicine 07/2013; · 1.45 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
Rest and Recuperation (R & R) is a period of home leave taken during an operational deployment; we sought to examine the relationship between taking R & R and mental health.DesignA survey-based post-intervention evaluation.SettingUKParticipants232 members of the UK Armed Forces; 42 of which completed pre and post R & R surveys.Main Outcome MeasuresAlcohol use, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, Common Mental Disorder Symptoms and R & R experiences.Results12.1% of respondents (n=27) reported symptoms of common mental disorder and 3.7% (n=8) reported probable PTSD. 50% (n=110) reported hazardous use of alcohol during R & R. In the pre- and post-assessed sample, mental health status and alcohol use levels were similar at both survey points. Using principal component analysis, five components of R & R were identified; mentally switching off from deployment, travel experience, physical recovery, relaxation, rest and social support. R & R was extremely popular and although it did not improve mental health overall, the ability to engage with or derive satisfaction from aspects of the five components was significantly associated with better mental health and less alcohol use at the end of R & R.Conclusion
Operational commanders should advise personnel about the best way to actively engage with R & R before they leave theatre and be aware of the significant detrimental impact of disrupted travel arrangements upon the ability to benefit from R & R.
Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 07/2013; · 1.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A pilot study to assess the practicality of introducing an enhanced mental health assessment (EMHA) into all routine and discharge medicals of the UK Armed Forces in order to facilitate treatment prior to and on return to civilian life.
A pilot study was conducted using an EMHA questionnaire with questions about depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, alcohol use, sleep and anger/irritability. At pilot sites, the EMHA was completed during all routine and discharge medicals between May 2011 and July 2011. At the end of the study period, qualitative data were collected from participating medical officers and practice managers regarding their opinions about the pilot study.
The quantitative data revealed an average pick-up rate for mental health (MH) problems. Out of the four military medical centres who participated and the 325 questionnaires collected, one referral to a Department of Community Mental Health was made. 26 (8%) patients were categorised as 'some concern and patient offered advice and/or reassurance'. The vast majority of patients were found to have no evidence of MH problems. However, using a validated alcohol screening tool, 64% of service personnel were found to have a score indicating 'higher risk drinking'. Analysis of the qualitative data suggests that the EMHA is an easy tool to implement with minimal additional time and resources needed. The interviewees pointed out a number of limitations and suggestions for possible further studies.
The pilot study successfully demonstrated that the EMHA questionnaire is easy to administer, does not take up a large amount of additional resources or manpower and provides a useful check of MH status. The study picked up an average number of MH cases and the questions on alcohol consumption highlighted that military personnel may be at a 'higher risk of drinking'.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Behavioural Activation (BA) is an evidence-based psychological treatment for depression based on behavioural theory. However, in common with other talking therapies, there is limited evidence about occupational factors related to treatment. This is an important gap in the research given the emphasis placed on employment considerations in recent service initiatives. Aim: A service evaluation to investigate the clinical and fitness to work outcomes of a group BA programme for serving military personnel. Method: 46 patients experiencing moderate to severe depression attended a 12-session Military Behavioural Activation and Rehabilitation Course (MBARC). The primary outcomes were the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), a self-report measure of depression and the patient's medical employability category. Results: Clinical and statistically significant changes were found on the PHQ-9 between pre-course and 3-month follow-up. Pretreatment 3 patients (6.5%) were psychologically fit to deploy on full operational duties in their primary role; this increased to 25 (56.8%) and 29 (65.9%) at 3 and 6-months respectively. Conclusion: Preliminary findings suggest that MBARC is a clinically and occupationally effective treatment for depression in military personnel. Further research is required to identify if BA delivered in a group setting would be effective in non-military settings and whether treatment benefits are maintained in the longer term.
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy 05/2013; · 1.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Recent service developments in the NHS on the provision of talking therapies such as the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) initiative have made the compliance with clinical supervision (CS) inherent among its service guidelines. This paper presents the findings of an audit, measuring compliance with CS among clinicians providing psychological therapies within a military Department of Community Mental Health. METHOD: Adherence to the recommended monthly supervision and the presence of an indate CS contract were audited on two separate occasions over 2 years by analysing the departmental electronic CS database. RESULTS: Compliance rates were found to be lower than the Defence guidelines, which are already modest in their expectations compared with IAPT CS standards. DISCUSSION: Potential reasons are hypothesised including high levels of staff rotation, other military commitments, clinicians not keeping up-to-date records and the pressures of meeting performance indicators on other clinical issues. Proposals for improving the uptake of CS are suggested along with areas for further research.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deployments increase risk for adjustment problems in service members. To mitigate this increased risk, mental health training programs have been developed and implemented in several nations. As part of a coordinated effort, three nations adapted a U.S. mental health training program that had been validated by a series of group randomized trials demonstrating improvement in postdeployment adjustment. Implementation of evidence-based programs in a new context is challenging: How much of the original program needs to remain intact in order to retain its utility? User satisfaction rates can provide essential data to assess how well a program is accepted. This article summarizes service member ratings of postdeployment mental health training and compares ratings from service members across four nations. The participating nations (Canada, New Zealand, United Kingdom, and the United States) administered mental health training to active duty military personnel in their respective nations. Following the training, military personnel completed an evaluation of the training. Overall, across the four nations, more than 70% of military personnel agreed or strongly agreed that they were satisfied with the mental health training. Although some differences in evaluations were observed across nations, components of training that were most important to overall satisfaction with the training were strikingly similar across nations. Fundamentally, it appears feasible that despite cultural and organizational differences, a mental health training program developed in one nation can be successfully adapted for use in other nations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Violent offending by veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts is a cause for concern and there is much public debate about the proportion of ex-military personnel in the criminal justice system for violent offences. Although the psychological effects of conflict are well documented, the potential legacy of violent offending has yet to be ascertained. We describe our use of criminal records to investigate the effect of deployment, combat, and post-deployment mental health problems on violent offending among military personnel relative to pre-existing risk factors.
In this cohort study, we linked data from 13,856 randomly selected, serving and ex-serving UK military personnel with national criminal records stored on the Ministry of Justice Police National Computer database. We describe offending during the lifetime of the participants and assess the risk factors for violent offending.
2,139 (weighted 17.0%) of 12,359 male UK military personnel had a criminal record for any offence during their lifetime. Violent offenders (1,369 [11.0%]) were the most prevalent offender types; prevalence was highest in men aged 30 years or younger (521 [20.6%] of 2,728) and fell with age (164 [4.7%] of 3027 at age >45 years). Deployment was not independently associated with increased risk of violent offending, but serving in a combat role conferred an additional risk, even after adjustment for confounders (violent offending in 137 [6.3%] of 2178 men deployed in a combat role vs 140 (2.4%) of 5,797 deployed in a non-combat role; adjusted hazard ratio 1.53, 95% CI 1.15-2.03; p=0.003). Increased exposure to traumatic events during deployment also increased risk of violent offending (violent offending in 104 [4.1%] of 2753 men with exposure to two to four traumatic events vs 56 [1.6%] of 2944 with zero to one traumatic event, 1.77, 1.21-2.58, p=0.003; and violent offending in 122 [5.1%] of 2582 men with exposure to five to 16 traumatic events, 1.65, 1.12-2.40, p=0.01; test for trend, p=0.032). Violent offending was strongly associated with post-deployment alcohol misuse (violent offending in 120 [9.0%] of 1363 men with alcohol misuse vs 155 [2.3%] of 6768 with no alcohol misuse; 2.16, 1.62-2.90; p<0.0001), post-traumatic stress disorder (violent offending in 25 [8.6%] of 344 men with post-traumatic stress disorder vs 221 [3.0%] of 7256 with no symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder; 2.20, 1.36-3.55; p=0.001), and high levels of self-reported aggressive behaviour (violent offending in 56 [6.7%] of 856 men with an aggression score of six to 16 vs 22 [1.2%] of 1685 with an aggression score of zero; 2.47, 1.37-4.46; p=0.003). Of the post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, the hyperarousal cluster was most strongly associated with violent offending (2.01, 1.50-2.70; p<0.0001).
Alcohol misuse and aggressive behaviour might be appropriate targets for interventions, but any action must be evidence based. Post-traumatic stress disorder, though less prevalent, is also a risk factor for violence, especially hyperarousal symptoms, so if diagnosed it should be appropriately treated and associated risk monitored.
Medical Research Council and the UK Ministry of Defence.
The Lancet 03/2013; 381(9870):907-17. · 39.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Violent offending by veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan confl icts is a cause for concern and there is much public debate about the proportion of ex-military personnel in the criminal justice system for violent off ences. Although the psychological eff ects of confl ict are well documented, the potential legacy of violent off ending has yet to be ascertained. We describe our use of criminal records to investigate the eff ect of deployment, combat, and post-deployment mental health problems on violent off ending among military personnel relative to pre-existing risk factors. Methods In this cohort study, we linked data from 13 856 randomly selected, serving and ex-serving UK military personnel with national criminal records stored on the Ministry of Justice Police National Computer database. We describe off ending during the lifetime of the participants and assess the risk factors for violent off ending. Findings 2139 (weighted 17·0%) of 12 359 male UK military personnel had a criminal record for any off ence during their lifetime. Violent off enders (1369 [11·0%]) were the most prevalent off ender types; prevalence was highest in men aged 30 years or younger (521 [20·6%] of 2728) and fell with age (164 [4·7%] of 3027 at age >45 years). Deployment was not independently associated with increased risk of violent off ending, but serving in a combat role conferred an additional risk, even after adjustment for confounders (violent off ending in 137 [6·3%] of 2178 men deployed in a combat role vs 140 (2·4%) of 5797 deployed in a non-combat role; adjusted hazard ratio 1·53, 95% CI 1·15–2·03; p=0·003). Increased exposure to traumatic events during deployment also increased risk of violent off ending (violent off ending in 104 [4·1%] of 2753 men with exposure to two to four traumatic events vs 56 [1·6%] of 2944 with zero to one traumatic event, 1·77, 1·21–2·58, p=0·003; and violent off ending in 122 [5·1%] of 2582 men with exposure to fi ve to 16 traumatic events, 1·65, 1·12–2·40, p=0·01; test for trend, p=0·032). Violent off ending was strongly associated with post-deployment alcohol misuse (violent off ending in 120 [9·0%] of 1363 men with alcohol misuse vs 155 [2·3%] of 6768 with no alcohol misuse; 2·16, 1·62–2·90; p<0·0001), post-traumatic stress disorder (violent off ending in 25 [8·6%] of 344 men with post-traumatic stress disorder vs 221 [3·0%] of 7256 with no symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder; 2·20, 1·36–3·55; p=0·001), and high levels of self-reported aggressive behaviour (violent off ending in 56 [6·7%] of 856 men with an aggression score of six to 16 vs 22 [1·2%] of 1685 with an aggression score of zero; 2·47, 1·37–4·46; p=0·003). Of the post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, the hyperarousal cluster was most strongly associated with violent off ending (2·01, 1·50–2·70; p<0·0001). Interpretation Alcohol misuse and aggressive behaviour might be appropriate targets for interventions, but any action must be evidence based. Post-traumatic stress disorder, though less prevalent, is also a risk factor for violence, especially hyperarousal symptoms, so if diagnosed it should be appropriately treated and associated risk monitored.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Recently, proposals have been made to improve mental health care for UK military veterans. Combat Stress (CS), a veteran's charity, has provided mental health services for veterans since 1919. Since 2003, service users have included veterans from the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts; however, their pattern of help-seeking has not been evaluated.AimsTo describe the characteristics of the veteran population of the recent Iraq or Afghanistan conflicts who sought help from CS between 2003 and May 2011.MethodsCS Iraq and Afghanistan veteran clinical and welfare records were evaluated.ResultsNine hundred and eighty-eight records were evaluated. The median time for veterans of recent conflicts to seek help from CS since discharge from military service was ~2 years, considerably shorter than the mean time of 14 years previously estimated by CS. Approximately, three-quarters of the veterans receiving a full clinical assessment (n = 114), received a diagnosis of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (n = 87). Approximately half of the clinically assessed veterans self-referred to CS (51%); their most frequent diagnosis was PTSD.Conclusions
Veterans who have served in Iraq and Afghanistan are presenting to Combat Stress sooner, and at a younger age, than veterans of previous conflicts and operations.
Occupational Medicine 03/2013; · 1.45 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Third Location Decompression (TLD) is an activity undertaken by UK Armed Forces (UK AF) personnel at the end of an operational deployment which aims to smooth the transition between operations and returning home. We assessed whether TLD impacted upon both mental health and postdeployment readjustment. METHOD: Data collected during a large cohort study was examined to identify personnel who either engaged in TLD or returned home directly following deployment. Propensity scores were generated and used to calculate inverse probability of treatment weights in adjusted regression analyses to compare mental health outcomes and postdeployment readjustment problems. RESULTS: TLD had a positive impact upon mental health outcomes (post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and multiple physical symptoms) and levels of harmful alcohol use. However, when the samples were stratified by combat exposure, although postdeployment readjustment was similar for all exposure levels, personnel experiencing low and moderate levels of combat exposure experienced the greatest positive mental health effects. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence to suggest that TLD promotes better postdeployment readjustment; however, we found a positive impact upon alcohol use and mental health with an interaction with degree of combat exposure. This study suggests that TLD is a useful postdeployment transitional activity that may help to improve PTSD symptoms and alcohol use in UK AF personnel.
Occupational and environmental medicine 02/2013; · 3.64 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: British forces have a comprehensive system for managing acute psychological distress in a combat zone. This includes peer support via Trauma Risk Management (TRiM), access to deployed medical personnel, and a Field Mental Health Team (FMHT). TRiM and medical personnel need to be aware of the FMHT's presence in the combat zone and capability to provide specialist mental health care.
TRiM and medical personnel completed a survey based on 6 audit standards. Differences between TRiM and medical personnel and the effects of rank, role, and location in theater were assessed using the Pearson χ(2) statistical test. Statistical significance was defined as p ≤ 0.05.
Most TRiM and medical personnel knew that an FMHT was embedded within the deployed force. Significantly less TRiM than medical personnel knew that the FMHT would carry out clinical assessments at forward locations. There was a high degree of satisfaction with the service provided by the FMHT.
Corporate knowledge of the FMHT by both Medical and TRiM personnel was generally good. TRiM training should increase its emphasis on the FMHT's ability to undertake assessments at forward locations. Efforts by the FMHT to ensure corporate knowledge among TRiM personnel should focus on more forward locations.