M E Iliev

Universität Bern, Berna, Bern, Switzerland

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Publications (15)31.94 Total impact

  • M Egli · D Goldblum · A Kipfer · K Rohrer · C Tappeiner · M Abegg · L Berger · A Schoetzau · M E Iliev ·
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    ABSTRACT: The classic Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT) has been further developed by Haag-Streit International. The applanation principle has been retained, while the internal force transmission and the pressure gauging have been optimised, the display of results digitised. The authors compared the GAT standard with the new GAT digital. Four fixed tonometer pairs were used. The protocol included: non-contact pachymetry, slit-lamp examination, three consecutive measurements with each tonometer with a 5 min interval in between, check for side effects in 15 min. Three groups (intraocular pressure (IOP) levels) were defined: (1) IOP ≤ 16; (2) IOP>16 and <23; (3) IOP ≥ 23 mm Hg. 125 Patients (250 eyes) were evaluated. IOP (mm Hg), GAT standard versus GAT digital, for the rights eyes was: Group 1: 12.94 ± 0.55 versus 13.11 ± 0.53, p=0.71. Group 2: 18.26 ± 0.59 versus 18.03 ± 0.52, p=0.53; Group 3: 30.28 ± 0.48 versus 30.42 ± 0.41, p=0.97; all right eyes: 17.48 ± 7.48 versus 17.73 ± 7.4, p=0.99. For the left eyes, there was no significant difference, either. The correlation was very good and was not influenced by the IOP level. The Pearson coefficient for the right eye was 0.985, and for the left eye 0.994. In the Bland-Altman analysis, although there were two single readings that differed by as much as 5 mm Hg, GAT digital measures showed almost no skew, and the mean difference was 0.03 ± 1.23 mm Hg (n=250). A multiple regression analysis showed no influence of order of measurement, eyeside or pachymetry. The new GAT digital is as reliable and safe as GAT standard. IOP values correlate well. It offers a digitised display and a wireless transfer of data. The display of values up to the first decimal digit is not necessarily associated with a more precise measurement, but may offer an additional comfort compared with the 2 mm Hg scale of the classic GAT.
    The British journal of ophthalmology 04/2011; 96(1):42-6. DOI:10.1136/bjo.2010.182469 · 2.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare central retinal thickness (CRT) measurements in healthy eyes by different commercially available OCT instruments and to compare the intersession reproducibility of such measurements. Six different OCT instruments (Stratus OCT [Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc. Dublin, CA], SOCT Copernicus [Reichert/Optopol Technology, Inc., Depew, NY], Spectral OCT/SLO [Opko/OTI, Inc., Miami, FL], RTVue-100 [Optovue Corp., Fremont, CA], Spectralis HRA+OCT [Heidelberg Engineering, Inc., Heidelberg, Germany], and Cirrus HD-OCT [Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc.]) were used to assess CRT in both eyes of healthy subjects. Measurements were performed in two different sessions on the same day with each of the systems. From these measurements, the mean CRT was calculated. For the assessment of the intersession reproducibility of the instruments, we calculated the coefficient of the variation of test-retest variation. Twenty healthy subjects were included in the study. Compared with the Stratus OCT all spectral OCT instruments showed significantly higher CRTs. The Spectralis HRA+OCT and Cirrus HD-OCT showed similar CRT values but significantly higher values than did all other instruments. The coefficients of variation for repeated measurements was 3.33% for the Stratus OCT, 0.46% for the Spectralis HRA+OCT, 3.09% for the Cirrus HD-OCT, 2.23% for the OCT/SLO, 2.77% for the RTVue-100 OCT, and for the SOCT 3.5%, respectively. discussion. The six OCT systems provided different results for CRT. The measurements with the Stratus OCT showed the lowest thicknesses, whereas those with the Cirrus HD-OCT and Spectralis HRA+OCT yielded the highest ones. These discrepancies can be explained by the differences in the retinal segmentation algorithms used by the various OCT systems. Whereas the Spectralis HRA+OCT and Cirrus HD-OCT include the RPE layer in the retinal segmentation, the other instruments do not. The data imply that the different OCT systems cannot be used interchangeably for the measurement of macular thickness.
    Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 03/2009; 50(7):3432-7. DOI:10.1167/iovs.08-2970 · 3.40 Impact Factor
  • C Tappeiner · B Perren · M E Iliev · B E Frueh · D Goldblum ·
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this communication is to report enophthalmos as a possible new adverse effect of topical bimatoprost treatment. A retrospective case series of five glaucoma patients under long-term topical bimatoprost treatment was evaluated. Documentation with photo and Hertel exophthalmometry was reviewed. In all five patients a deep lid sulcus, reduced infraocular fat pads and enophthalmos-suspicious Hertel values were found (mean 11.9 mm; SD 2.4). Other aetiologies for enophthalmos were excluded anamnestically and by clinical examination. Bimatoprost may lead to an alteration of the eyelid with deepening of the lid sulcus and may also be responsible for an iatrogenic orbital fat atrophy. A possible mechanism of action might be the induction of apoptosis of orbital fibroblasts with a remodelling of the extracellular matrix. Prospective studies are necessary to confirm this cross-sectional observation.
    Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde 06/2008; 225(5):443-5. DOI:10.1055/s-2008-1027362 · 0.46 Impact Factor
  • M S Tönz · V Rigamonti · M E Iliev ·
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    ABSTRACT: Polycythemia vera (PV) is a hemopoetic disorder. Apparently, although thrombosis accounts for the majority of morbidity, AION has not been associated with PV so far. PATIENT AND FINDINGS: A 63 y-old woman with PV was hospitalized because of acute liver failure. She also experienced bilateral painless loss of vision. Bilateral, pale optic disc swelling with flame-like hemorrhages, more pronounced in the right eye, constricted visual fields, and relative afferent papillary defect (RAPD) on the right side were present. Computer tomography scan revealed no signs of intraorbital pathology, elevated intracranial pressure or hemorrhages. We interpreted the findings as AION associated with the hyperviscosity syndrome. Liver transplantation had to be carried out in the next days. Three weeks later, vision improved slightly, but RAPD persisted, and disc pallor developed in both eyes. The patient died two months later. Central retinal artery and vein occlusions have been described as complications of Essential thrombocythemia, but not of PV. We observed a rare case of bilateral neuropathy suggestive of AION. This condition has so far not been associated with PV.
    Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde 06/2008; 225(5):504-6. DOI:10.1055/s-2008-1027304 · 0.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the performance of dynamic contour tonometry (DCT) and Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) in measuring intraocular pressure in eyes with irregular corneas. GAT and DCT measures were taken in 30 keratoconus and 29 postkeratoplasty eyes of 35 patients after pachymetry and corneal topography. Regression and correlation analyses were performed between both tonometry methods and between tonometry methods and corneal parameters. Bland-Altman plots were constructed. DCT values were significantly higher than GAT values in both study groups: +4.1 +/- 2.3 mm Hg (mean +/- SD) in keratoconus and +3.1 +/- 2.5 mm Hg after keratoplasty. In contrast to DCT, GAT values were significantly higher in postkeratoplasty eyes than in keratoconus. The correlation between the 2 tonometry methods was moderate in keratoconus (Kendall correlation coefficient, tau = 0.34) as well in postkeratoplasty eyes (tau = 0.66). The +/-1.96 SD span of the DCT-GAT differences showed a considerable range: -0.42 to +8.70 mm Hg in keratoconus and -1.87 to +7.98 mm Hg in postkeratoplasty eyes. In the keratoconus group, neither DCT nor GAT correlated significantly with any of the corneal parameters. In the postkeratoplasty group, both DCT and GAT measures showed a moderate positive correlation with corneal steepness, but only DCT had a significant negative correlation with the central corneal thickness (tau = -0.33). DCT measured significantly higher intraocular pressures than GAT in keratoconus and postkeratoplasty eyes. DCT and GAT measures varied considerably, and DCT was not less dependent on biomechanical properties of irregular corneas than GAT.
    Cornea 05/2008; 27(3):305-10. DOI:10.1097/ICO.0b013e31815dcf97 · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    M E Iliev · S Gerber ·
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    ABSTRACT: Long-term outcome and complications of diode laser cyclophotocoagulation (DCPC) may be important, since eyes, once treated with DCPC, are less likely to be subjected to other types of interventions in the further follow-up. Retrospective review of 131 eyes of 127 patients treated from 2000 through 2004. Success was defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) at last visit 6-21 mm Hg; hypotony: IOP </=5 mm Hg. Mean follow-up (FU) was 30.1 (SD 16.7) months. Mean number of treatment sessions per eye was 1.54, 89% of the eyes having 1 or 2 sessions; overall re-treatment rate: 38.9%. Mean total laser energy delivered per eye: 133.9 (73.7) J; mean energy per treatment episode: 86.8 (22.0) J. Eyes with 3 or more treatments (11%) had a significantly larger proportion of post-traumatic glaucoma, and patients were significantly younger. All eyes had refractory glaucomas on maximal medication, neovascular glaucoma (NVG) representing the largest subgroup (61%). IOP decreased from 36.9 (10.7) mm Hg pretreatment to 15.3 (10.4) mm Hg at the end of FU. Success was noted in 69.5% (91 eyes), failure (non-response) in 13%. Hypotony occurred in 17.6% eyes, of which 74% had NVG. Hypotony developed after mean 19.3 (11.0) months, range 6 to 36; with 96% of these eyes having received only 1 or 2 treatments; delivered energy did not differ from that in the successful eyes. DCPC is an efficient treatment for refractory glaucoma. Hypotony, the most common complication, may develop as late as 36 months post-treatment. Diagnostic category and age seem to influence the outcome stronger than laser protocol and delivered energy.
    The British journal of ophthalmology 12/2007; 91(12):1631-5. DOI:10.1136/bjo.2007.116533 · 2.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several conversion tables and formulas have been suggested to correct applanation intraocular pressure (IOP) for central corneal thickness (CCT). CCT is also thought to represent an independent glaucoma risk factor. In an attempt to integrate IOP and CCT into a unified risk factor and avoid uncertain correction for tonometric inaccuracy, a new pressure-to-cornea index (PCI) is proposed. PCI (IOP/CCT(3)) was defined as the ratio between untreated IOP and CCT(3) in mm (ultrasound pachymetry). PCI distribution in 220 normal controls, 53 patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG), 76 with ocular hypertension (OHT), and 89 with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) was investigated. PCI's ability to discriminate between glaucoma (NTG+POAG) and non-glaucoma (controls+OHT) was compared with that of three published formulae for correcting IOP for CCT. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were built. Mean PCI values were: Controls 92.0 (SD 24.8), NTG 129.1 (SD 25.8), OHT 134.0 (SD 26.5), POAG 173.6 (SD 40.9). To minimise IOP bias, eyes within the same 2 mm Hg range between 16 and 29 mm Hg (16-17, 18-19, etc) were separately compared: control and NTG eyes as well as OHT and POAG eyes differed significantly. PCI demonstrated a larger area under the ROC curve (AUC) and significantly higher sensitivity at fixed 80% and 90% specificities compared with each of the correction formulas; optimum PCI cut-off value 133.8. A PCI range of 120-140 is proposed as the upper limit of "normality", 120 being the cut-off value for eyes with untreated pressures <or=21 mm Hg, 140 when untreated pressure >or=22 mm Hg. PCI may reflect individual susceptibility to a given IOP level, and thus represent a glaucoma risk factor. Longitudinal studies are needed to prove its prognostic value.
    British Journal of Ophthalmology 10/2007; 91(10):1364-8. DOI:10.1136/bjo.2007.120980 · 2.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: To characterize genotype, phenotype, and age-related penetrance in a Swiss pedigree with juvenile open-angle glaucoma (JOAG). Methods: In a large Swiss family with history of glaucoma and 82 living members of four generations, we conducted molecular analysis and a detailed phenotype characterization in 52 family members. Mutation analysis was carried out using single-strand conformation polymorphism and DNA sequence analyses of the suspected candidate gene, myocilin (MYOC). Results: We detected a Gly367Arg mutation in the MYOC gene of 13 family members. Nine of them (69.2%) had glaucoma: mean IOP 35.3 mm Hg, range 24-50 mm Hg; mean age at diagnosis 34.9 years, range 28-51 years. Two mutation carriers were glaucoma suspects, one (age 15) was unaffected, and one (age 16) not available for clinical examinations. Age-related glaucoma penetrance was 50% at 30 and 78% at 40. Untreated IOP resulted in rapid disease progression, whereas good IOP control, usually only by means of filtration surgery, could stabilize the disease. None of the wild-type members had glaucoma. Conclusions: This Swiss family is the largest reported Gly367Arg pedigree to date. The exact genotype and phenotype characterization allowed a reliable risk and prognosis assessment and targeted eye-care planning for the family. The study demonstrates the importance of genetic investigations in glaucoma families, carrying the potential of long-term socio-economic benefits.
    Eye 06/2007; 22(7). DOI:10.1038/sj.eye.6702814 · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectif Étudier l’impact des cicatrices toxoplasmiques sur la fonction visuelle, en termes de réduction de l’acuité visuelle et de déficits du champ visuel. Matériels et Méthodes 61 patients porteurs de cicatrices quiescentes de toxoplasmose oculaire ont été inclus dans cette étude prospective et transversale. Un examen ophtalmologique complet avec rétinophotographies et un champ visuel automatisé (périmètre Octopus, programme G2) ont été réalisés. Les acuités visuelles ont été classées selon l’OMS : normale (≥ 8/10), baisse d’acuité visuelle légère (8/10 à 3/10), baisse d’acuité visuelle modérée (3/10 à 1/20) et baisse d’acuité visuelle sévère (<1/20). Les atteintes du champ visuel ont été classées selon la déviation moyenne (MD) : légères (MD < 4dB), modérées (MD 4 – 12dB) et sévères (MD > 12dB). Résultats 69 yeux ont été analysés. Le champ visuel était perturbé dans 65 yeux (94 %), alors que seulement 28 yeux (41 %) présentaient une baisse d’acuité visuelle (p < 0,001). La concordance de la localisation anatomique des cicatrices rétinochoroïdiennes était meilleure avec le champ visuel (présente dans 70 % des cas) par rapport à l’acuité visuelle (33 %). Conclusion La périmétrie automatisée semble bien mieux refléter les atteintes de la fonction visuelle liées à la toxoplasmose oculaire que la mesure de l’acuité visuelle.
    Journal Français d Ophtalmologie 04/2007; 30. DOI:10.1016/S0181-5512(07)79875-3 · 0.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess functional impairment in terms of visual acuity reduction and visual field defects in inactive ocular toxoplasmosis. 61 patients with known ocular toxoplasmosis in a quiescent state were included in this prospective, cross-sectional study. A complete ophthalmic examination, retinal photodocumentation and standard automated perimetry (Octopus perimeter, program G2) were performed. Visual acuity was classified on the basis of the World Health Organization definition of visual impairment and blindness: normal (> or =20/25), mild (20/25 to 20/60), moderate (20/60 to 20/400) and severe (<20/400). Visual field damage was correspondingly graded as mild (mean defect <4 dB), moderate (mean defect 4-12 dB) or severe (mean defect >12 dB). 8 (13%) patients presented with bilateral ocular toxoplasmosis. Thus, a total of 69 eyes was evaluated. Visual field damage was encountered in 65 (94%) eyes, whereas only 28 (41%) eyes had reduced visual acuity, showing perimetric findings to be more sensitive in detecting chorioretinal damage (p<0.001). Correlation with the clinical localisation of chorioretinal scars was better for visual field (in 70% of the instances) than for visual acuity (33%). Moderate to severe functional impairment was registered in 65.2% for visual field, and in 27.5% for visual acuity. In its quiescent stage, ocular toxoplasmosis was associated with permanent visual field defects in >94% of the eyes studied. Hence, standard automated perimetry may better reflect the functional damage encountered by ocular toxoplasmosis than visual acuity.
    British Journal of Ophthalmology 02/2007; 91(2):233-6. DOI:10.1136/bjo.2006.100925 · 2.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe a case series of neovascular glaucoma (NVG) caused by central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) that was treated with intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB; Avastin). Retrospective interventional case series. Six consecutive patients with NVG and a refractory, symptomatic elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) and pronounced anterior segment congestion received IVB (1.25 mg/0.05 ml). Diode laser cyclophotocoagulation was carried out only if pressure was controlled insufficiently by topical medication. Follow-up examinations occurred at four to 16 weeks. IVB resulted in a marked regression of anterior segment neovascularization and relief of symptoms within 48 hours. IOP decreased substantially in three eyes; in the other three eyes, adjuvant cyclophotocoagulation was necessary. No side effects were observed. Panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) was performed as soon as feasible, five to 12 weeks after IVB treatment. IVB leads to a rapid regression of iris and angle neovascularization and should be investigated more thoroughly as an adjunct in the management of NVG.
    American Journal of Ophthalmology 01/2007; 142(6):1054-6. DOI:10.1016/j.ajo.2006.06.066 · 3.87 Impact Factor
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    M E Iliev · A Meyenberg · J G Garweg ·
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    ABSTRACT: To compare morphometric parameters and diagnostic performance of the new Stratus Optical Coherence Tomograph (OCT) Disc mode and the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT); to evaluate OCT's accuracy in determining optic nerve head (ONH) borders. Controls and patients with ocular hypertension, glaucoma-like discs, and glaucoma were imaged with OCT Disc mode, HRT II, and colour disc photography (DISC-PHOT). In a separate session, automatically depicted ONH shape and size in OCT were compared with DISC-PHOT, and disc borders adjusted manually where required. In a masked fashion, all print-outs and photographs were studied and discs classified as normal, borderline, and abnormal. The Cohen kappa method was then applied to test for agreement of classification. Bland-Altman analysis was used for comparison of disc measures. In all, 49 eyes were evaluated. Automated disc margin recognition failed in 53%. Misplaced margin points were more frequently found in myopic eyes, but only 31/187 were located in an area of peripapillary atrophy. Agreement of OCT with photography-based diagnosis was excellent in normally looking ONHs, but moderate in discs with large cups, where HRT performed better. OCT values were consistently larger than HRT values for disc and cup area. Compared with HRT, small rim areas and volumes tended to be minimized by OCT, and larger ones to be magnified. Stratus OCT Disc protocol performed overall well in differentiating between normal and glaucomatous ONHs. However, failure of disc border recognition was frequently observed, making manual correction necessary. ONH measures cannot be directly compared between HRT and OCT.
    Eye 12/2006; 20(11):1288-99. DOI:10.1038/sj.eye.6702101 · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    M E Iliev · D Goldblum · K Katsoulis · C Amstutz · B Frueh ·
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    ABSTRACT: Rebound tonometry (RT) is performed without anaesthesia with a hand held device. The primary aim was to compare RT with Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) and to correlate with central corneal thickness (CCT). The secondary aim was to prove tolerability and practicability of RT under "study conditions" and "routine practice conditions." In group 1 (52 eyes/28 patients), all measurements were taken by the same physician, in the same room and order: non-contact optical pachymetry, RT, slit lamp inspection, GAT. Patients were questioned about discomfort or pain. In group 2 (49 eyes/27 patients), tonometry was performed by three other physicians during routine examinations. RT was well tolerated and safe. Intraocular pressure (IOP) ranged between 6 mm Hg and 48 mm Hg. No different trends were found between the groups. RT tended to give slightly higher readings: n = 101, mean difference 1.0 (SD 2.17) mm Hg; 84.1% of RT readings within plus or minus 3 mm Hg of GAT; 95% confidence interval in the Bland-Altman analysis -3.2 mm Hg to +5.2 mm Hg. Both RT and GAT showed a weak positive correlation with CCT (r2 0.028 and 0.025, respectively). RT can be considered a reliable alternative for clinical screening and in cases where positioning of the head at the slit lamp is impossible or topical preparations are to be avoided.
    British Journal of Ophthalmology 08/2006; 90(7):833-5. DOI:10.1136/bjo.2005.089870 · 2.98 Impact Factor
  • B K Windisch · M E Iliev ·
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    ABSTRACT: Ibopamine is a non-selective dopamine- and adrenalin-receptor agonist that has been shown to cause pupillary dilation and an increase in aqueous humour secretion. This novel drug can be used as a mydriatic agent, as a provocative test in open-angle glaucoma, and for the treatment of persisting ocular hypotony. This 47-year-old man had a history of uveitis associated with Crohn's disease. Six years after deep sclerectomy for uveitic secondary glaucoma, he developed severe hypotony in his left eye with drop of visual acuity (VA). The hypotony did not respond to topical steroid treatment. 2 % Ibopamine solution was ordered t. i. d. concomitant to 1 % prednisolone acetate. Intraocular pressure (IOP) began to rise after 3 weeks of Ibopamine treatment and returned to normal (12 mmHg) with continuous recovery of VA after 8 weeks. Ibopamine was discontinued at an IOP of 16 mmHg after a course of 12 weeks. IOP and VA remained stable during the 12-month follow-up period. Ibopamine 2 % eye drops in combination with topical steroids are a therapeutic option in uveitis-associated ocular hypotony.
    Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde 06/2006; 223(5):422-4. DOI:10.1055/s-2006-926574 · 0.46 Impact Factor
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    Dominic Schulz · Milko E Iliev · Beatrice E Frueh · David Goldblum ·
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the central corneal thickness (CCT) in living rats, mice and rabbits using a non-contact, high-speed optical low coherence reflectometer (OLCR) mounted on a regular slit lamp. Both eyes of eight male Wistar rats, eight male balb-c mice and eight male Japanese rabbits were measured. Each eye was measured twice (one measurement consists of 20 scans), the average calculated. Additionally, CCT was measured in rabbits using an ultrasound pachymeter. The mean CCT was: RATS: 159.08 microm (SD+/-14.99 microm), MICE: 106.0 microm (SD+/-3.45 microm) and RABBITS: 356.11 microm (SD+/-14.34 microm). With the use of OLCR we were able to accurately measure the CCT of rats, mice and rabbits in vivo. This technique may prove useful in further refractive, pharmacological and glaucoma studies.
    Vision Research 04/2003; 43(6):723-8. DOI:10.1016/S0042-6989(03)00005-1 · 1.82 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

608 Citations
31.94 Total Impact Points


  • 2007
    • Universität Bern
      Berna, Bern, Switzerland
    • Yale University
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2006-2007
    • Inselspital, Universitätsspital Bern
      • Department of Ophthalmology
      Bern, BE, Switzerland