[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: Little is known about the well-being on long-term exposure to antiretroviral therapy. The ACTG Augmented Symptoms Distress Module (ASDM) is a validated tool which measures the presence of a total of 22 symptoms seen with HIV and quantifies the extent to which they cause distress to the patient. Methods: ELBE was a cross-sectional study that consecutively included adult HIV-infected patients presenting with viral suppression (<50 HIV RNA copies/mL) and ART exposure for at least five years. Patients were evaluated by four different questionnaires, including ASDM. Results: Of a total of 894 patients included in the three participating ELBE centres, complete data on ASDM were available for 698 patients (626 male, 69 female, 3 transsexual). Median age was 49.7 years (range, 23.3-82.5 years) and median exposure to ART was 11.5 years (range, 5-28 years). Median CD4 T-cell counts had increased from a CD4 nadir of 180 to currently 640 cells/µL. Despite immunological and virological success, a high degree of symptom-related distress was noted in this patient population. In total, 63.8% and 36.3% of the patients had at least one "bothersome" or one "very bothersome" symptom, respectively. The symptoms most frequently reported to be "bothersome" or "very bothersome" were fatigue and energy loss (18.5% and 11.0% respectively), insomnia (12.8% and 11.6%), sadness and depression (13.0% and 10.0%), sexual dysfunction (12.0% and 10.0%), and changes in body appearance (11.0% and 10.9%). There was no association between the degree of symptom-related distress and gender, age or CD4 T-cell nadir. However, the history of AIDS-defining illnesses, comorbidities such as depression but also the duration of ART were significantly associated with a higher overall symptom summary score and with a higher frequency of symptoms. For example, in patients with at least 15 years of ART exposure, only 27.3% of the patients did not report at least one "bothersome" or "very bothersome" symptom. Conclusions: In this large group of positively selected HIV+ patients with virological success and long-term exposure to ART, a high degree of symptom-related distress was found. Medical care of HIV-infected patients should not only focus on optimal virological outcome. More data on quality of life in patients with long-term exposure to ART is needed.
Journal of the International AIDS Society 11/2014; 17(4(Suppl 3)):19673. · 4.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: Data on patients with long-term exposure to ART is scarce because controlled studies usually do not follow up patients for more than five to seven years. We were interested whether baseline parameters such as CD4 T-cell nadir or pre-treatment viraemia do have an impact on ART success after more than a decade of treatment. Methods: ELBE is a cross-sectional study on adult HIV+ patients presenting consecutively with viral suppression (<50 HIV RNA copies/mL) and with ART exposure of at least five years. In this sub-analysis, all patients with more than 10 years of ART exposure were evaluated for immune reconstitution and for intermittent transient viraemia (50-1000 copies/mL, defined as "blips") during the last five years. Results: From a total of 894 patients included in the three participating ELBE centres, 524 patients had an ART exposure of at least 10 years and had been treated continuously during the last 5 years. Of these, 33.4% had at least one "blip" while 63.5% did not show any transient viraemia of more than 50 copies/mL. Patients with at least one blip had a higher pre-treatment viraemia compared to patients without blips (5.30 versus 5.06 log copies/mL, p=0.0003). In patients with a pre-treatment viraemia of more than 100,000, 50,000-100,000 and less than 50,000 copies/mL, the proportions of patients with blips during the last five years were 39.5%, 30.5% and 21.8% (p=0.007), respectively. The history of an AIDS-defining illness or the CD4 T-cell nadir was not associated with a higher frequency of blips. However, CD4 T-cell nadir was a strong predictor for current CD4 T-cell counts. In patient groups with a CD4 T-cell nadir of 0-99, 100-199, 200-349, 350+ cells/µL, the median current CD4 T cells were 571, 667, 710 and 890 cells/µL, respectively. These differences remained significant when the analysis was restricted to patients with more than 15 years of ART exposure (n=268). Conclusions: In this large group of positively selected HIV+ patients with long-term exposure to ART of at least 10-15 years, high pre-treatment viraemia was still associated with a higher frequency of intermittent transient viraemia ("blip"). A low CD4 T-cell nadir remained associated with a lower CD4 cell recovery. The clinical implications of these findings remain to be evaluated.
Journal of the International AIDS Society 11/2014; 17(4(Suppl 3)):19689. · 4.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Present combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) alone does not cure HIV infection and requires lifelong drug treatment. The potential role of HIV therapeutic vaccines as part of an HIV cure is under consideration. Our aim was to assess the efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of Vacc-4x, a peptide-based HIV-1 therapeutic vaccine targeting conserved domains on p24(Gag), in adults infected with HIV-1.
Between July, 2008, and June, 2010, we did a multinational double-blind, randomised, phase 2 study comparing Vacc-4x with placebo. Participants were adults infected with HIV-1 who were aged 18-55 years and virologically suppressed on cART (viral load <50 copies per mL) with CD4 cell counts of 400 × 10(6) cells per L or greater. The trial was done at 18 sites in Germany, Italy, Spain, the UK, and the USA. Participants were randomly assigned (2:1) to Vacc-4x or placebo. Group allocation was masked from participants and investigators. Four primary immunisations, weekly for 4 weeks, containing Vacc-4x (or placebo) were given intradermally after administration of adjuvant. Booster immunisations were given at weeks 16 and 18. At week 28, cART was interrupted for up to 24 weeks. The coprimary endpoints were cART resumption and changes in CD4 counts during treatment interruption. Analyses were by modified intention to treat: all participants who received one intervention. Furthermore, safety, viral load, and immunogenicity (as measured by ELISPOT and proliferation assays) were assessed. The 52 week follow-up period was completed in June, 2011. For the coprimary endpoints the proportion of participants who met the criteria for cART resumption was analysed with a logistic regression model with the treatment effect being assessed in a model including country as a covariate. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00659789.
174 individuals were screened; because of slow recruitment, enrolment stopped with 136 of a planned 345 participants and 93 were randomly assigned to receive Vacc-4x and 43 to receive placebo. There were no differences between the two groups for the primary efficacy endpoints in those participants who stopped cART at week 28. Of the participants who resumed cART, 30 (34%) were in the Vacc-4x group and 11 (29%) in the placebo group, and percentage changes in CD4 counts were not significant (mean treatment difference -5·71, 95% CI -13·01 to 1·59). However, a significant difference in viral load was noted for the Vacc-4x group both at week 48 (median 23 100 copies per mL Vacc-4x vs 71 800 copies per mL placebo; p=0·025) and week 52 (median 19 550 copies per mL vs 51 000 copies per mL; p=0·041). One serious adverse event, exacerbation of multiple sclerosis, was reported as possibly related to study treatment. Vacc-4x was immunogenic, inducing proliferative responses in both CD4 and CD8 T-cell populations.
The proportion of participants resuming cART before end of study and change in CD4 counts during the treatment interruption showed no benefit of vaccination. Vacc-4x was safe, well tolerated, immunogenic, seemed to contribute to a viral-load setpoint reduction after cART interruption, and might be worth consideration in future HIV-cure investigative strategies.
Norwegian Research Council GLOBVAC Program and Bionor Pharma ASA.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases 02/2014; · 19.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidate F4/AS01 has previously been shown to induce potent and persistent polyfunctional CD4(+) T-cell responses in HIV-1-seronegative volunteers. This placebo-controlled study evaluated two doses of F4/AS01 1-month apart in antiretroviral treatment (ART)-experienced and ART-naïve HIV-1-infected subjects (1:1 randomisation in each cohort). Safety, HIV-1-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses, absolute CD4(+) T-cell counts and HIV-1 viral load were monitored for 12 months post-vaccination. Reactogenicity was clinically acceptable and no vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported. The frequency of HIV-1-specific CD4(+) T-cells 2 weeks post-dose 2 was significantly higher in the vaccine group than in the placebo group in both cohorts (p<0.05). Vaccine-induced HIV-1-specific CD4(+) T-cells exhibited a polyfunctional phenotype, expressing at least CD40L and IL-2. No increase in HIV-1-specific CD8(+) T-cells or change in CD8(+) T-cell activation marker expression profile was detected. Absolute CD4(+) T-cell counts were variable over time in both cohorts. Viral load remained suppressed in ART-experienced subjects. In ART-naïve subjects, a transient reduction in viral load from baseline was observed 2 weeks after the second F4/AS01 dose, which was concurrent with a higher frequency of HIV-1-specific CD4(+) T-cells expressing at least IL-2 in this cohort. In conclusion, F4/AS01 showed a clinically acceptable reactogenicity and safety profile, and induced polyfunctional HIV-1-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses in ART-experienced and ART-naïve subjects. These findings support further clinical investigation of F4/AS01 as a potential HIV-1 vaccine for therapeutic use in individuals with HIV-1 infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV infection is a risk factor for the development of Herpes zoster (HZ) and its complications. Prior to antiretroviral therapy (ART), HZ incidence in HIV-infected individuals ranged from 2.9--5.1/100 person-years. There is limited evidence for the impact of ART on HZ occurrence among HIV-infected adults. We analysed the incidence of, and risk factors for, HZ in a large cohort of German HIV-positive patients.
The study population was taken from the German KompNet cohort, a nationwide multicenter HIV cohort study. The study population was defined by age (>= 18 years), year of first positive HIV diagnosis, CD4 values +/- 6 months from HIV diagnosis (tau0), and month of HZ diagnosis. Incidences were estimated using a Poisson distribution, and uni- and multivariate Cox proportional Hazard ratio (HR) regression models were fitted to identify risk factors for developing an initial HZ episode. Independent variables were sex, age at HIV diagnosis, route of HIV transmission, ART status, CD4 count before HZ episode, immunosuppressive medication, and mode of data documentation (retrospective or prospective).
HZ incidence in the overall study population was 1.2/100 person-years. In a subset of patients for that we were able to examine risk factors the following was observed: We examined 3,757 individuals whose mean age at t0 was 38 years. Of those individuals, 96% were diagnosed with HIV in 1996 or later, with a mean observation time of 5.8 years. HZ episodes (n = 362) were recorded in 326 patients (8.7%), resulting in annual HZ incidences of 1.7/100 person-years overall, and 1.6/100 person-years for initial HZ cases. The main risk factors associated with an initial HZ episode were: not partaking in ART compared with an ART regimen containing a non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (HR 0.530, p < 0.001) or a protease inhibitor (HR 0.624, p = 0.004); and lower CD4 count by 100 cells/mul (HR 0.918, p=0.001).
HZ incidence was 4-11-fold higher than in non HIV-infected individuals, but in our study HZ incidences were lower than in previous studies. We showed that ART is an important protective factor for HZ episodes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Once-daily (qd) antiretroviral therapies improve convenience and adherence. If found to be effective, nevirapine extended release (NVP XR) will confer this benefit. The TRANxITION trial examined the efficacy and safety of switching virologically suppressed patients from NVP immediate release (NVP IR) 200 mg twice daily to NVP XR 400 mg qd.
An open-label, parallel-group, noninferiority, randomized (2:1 NVP XR:NVP IR) study was performed. Adult HIV-1-infected patients receiving NVP IR plus a fixed-dose nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) combination of lamivudine (3TC)/abacavir (ABC), tenofovir (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC) or 3TC/zidovudine (ZDV) with undetectable viral load (VL) were enrolled in the study. The primary endpoint was continued virological suppression with VL < 50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL up to week 24 (calculated using a time to loss of virological response algorithm). Cochran's statistic (background regimen adjusted) was used to test noninferiority. Adverse events (AEs) were recorded.
Among 443 randomized patients, continued virological suppression was observed in 93.6% (276 of 295) of NVP XR- and 92.6% (137 of 148) of NVP IR-treated patients, an observed difference of 1% [95% confidence interval (CI) -4.3, 6.0] at 24 weeks of follow-up. Noninferiority (adjusted margin of -10%) of NVP XR to NVP IR was robust and further supported by SNAPSHOT analysis. Division of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (DAIDS) grade 3 and 4 events were similar for the NVP XR and NVP IR groups (3.7 vs. 4.1%, respectively), although overall AEs were higher in the NVP XR group (75.6 vs. 60.1% for the NVP-IR group).
NVP XR administered once daily resulted in continued virological suppression at week 24 that was noninferior to that provided by NVP IR, with similar rates of moderate and severe AEs. The higher frequency of overall AEs with NVP XR may be a consequence of the open-label design.
HIV Medicine 12/2011; 13(4):236-44. · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND/AIM OF THE STUDY: The study aimed to determine the cost impacts of antiretroviral drugs by analysing a long-term follow-up of direct costs for combined antiretroviral therapy, cART, -regimens in the nationwide long-term observational multi-centre German HIV ClinSurv Cohort. The second aim was to develop potential cost saving strategies by modelling different treatment scenarios.
Antiretroviral regimens (ART) from 10,190 HIV-infected patients from 11 participating ClinSurv study centres have been investigated since 1996. Biannual data cART-initiation, cART-changes, surrogate markers, clinical events and the Centre of Disease Control- (CDC)-stage of HIV disease are reported. Treatment duration was calculated on a daily basis via the documented dates for the beginning and end of each antiretroviral drug treatment. Prices were calculated for each individual regimen based on actual office sales prices of the branded pharmaceuticals distributed by the license holder including German taxes.
During the 13-year follow-up period, 21,387,427 treatment days were covered. Cumulative direct costs for antiretroviral drugs of €812,877,356 were determined according to an average of €42.08 per day (€7.52 to € 217.70). Since cART is widely used in Germany, the costs for an entire regimen increased by 13.5%. Regimens are more expensive in the advanced stages of HIV disease. The potential for cost savings was calculated using non-nucleotide-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor, NNRTI, more frequently instead of ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor, PI/r, in first line therapy. This calculation revealed cumulative savings of 10.9% to 19.8% of daily treatment costs (50% and 90% substitution of PI/r, respectively). Substituting certain branded drugs by generic drugs showed potential cost savings of between 1.6% and 31.8%.
Analysis of the data of this nationwide study reflects disease-specific health services research and will give insights into the cost impacts of antiretroviral therapy, and might allow a more rational allocation of resources within the German health care system.
PLoS ONE 09/2011; 6(9):e23946. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nevirapine (NVP) is a widely used non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. A once-daily extended-release (XR) formulation would potentially increase adherence and thus efficacy.
The aim of this study was to investigate the steady-state bioavailability of 2 once-daily tablet formulations of NVP XR (containing 25% or 20% hypromellose; NVP XR25 and NVP XR20, respectively) in 400- or 300-mg tablets compared with twice-daily immediate-release (IR) NVP 200-mg tablets.
This Phase Ib multinational, multicenter, open-label trial was conducted in patients aged 18 to 60 years, infected with HIV-1 (viral load, ≤50 copies/mL), and treated for ≥12 weeks with twice-daily NVP IR 200 mg. Patients were switched to NVP XR25 400 or 300 mg or NVP XR20 400 or 300 mg for 19 days. Plasma samples were collected over 24-hour periods at steady state. Primary end points were AUC(0-24,ss), C(max,ss), and C(min,ss), analyzed using an ANOVA statistical model on the logarithmic scale and 2-sided 90% CI. Sample size was determined assuming an intrasubject %CV of 20% for C(max). Adverse events (AEs) and viral loads were monitored.
Ninety-two patients were enrolled (NVP XR25 400 mg, 24 patients; NVP XR20 400 mg, 24; NVP XR25 300 mg, 21; NVP XR20 300 mg, 23). Compared with NVP IR, the AUC(0-24,ss) values of the NVP XR formulations were lower (test/reference ratios: 79.5% [90% CI, 73.0-86.7; P = 0.544], 71.0% [90% CI, 63.3-79.7; P = 0.956], 90.3% [90% CI, 80.4-101.4; P = 0.044], and 83.7% [90% CI, 77.9-89.9; P = 0.148] with NVP XR25 400 mg, NVP XR20 400 mg, NVP XR25 300 mg, and NVP XR20 300 mg, respectively). The relative bioavailability of NVP XR25 was greater compared with that of NVP XR20. C(max,ss) values were lower with all NVP XR formulations compared with NVP IR. For C(min,ss), NVP XR25 400 and 300 mg were not significantly different from NVP IR, with 90% CIs within the range of 80% to 125% (P = 0.039 and P = 0.017, respectively). All AEs were mild or moderate, with no significant differences between treatment groups. No virologic failures (viral load, >50 copies/mL over 2 consecutive readings) were observed.
Extent of bioavailability was lower and t(max,ss) was delayed with all NVP XR formulations compared with NVP IR. The bioavailability of the NVP XR25 formulations was greater than that of the NVP XR20 formulations. C(min,ss) with NVP XR25 was similar to that with NVP IR. All of the NVP XR formulations were well tolerated. The 400-mg NVP XR25 formulation was selected for further development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hitherto, studies on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) initiation have shown partly inconsistent results. Our study investigated the clinical course and course of immune status after HAART initiation at CD4-cell-count/μl of treated patients between 250 and 349 (group 1), compared to 350-449 (group 2), on the basis of the cohort of the Competence Network for HIV/AIDS (KompNet cohort).
Patients had to be HAART-naïve. Medication had to start at the earliest in 1996, being at least triple combination therapy. The primary endpoints of death, first AIDS-defining illness and first drop of CD4-cell-count/μl below 200 were evaluated as censored event times between the initiation of HAART (t (0)) and the date of the first event/date of last observation. Probabilities of event-free intervals since t (0) were calculated by Kaplan-Meier estimation, compared by logrank tests. The results were adjusted for confounders using Cox regression. Additionally, incidences were estimated.
A total of 822 patients met the inclusion criteria (group 1: 526, group 2: 296), covering 4,133 patient years (py) overall. In group 1, 0.64 death cases/100 py were found, with the corresponding vale being 0.17 in group 2. In group 1, 1.38 AIDS-defining events/100 py occurred, whereas it was 0.78 in group 2. In group 1, 2.64 events of first drop of CD4-cell-count/μl below 200 occurred per 100 py, compared to 0.77 in group 2. Kaplan-Meier estimations showed borderline significant differences regarding death (p = 0.063), no differences regarding first AIDS-defining illness (p = 0.148) and distinct differences regarding the first drop of CD4-cell-count/μl below 200 (p = 0.0004).
The results gave a strong hint for a therapy initiation at higher CD4-cell-count/μl regarding the outcome of death in treated patients. A distinct benefit was shown regarding the first decline of CD4-cell-count/μl below 200.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical studies suggest expert recommendations as a possibility to optimize highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in patients with multi-drug resistant virus strains. An online system (RADATA) has been developed to provide expert advice for the drug therapy of HIV-infected patients.
To evaluate the efficacy of expert-advice-guided HAART switches in patients with triple-class failure.
Virological and immunological outcome of patients having undergone at least three prior ART regimens, including nucleoside inhibitor (NRTI), nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), and protease inhibitor (PI) use, were analyzed. Changes in HIV-RNA and CD4-cell count were evaluated every 3 months.
183 patients with a median baseline viral load of 3.90 log copies/ml (1.88-6.54 log) and a CD4-cell count of 298 c/ll (5-910 c/ll) were eligible for analysis. The patients had a median of seven prior ART regimens and a treatment duration of 83 months. A median of three (range 0-8) NRTI-, two (0-7) thymidine-associated (TA), one (0-4) NNRTI-, and three (0-13) PI-associated resistance mutations were present at baseline. Despite available resistance analyses and expert recommendations, 66% (n = 119) of the patients started a new ART regimen without any active drugs according to the resistance analysis. The HIV-RNA declined by a median of 0.61 log and 0.92 log after 12 and 24 months, respectively, while the CD4-cell count rose by a median of +9 c/microl and +25 c/microl during this period. No significant differences related to number of prior regimens or number of active substances used could be found.
Despite extensive pre-treatment and multiple resistances against prescribed HAART, our patients demonstrated a decline in viral load and a stable CD4-cell count over the observation period. We conclude that the activity of antiretroviral regimens is not exclusively explained by the current algorithms used for estimating antiretroviral drug activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Used in combination with antiretroviral therapy, subcutaneous recombinant interleukin-2 raises CD4+ cell counts more than does antiretroviral therapy alone. The clinical implication of these increases is not known.
We conducted two trials: the Subcutaneous Recombinant, Human Interleukin-2 in HIV-Infected Patients with Low CD4+ Counts under Active Antiretroviral Therapy (SILCAAT) study and the Evaluation of Subcutaneous Proleukin in a Randomized International Trial (ESPRIT). In each, patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who had CD4+ cell counts of either 50 to 299 per cubic millimeter (SILCAAT) or 300 or more per cubic millimeter (ESPRIT) were randomly assigned to receive interleukin-2 plus antiretroviral therapy or antiretroviral therapy alone. The interleukin-2 regimen consisted of cycles of 5 consecutive days each, administered at 8-week intervals. The SILCAAT study involved six cycles and a dose of 4.5 million IU of interleukin-2 twice daily; ESPRIT involved three cycles and a dose of 7.5 million IU twice daily. Additional cycles were recommended to maintain the CD4+ cell count above predefined target levels. The primary end point of both studies was opportunistic disease or death from any cause.
In the SILCAAT study, 1695 patients (849 receiving interleukin-2 plus antiretroviral therapy and 846 receiving antiretroviral therapy alone) who had a median CD4+ cell count of 202 cells per cubic millimeter were enrolled; in ESPRIT, 4111 patients (2071 receiving interleukin-2 plus antiretroviral therapy and 2040 receiving antiretroviral therapy alone) who had a median CD4+ cell count of 457 cells per cubic millimeter were enrolled. Over a median follow-up period of 7 to 8 years, the CD4+ cell count was higher in the interleukin-2 group than in the group receiving antiretroviral therapy alone--by 53 and 159 cells per cubic millimeter, on average, in the SILCAAT study and ESPRIT, respectively. Hazard ratios for opportunistic disease or death from any cause with interleukin-2 plus antiretroviral therapy (vs. antiretroviral therapy alone) were 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.70 to 1.18; P=0.47) in the SILCAAT study and 0.94 (95% CI, 0.75 to 1.16; P=0.55) in ESPRIT. The hazard ratios for death from any cause and for grade 4 clinical events were 1.06 (P=0.73) and 1.10 (P=0.35), respectively, in the SILCAAT study and 0.90 (P=0.42) and 1.23 (P=0.003), respectively, in ESPRIT.
Despite a substantial and sustained increase in the CD4+ cell count, as compared with antiretroviral therapy alone, interleukin-2 plus antiretroviral therapy yielded no clinical benefit in either study. (ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00004978 [ESPRIT] and NCT00013611 [SILCAAT study].)
New England Journal of Medicine 10/2009; 361:1548-59. · 54.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper, we describe the main objectives, the study design and the onset of the patient cohort of the German Competence Network for HIV/AIDS (KompNet) (www.kompetenznetz-hiv.de). Furthermore, we depict sociodemographic and clinical baseline characteristics and an estimation of the coverage and representativity as to the composition of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Germany.
The KompNet cohort is an open, retrospective and prospective, multicenter, disease-specific and nationwide cohort study that started gathering data in June 2004. Semi-annually, follow up visits of the patients are documented, covering clinical and sociodemographic data. At enrolment and three years afterwards, an EDTA-sample is taken; a serum-sample is taken at every follow up visit.
As of 14.9.2008, a total of 15,541 patients were enrolled by 44 documenting sites. In September 2007, the cohort size was reduced to 10 outpatient clinics and fifteen private practitioners, covering a total of 9,410 patients. The documentation of these patients comprises 24,117 years of follow up-time since enrolment (mean: 2.6 years), 62,862 person years inclusive data documented retrospectively on course of HIV-infection and combined antiretroviral therapy (cART, mean: 6.7 years). 1,008 patients (10.7%) were lost to follow up and 175 (1.9%) died since enrolment. 84.9% of patients were men. Main risks of transmission were sex between men (MSM: 62.9%), heterosexual contacts (18.4%), intravenous drug use (IVDU: 7.0%) and origin from a high prevalence country (HPL: 5.2%). Mean age was 45 years.
The KompNet cohort covers about a quarter of all patients being under treatment in Germany. The composition of the cohort represents well the most important risks of transmission in Germany. The cohort contains a high proportion of patients being older than 49 years (28.1%). On basis of its comprehensive database and its biomaterials banks, the KompNet cohort serves as an important instrument to monitor and analyse the effects of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) in Germany, interdigidating basis, clinical and psychosocial research in view to translational research.
European journal of medical research 09/2009; 14(8):323-31. · 1.40 Impact Factor
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[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The KLEAN study extension assessed the long-term efficacy and safety of fosamprenavir-ritonavir (FPV/r) and lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV/r), both administered with abacavir/lamivudine (ABC/3TC) fixed dose combination, over 144 weeks.
KLEAN was an open-label, noninferiority study that randomised antiretroviral-naïve patients to FPV/r twice daily (bid) or LPV/r bid with ABC/3TC once daily (qd). Patients with a viral load of <400 copies/mL at Week 48 were eligible to participate in the KLEAN study extension (up to 144 weeks) and continued with their previously randomised therapy.
The KLEAN study extension (48 to 144 weeks) randomized 199 patients. The proportion of TLOVR responders (HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL) at Week 144 was 73% and 60% in the FPV/r and LPV/r arms, respectively. The proportion of TLOVR responders (<50 copies/mL) was the same irrespective of baseline HIV-1 RNA (>100,000 or 100,000 copies/mL). The Week 144 median (interquartile range) change from baseline CD4+ cell count was 300 (236-433) cells/mm3 and 335 (225-444) cells/mm3 in the FPV/r and LPV/r arms, respectively. Diarrhea was the most frequently reported adverse event. A small proportion of patients (FPV/r, 13%; LPV/r, 9%) discontinued study medication due to adverse events. Three patients (FPV/r, 1; LPV/r, 2) experienced virological failure between Week 48 and Week 144.
The findings of the KLEAN study extension (48 to 144 weeks) support durable viral suppression with both FPV/r and LPV/r treatment regimens when used in combination with ABC/3TC irrespective of viral load at baseline. Both regimens were well tolerated and had similar safety profiles.
HIV Clinical Trials 01/2009; 10(2):76-87. · 2.14 Impact Factor