A J Rivett

University of Bristol, Bristol, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (81)296.18 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In our previous studies we have shown that bacterial enterotoxin B subunits are effective vehicles to deliver antigen into the MHC class I processing route. Here we have used the non-toxic Escherichia coli heat labile enterotoxin B subunit (EtxB) conjugated to OVA peptide (EtxB-peptide) to address the impact on induction of specific CD8(+) T cells in vivo. Although incubation of DCs with these EtxB-peptide conjugates as such did not induce DC maturation in vitro MHC class I antigen presentation was much more efficient as compared to peptide alone. Antigen presentation was further enhanced upon DC maturation with the TLR-4 ligand LPS. Injection of matured DCs incubated with EtxB-peptide conjugates lead to strong induction of OVA-specific CD8(+) T lymphocytes and fully prevented the outgrowth of lethal B16 melanoma in wild type mice. Our data demonstrate that bacterial non-toxic B subunit-peptide conjugates are potent vaccine vehicles for induction of protective CD8(+) T cell responses.
    Vaccine 09/2009; 27(38):5252-8. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Normal human fibroblasts undergo replicative senescence due to both genetic and environmental factors. Senescence and aging can be further accelerated by exposure of cells to a variety of oxidative agents that contribute among other effects to the accumulation of damaged proteins. The proteasome, a multicatalytic nonlysosomal protease, has impaired function during aging, while its increased expression delays senescence in human fibroblasts. The aim of this study was to identify natural compounds that enhance proteasome activity and exhibit antiaging properties. We demonstrate that oleuropein, the major constituent of Olea europea leaf extract, olive oil and olives, enhances the proteasome activities in vitro stronger than other known chemical activators, possibly through conformational changes of the proteasome. Moreover, continuous treatment of early passage human embryonic fibroblasts with oleuropein decreases the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduces the amount of oxidized proteins through increased proteasome-mediated degradation rates and retains proteasome function during replicative senescence. Importantly, oleuropein-treated cultures exhibit a delay in the appearance of senescence morphology and their life span is extended by approximately 15%. In summary, these data demonstrate the beneficial effect of oleuropein on human fibroblasts undergoing replicative senescence and provide new insights towards enhancement of cellular antioxidant mechanisms by natural compounds that can be easily up-taken through normal diet.
    Rejuvenation Research 07/2007; 10(2):157-72. · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have investigated immunoproteasomes in human fibroblasts during replicative senescence. Unlike levels of constitutive proteasome catalytic subunits and 26S proteasome regulatory subunits, levels of immunosubunits did not decrease dramatically in senescent cells. However, the induction of immunosubunits by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) was lost in senescent cells. In contrast, levels of the 11S proteasome regulator, PA28, were increased by IFN-gamma even in senescent cells, and both immunosubunits and PA28 increased with the reversible growth arrest in confluent cell cultures. The results highlight differences in the mechanisms of regulation of immunoproteasomes compared to constitutive proteasomes and in the irreversible growth arrest of senescent cells compared to reversible contact-induced growth arrest.
    FEBS Letters 08/2006; 580(16):3989-94. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The natural compound tyropeptin A, a new peptidyl aldehyde proteasome inhibitor, was tested for its trypanocidal activity in vitro using culture-adapted bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei. The concentrations of tyropeptin A required to reduce the growth rate by 50 % and to kill all cells were 10 and 100 times lower for bloodstream-form trypanosomes than for human leukaemia HL-60 cells, respectively. Enzymatic analysis showed that the trypsin-like activity of the trypanosome proteasome and the chymotrypsin-like activity of the mammalian proteasome are particularly sensitive to inhibition by tyropeptin A. The results suggest that natural compounds targeting the trypsin-like activity of the proteasome may serve as leads for rational drug development of novel anti-trypanosomal agents.
    Planta Medica 07/2006; 72(8):761-3. · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The immunoproteasome subunit low molecular weight protein 2 (LMP2) codon 60 polymorphism has been associated with autoimmune diseases. It has also been demonstrated to influence susceptibility to TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis in blood cells and proteasome activity in aged human brain. In the present study, an in silico model of immunoproteasome was used to examine the effect of the R60H polymorphism in the LMP2 subunit. The investigation of immunoproteasome expression, activity and intracellular localisation in an in vitro cellular model, namely lymphoblastoid cell lines, showed no major variations in functionality and amount, while a significant difference in antibody affinity was apparent. These data were integrated with previous results obtained in different tissues and combined with a structural model of the LMP2 polymorphism. Accordingly, we identified three prospective mechanisms that could explain the biological data for the polymorphism, such as modulation of the binding affinity of a putative non-catalytic modifier site on the external surface of the immunoproteasome core, or the modification of any channel between alpha and beta rings.
    Biological Chemistry 05/2006; 387(4):417-29. · 2.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recognition of specific substrates for degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is ensured by a cascade of ubiquitin transferases E1, E2 and E3. The mechanism by which the target proteins are transported to the proteasome is not clear, but two yeast E3s and one mammalian E3 ligase seem to be involved in the delivery of targets to the proteasome, by escorting them and by binding to the 19 S regulatory particle of the proteasome. In the present study, we show that SNEV (senescence evasion factor), a protein with in vitro E3 ligase activity, which is also involved in DNA repair and splicing, associates with the proteasome by directly binding to the beta7 subunit of the 20 S proteasome. Upon inhibition of proteasome activity, SNEV does not accumulate within the cells although its co-localization with the proteasome increases significantly. Since immunofluorescence microscopy also shows increased co-localization of SNEV with ubiquitin after proteasome inhibition, without SNEV being ubiquitinated by itself, we suggest that SNEV shows E3 ligase activity not only in vitro but also in vivo and escorts its substrate to the proteasome. Since the yeast homologue of SNEV, Prp19, also interacts with the yeast beta7 subunit of the proteasome, this mechanism seems to be conserved during evolution. Therefore these results support the hypothesis that E3 ligases might generally be involved in substrate transport to the proteasome. Additionally, our results provide the first evidence for a physical link between components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system and the spliceosome.
    Biochemical Journal 07/2005; 388(Pt 2):593-603. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The proteasome is the major cellular proteolytic machinery responsible for the degradation of both normal and damaged proteins. Proteasomes play a fundamental role in retaining cellular homeostasis. Alterations of proteasome function have been recorded in various biological phenomena including aging. We have recently shown that the decrease in proteasome activity in senescent human fibroblasts relates to the down-regulation of beta-type subunits. In this study we have followed our preliminary observation by developing and further characterizing a number of different human cell lines overexpressing the beta5 subunit. Stable overexpression of the beta5 subunit in WI38/T and HL60 cells resulted in elevated levels of other beta-type subunits and increased levels of all three proteasome activities. Immunoprecipitation experiments have shown increased levels of assembled proteasomes in stable clones. Analysis by gel filtration has revealed that the recorded higher level of proteasome assembly is directly linked to the efficient integration of "free" (not integrated) alpha-type subunits identified to accumulate in vector-transfected cells. In support we have also found low proteasome maturation protein levels in beta5 transfectants, thus revealing an increased rate/level of proteasome assembly in these cells as opposed to vector-transfected cells. Functional studies have shown that beta5-overexpressing cell lines confer enhanced survival following treatment with various oxidants. Moreover, we demonstrate that this increased rate of survival is due to higher degradation rates following oxidative stress. Finally, because oxidation is considered to be a major factor that contributes to aging and senescence, we have overexpressed the beta5 subunit in primary IMR90 human fibroblasts and observed a delay of senescence by 4-5 population doublings. In summary, these data demonstrate the phenotypic effects following genetic up-regulation of the proteasome and provide insights toward a better understanding of proteasome regulation.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2005; 280(12):11840-50. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The B-subunit component of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (EtxB), which binds to cell surface GM1 ganglioside receptors, was recently shown to be a highly effective vehicle for delivery of conjugated peptides into the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I pathway. In this study we have investigated the pathway of epitope delivery. The peptides used contained the epitope either located at the C terminus or with a C-terminal extension. Pretreatment of cells with cholesterol-disrupting agents blocked transport of EtxB conjugates to the Golgi/endoplasmic reticulum, but did not affect EtxB-mediated MHC class I presentation. Under these conditions, EtxB conjugates entered EEA1-positive early endosomes where peptides were cleaved and translocated into the cytosol. Endosome acidification was required for epitope presentation. Purified 20 S immunoproteasomes were able to generate the epitope from peptides in vitro, but 26 S proteasomes were not. Only presentation from the C-terminal extended peptide was proteasome-dependent in cells, and this was found to be significantly slower than presentation from peptides with the epitope at the C terminus. These results implicate the proteasome in the generation of the correct C terminus of the epitope and are consistent with proteasome-independent N-terminal trimming. Epitope presentation was blocked in a TAP-deficient cell line, providing further evidence that conjugated peptides enter the cytosol as well as demonstrating a requirement for the peptide transporter. Our findings demonstrate the utility of EtxB-mediated peptide delivery for rapid and efficient loading of MHC class I epitopes in several different cell types. Conjugated peptides are released from early endosomes into the cytosol where they gain access to proteasomes and TAP in the "classical" pathway of class I presentation.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2005; 279(49):51315-22. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that the proteasome of Trypanosoma brucei is a candidate for novel chemotherapy of African sleeping sickness. In this study, two potent and highly selective alpha',beta'-epoxyketones peptide proteasome inhibitors, epoxomicin and YU101, have been tested for their trypanocidal activities in vitro using culture-adapted bloodstream forms of T. brucei. Both inhibitors displayed promising anti-trypanosomal activities with ED(50) and ED(90) values in the low to mid nanomolar range. Based on MIC values, epoxomicin exhibited a selectivity index approaching those of commercially available drugs. Enzymatic analyses of proteasomal peptidase activities revealed that, compared with mammalian cells, trypanosomes are particular sensitive to inhibition of the trypsin-like activity of the proteasome. In conclusion, the data suggests that proteasome inhibitors targeting the trypsin-like activity are the rational choice for future anti-trypanosomal drug development.
    International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 10/2004; 24(3):286-9. · 4.42 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Biological Chemistry. 08/2004;
  • A Jennifer Rivett, Arron R Hearn
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    ABSTRACT: Proteasomes are the major nonlysosomal protein degradation machinery in eukaryotic cells and they are largely responsible for the processing of antigens for presentation by the MHC class I pathway. This review concentrates on recent developments in the area of antigen processing. Specialized proteasomes called immunoproteasomes and an 11S regulator of proteasomes (PA28) are induced by interferon-gamma, but it is not entirely clear why changes in proteasome structure are beneficial for antigen presentation. Different proteasome complexes have distinct subcellular distributions and subtle differences in cleavage specificity. Thus it is likely that the efficiency of production of MHC class I binding peptides varies in different locations. Immunoproteasome subunits are enriched at the ER where TAP transports peptides for association with newly synthesized MHC class I molecules. There is recent evidence to suggest that antigen presentation from viral expression vectors, or from peptides that are either delivered by bacterial toxins or derived from signal peptides, require proteasome activity for generation of the correct C-terminus of the epitope. The correct N-terminus may be generated by recently identified ER associated aminopeptidases. A number of viral protein interactions with proteasome subunits have been reported and such interactions may interfere with host anti-viral defenses and also contribute to mechanisms of cell transformation.
    Current Protein and Peptide Science 07/2004; 5(3):153-61. · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In animal cells there are several regulatory complexes which interact with 20S proteasomes and give rise to functionally distinct proteasome complexes. gamma-Interferon upregulates three immuno beta catalytic subunits of the 20S proteasome and the PA28 regulator, and decreases the level of 26S proteasomes. It also decreases the level of phosphorylation of two proteasome alpha subunits, C8 (alpha7) and C9 (alpha3). In the present study we have investigated the role of phosphorylation of C8 by protein kinase CK2 in the formation and stability of 26S proteasomes. An epitope-tagged C8 subunit expressed in mammalian cells was efficiently incorporated into both 20S proteasomes and 26S proteasomes. Investigation of mutants of C8 at the two known CK2 phosphorylation sites demonstrated that these are the two phosphorylation sites of C8 in animal cells. Although phosphorylation of C8 was not absolutely essential for the formation of 26S proteasomes, it did have a substantial effect on their stability. Also, when cells were treated with gamma-interferon, there was a marked decrease in phosphorylation of C8, a decrease in the level of 26S proteasomes, and an increase in immunoproteasomes and PA28 complexes. These results suggest that the down-regulation of 26S proteasomes after gamma-interferon treatment results from the destabilization that occurs after dephosphorylation of the C8 subunit.
    Biochemical Journal 03/2004; 378(Pt 1):177-84. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The contribution of the main proteolytic pathways to the degradation of long-lived proteins in human fibroblasts grown under different conditions was investigated. The effects of various commonly used pharmacological inhibitors of protein degradation were first analysed in detail. By choosing specific inhibitors of lysosomes and proteasomes, it was observed that together both pathways accounted for 80% or more of the degradation of cell proteins. With lysosomal inhibitors, it was found that serum withdrawal or amino-acid deprivation strongly stimulated macroautophagy but not other lysosomal pathways, whereas confluent conditions had no effect on macroautophagy and slightly activated other lysosomal pathways. Prolonged (24 h) serum starvation of confluent cultures strongly decreased the macroautophagic pathway, whereas the activity of other lysosomal pathways increased. These changes correlated with electron microscopic observations and morphometric measurements of lysosomes. With proteasomal inhibitors, it was found that, in exponentially growing cells in the absence of serum, activity of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway increases, whereas under confluent conditions the contribution (in percentage) of proteasomes to degradation decreases, especially in cells deprived of amino acids. Interestingly, in confluent cells, the levels of two components of the 19 S regulatory complex and those of an interchangeable beta-subunit decreased. This was associated with a marked increase in the levels of components of PA28-immunoproteasomes. Thus confluent conditions affect proteasomes in a way that resembles treatment with interferon-gamma. Altogether, these results show that the activity of the various proteolytic pathways depends on the growth conditions of cells and will be useful for investigation of the specific signals that control their activity.
    Biochemical Journal 11/2003; 375(Pt 1):75-86. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PRH (proline-rich homeodomain protein)/Hex is important in the control of cell proliferation and differentiation. We have shown previously that PRH contains two domains that can bring about transcriptional repression independently; the PRH homeodomain represses transcription by binding to TATA box sequences, whereas the proline-rich N-terminal domain can repress transcription by interacting with members of the Groucho/TLE (transducin-like enhancer of split) family of co-repressor proteins. The proteasome is a multi-subunit protein complex involved in the processing and degradation of proteins. Some proteasome subunits have been suggested to play a role in the regulation of transcription. In the present study, we show that PRH interacts with the HC8 subunit of the proteasome in the context of both 20 and 26 S proteasomes. Moreover, we show that PRH is associated with the proteasome in haematopoietic cells and that the proline-rich PRH N-terminal domain is responsible for this interaction. Whereas PRH can be cleaved by the proteasome, it does not appear to be degraded rapidly in vitro or in vivo, and the proteolytic activity of the proteasome is not required for transcriptional repression by PRH. However, proteasomal digestion of PRH can liberate truncated PRH proteins that retain the ability to bind to DNA. We discuss these findings in terms of the biological role of PRH in gene regulation and the control of cell proliferation.
    Biochemical Journal 10/2003; 374(Pt 3):667-75. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Normal human fibroblasts undergo a limited number of divisions in culture and progressively they reach a state of irreversible growth arrest, a process termed as replicative senescence. The proteasome is the major cellular proteolytic machinery, the function of which is impaired during replicative senescence. However, the exact causes of its malfunction in these conditions are unknown. Using WI38 fibroblasts as a model for cellular senescence we have observed reduced levels of proteasomal peptidase activities coupled with increased levels of both oxidized and ubiquitinated proteins in senescent cells. We have found the catalytic subunits of the 20 S complex and subunits of the 19 S regulatory complex to be down-regulated in senescent cells. This is accompanied by a decrease in the level of both 20 S and 26 S complexes. Partial inhibition of proteasomes in young cells caused by treatment with specific inhibitors induced a senescence-like phenotype, thus demonstrating the fundamental importance of the proteasome for retaining cellular maintenance and homeostasis. Stable overexpression of beta1 and beta5 subunits in WI38 established cell lines was shown to induce elevated expression levels of beta1 subunit in beta5 transfectants and vice versa. Transfectants possess increased proteasome activities and most importantly, increased capacity to cope better with various stresses. In summary these data demonstrate the central role of the proteasome during cellular senescence and survival as well as provide insights toward a better understanding of proteasome regulation.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2003; 278(30):28026-37. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The homopentameric B-subunit components of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (EtxB) and cholera toxin (CtxB) possess the capacity to enter mammalian cells and to activate cell-signaling events in leukocytes that modulate immune cell function. Both properties have been attributed to the ability of the B subunits to bind to GM1-ganglioside receptors, a ubiquitous glycosphingolipid found in the plasma membrane. Here we describe the properties of EtxB(H57S), a mutant B subunit with a His-->Ser substitution at position 57. The mutant was found to be severely defective in inducing leukocyte signaling, as shown by failure to (i) trigger caspase 3-mediated CD8(+)-T-cell apoptosis, (ii) activate nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB in Jurkat T cells, (iii) induce a potent anti-B-subunit response in mice, or (iv) serve as a mucosal adjuvant. However, its GM1 binding, cellular uptake, and delivery functions remained intact. This was further validated by the finding that EtxB(H57S) was as effective as EtxB in delivering a conjugated model class I epitope into the major histocompatibility complex class I pathway of a dendritic cell line. These observations imply that GM1 binding alone is not sufficient to trigger the signaling events responsible for the potent immunomodulatory properties of EtxB. Moreover, they demonstrate that its signaling properties play no role in EtxB uptake and trafficking. Thus, EtxB(H57S) represents a novel tool for evaluating the complex cellular interactions and signaling events occurring after receptor interaction, as well as offering an alternative means of delivering attached peptides in the absence of the potent immunomodulatory signals induced by wild-type B subunits.
    Infection and Immunity 03/2003; 71(3):1527-37. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Current immunization strategies, using peptide or protein antigens, generally fail to elicit cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte responses, since these antigens are unable to access intracellular compartments where loading of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules occurs. In an attempt to circumvent this, we investigated whether the GM1 receptor-binding B subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin (EtxB) could be used to deliver class I epitopes. When a class I epitope was conjugated to EtxB, it was delivered into the MHC-I presentation pathway in a GM1-binding-dependent fashion and resulted in the appearance of MHC-I-epitope complexes at the cell surface. Importantly, we show that the efficiency of EtxB-mediated epitope delivery could be strikingly enhanced by incorporating, adjacent to the class I epitope, a 10-amino-acid segment from the C terminus of the DNA polymerase (Pol) of herpes simplex virus. The replacement of this 10-amino-acid segment by a heterologous sequence or the introduction of specific amino acid substitutions within this segment either abolished or markedly reduced the efficiency of class I epitope delivery. If the epitope was extended at its C terminus, EtxB-mediated delivery into the class I presentation pathway was found to be completely dependent on proteasome activity. Thus, by combining the GM1-targeting function of EtxB with the 10-amino-acid Pol segment, highly efficient delivery of exogenous epitopes into the endogenous pathway of class I antigen processing and presentation can be achieved.
    Infection and Immunity 07/2002; 70(6):3249-58. · 4.07 Impact Factor
  • Victoria A Brophy, Jeremy M Tavaré, A Jennifer Rivett
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    ABSTRACT: Proteasomes play a major role in intracellular protein degradation and have been implicated in apoptosis. In this study we have investigated proteasome activity and the effects of inhibition of proteasomes or modulation of proteasome complexes on staurosporine-induced apoptosis in COS-7 cells. Staurosporine treatment of COS-7 cells had little direct effect on proteasome activity and did not cause dissociation of 26S proteasomes. There was also no major redistribution of proteasomes accompanying apoptosis in COS-7 cells. However, when the cells were pretreated with proteasome inhibitors, both the caspase 3 activity of the cells and the percentage of apoptotic cells measured by the TUNEL assay were reduced compared to staurosporine-treated cells, which had no inhibitor added. Proteasome inhibitors were also found to reduce the activation of caspase 3 in living cells which was assayed using a FRET-based method. However, proteasome inhibitors did not prevent some of the morphological changes associated with staurosporine-induced apoptosis. Pretreatment of cells with gamma-interferon, which increases immunoproteasomes and PA28 complexes and reduces 26S proteasome levels, had an antiapoptotic effect. These results are consistent with a role for 26S proteasomes in regulating the activation of caspase 3 through the degradation of key regulatory proteins.
    Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 02/2002; 397(2):199-205. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Proteasomes play a major role in intracellular protein turnover. They exist in cells in several different molecular forms including 20S proteasomes, 26S proteasomes and PA28-20S proteasome complexes. In this study we have compared the properties of these purified proteasome complexes to try to design assays that will distinguish between the different complexes (26S proteasome, 20S proteasome, PA28-20S proteasome) in cell extracts. Although the different purified complexes were found to have differences in stability, and in their sensitivity to low concentrations of SDS and salt, the results suggest that it is not straightforward to assay selectively for each type of complex in cell extracts. The relative contribution of different proteasome complexes varies in different cell types and there may be other proteases present which hydrolyse the chosen substrate. Proteasome assays carried out under defined conditions allow comparisons of activity in cell extracts as a function of age, but separation by gel filtration on a Superose 6 column was found to be a useful method for determining the level of different proteasome related complexes.
    Experimental Gerontology 01/2002; 37(10-11):1217-22. · 3.91 Impact Factor
  • A J Rivett, S Bose, P Brooks, K I Broadfoot
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    ABSTRACT: Proteasomes play a major role in non-lysosomal proteolysis and also in the processing of proteins for presentation by the MHC class I pathway. In animal cells they exist in several distinct molecular forms which contribute to the different functions. 26S proteasomes contain the core 20S proteasome together with two 19S regulatory complexes. Alternatively, PA28 complexes can bind to the ends of the 20S proteasome to form PA28-proteasome complexes and PA28-proteasome-19S hybrid complexes have also been described. Immunoproteasome subunits occur in 26S proteasomes as well as in PA28-proteasome complexes. We have found differences in the subcellular distribution of the different forms of proteasomes. The gamma-interferon inducible PA28 alpha and beta subunits are predominantly located in the cytoplasm, while 19S regulatory complexes (present at significant levels only in 26S complexes) are present in the nucleus as well as in the cytoplasm. Immunoproteasomes are greatly enriched at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where they may facilitate the generation of peptides for transport into the lumen of the ER. We have also investigated the effects of gamma-interferon on the levels and subcellular distribution of inducible subunits and regulator subunits. In each case gamma-interferon was found to increase the level but not to alter the distribution. Several subunits of proteasomes are phosphorylated including alpha subunits C8 (alpha7) and C9 (alpha3), and ATPase subunit S4 (rpt2). Our studies have shown that gamma-interferon treatment decreases the level of phosphorylation of proteasomes. We have investigated the role of phosphorylation of C8 by casein kinase II by site directed mutagenesis. The results demonstrate that phosphorylation at either one of the two sites is essential for the association of 19S regulatory complexes and that the ability to undergo phosphorylation at both sites gives the most efficient incorporation of C8 into the 26S proteasome.
    Biochimie 03/2001; 83(3-4):363-6. · 3.14 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
296.18 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1997–2009
    • University of Bristol
      • School of Biochemistry
      Bristol, England, United Kingdom
  • 2006
    • University of East Anglia
      • Biomedical Research Centre
      Norwich, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1999
    • University of Tsukuba
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
  • 1987–1998
    • University of Leicester
      • Department of Biochemistry
      Leicester, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1988–1990
    • National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
      • Biochemistry and Biophysics Center
      Maryland, United States