Jacqueline C Carter

Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

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Publications (34)166.68 Total impact

  • Jacqueline C. Carter, Allison C. Kelly
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    ABSTRACT: Objective This study aimed to identify baseline predictors of autonomous and controlled motivation for treatment (ACMT) in a transdiagnostic eating disorder sample, and to examine whether ACMT at baseline predicted change in eating disorder psychopathology during treatment.Method Participants were 97 individuals who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for an eating disorder and were admitted to a specialized intensive treatment programme. Self-report measures of eating disorder psychopathology, ACMT, and various psychosocial variables were completed at the start of treatment. A subset of these measures was completed again after 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks of treatment.ResultsMultiple regression analyses showed that baseline autonomous motivation was higher among patients who reported more self-compassion and more received social support, whereas the only baseline predictor of controlled motivation was shame. Multilevel modelling revealed that higher baseline autonomous motivation predicted faster decreases in global eating disorder psychopathology, whereas the level of controlled motivation at baseline did not.Conclusion The current findings suggest that developing interventions designed to foster autonomous motivation specifically and employing autonomy supportive strategies may be important to improving eating disorders treatment outcome.Practitioner pointsThe findings of this study suggest that developing motivational interventions that focus specifically on enhancing autonomous motivation for change may be important for promoting eating disorder recovery.Our results lend support for the use of autonomy supportive strategies to strengthen personally meaningful reasons to achieve freely chosen change goals in order to enhance treatment for eating disorders.One study limitation is that there were no follow-up assessments beyond the 12-week study and we therefore do not know whether the relationships that we observed persisted after treatment.Another limitation is that this was a correlational study and it is therefore important to be cautious about making causal conclusions when interpreting the results.
    British Journal of Clinical Psychology. 07/2014;
  • Caroline Davis, Jacqueline C. Carter
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    ABSTRACT: This review summarizes the evidence — both current and from an historic perspective — that many processed foods, specifically those in which the palatability has been enhanced with sugar, fat, and salt, have addictive properties similar to drugs such as nicotine, alcohol, and stimulants. The addictive potential of these foods thereby adds to a growing acceptance of ‘food addiction’ as a viable clinical entity and an important area for further investigation. The evidence that some cases of binge eating disorder can best be conceptualized as a food addiction also has important treatment implications for those suffering from compulsive overeating. This review also discusses the utility of interventions such as motivational interviewing, psycho-educational programs focused on the neurobiologic aspects of excessive consumption of hyper-palatable foods, and the development of cognitive behavioral strategies to increase an individual’s ability to tolerate food cravings as temporary states, and better inhibit urges to overeat.
    Current Addiction Reports. 06/2014; 1(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Motivational Interviewing (MI) is a collaborative therapy that focuses on strengthening a person's internal motivation to change. Research suggests that MI may be helpful for treating binge eating; however, findings are limited and little is known about how MI for binge eating compares to active therapy controls. The present study aimed to build on current research by comparing MI as a prelude to self-help treatment for binge eating with psychoeducation as a prelude to self-help treatment for binge eating. Participants with full or subthreshold DSM-IV Binge Eating Disorder or nonpurging Bulimia Nervosa were randomly assigned to receive either 60 minutes of MI followed by a self-help manual (n = 24) or 60 minutes of psychoeducation followed by a self-help manual (n = 21). Questionnaires were completed pre- and postsession, and at 1 and 4 months postsession. MI significantly increased readiness to change and confidence in ability to control binge eating, whereas psychoeducation did not. No group differences were found when changes in eating disorder attitudes and behaviors were examined. MI offers benefits for increasing motivation and self-efficacy. However, it may not be a uniquely effective treatment approach for reducing binge eating. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2014).
    International Journal of Eating Disorders 01/2014; · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is mounting evidence that many highly processed foods have addictive properties, and that some cases of compulsive overeating resemble an addiction disorder. While support for the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) as a valid diagnostic tool has been impressive and continues to increase, to date, no research has examined the food-addiction construct in response to an actual food stimulus, and in relation to direct measures of appetite and food consumption. As part of a larger community-based study of overeating in healthy adults who were predominately overweight and obese (aged 25-50 years), 136 participants completed the YFAS, of whom 23 met the diagnostic criteria for food-addiction. They took part in a 2-day, double-blind, cross-over, single-dose drug challenge using a psychomotor stimulant (methylphenidate) and placebo. Participants were first assessed on ratings of appetite and food cravings after holding and tasting their favorite snack food, after which they were able to eat all or part of the snack, as they wished. Three separate repeated-measures analysis-of-variance procedures were carried out, each with two between-subjects factors (Diagnosis: food-addiction vs. non-food addiction) and (Sex: male vs. female) and 1 within-subjects factor (Days: drug vs. placebo). As anticipated, for all three dependent variables, there was a significant main effect for Days with a response decrease from placebo to the drug condition. With respect to food cravings and appetite ratings, results indicated that the food addiction group had significantly higher scores on both variables. For food consumption, there was a significant Days × Diagnosis interaction whereby the food-addiction group showed no food-intake suppression across days compared to the non-food-addiction group who demonstrated a significant decrease in snack-food consumption with methylphenidate. The finding that the food-addiction group was resistant to the food-intake suppression typically induced by a dopamine agonist supports evidence of dopamine signaling-strength differences in individuals with compulsive overeating compared to those without this disorder. This represents the first demonstration that individuals defined by their food-addiction status have a unique pattern of food-intake following a pharmacologic challenge with such agents.
    Frontiers in Psychology 01/2014; 5:403.
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    Allison C Kelly, Jacqueline C Carter
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    ABSTRACT: Individuals with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) are renowned for their poor short- and long-term treatment outcomes. To gain more insight into the reasons for these poor outcomes, the present study compared patients with AN-R (restrictive subtype), AN-BP (binge-purge subtype), bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) over 12 weeks of specialized eating disorders treatment. Eighty-nine patients completed the Eating Disorder Examination- Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and various measures of psychosocial functioning at baseline, and again after weeks 3, 6, 9, and 12 of treatment.
    International Journal of Eating Disorders 01/2014; 2:2. · 2.88 Impact Factor
  • Allison C Kelly, Jacqueline C Carter, Sahar Borairi
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    ABSTRACT: Compassion-focused therapy (CFT; Gilbert, 2005, 2009) is a transdiagnostic treatment approach focused on building self-compassion and reducing shame. It is based on the theory that feelings of shame contribute to the maintenance of psychopathology, whereas self-compassion contributes to the alleviation of shame and psychopathology. We sought to test this theory in a transdiagnostic sample of eating disorder patients by examining whether larger improvements in shame and self-compassion early in treatment would facilitate faster eating disorder symptom remission over 12 weeks. Participants were 97 patients with an eating disorder admitted to specialized day hospital or inpatient treatment. They completed the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Experiences of Shame Scale, and Self-Compassion Scale at intake, and again after weeks 3, 6, 9, and 12. Multilevel modeling revealed that patients who experienced greater decreases in their level of shame in the first 4 weeks of treatment had faster decreases in their eating disorder symptoms over 12 weeks of treatment. In addition, patients who had greater increases in their level of self-compassion early in treatment had faster decreases in their feelings of shame over 12 weeks, even when controlling for their early change in eating disorder symptoms. These results suggest that CFT theory may help to explain the maintenance of eating disorders. Clinically, findings suggest that intervening with shame early in treatment, perhaps by building patients' self-compassion, may promote better eating disorders treatment response. (Int J Eat Disord 2013).
    International Journal of Eating Disorders 10/2013; · 2.88 Impact Factor
  • Allison C Kelly, Jacqueline C Carter
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    ABSTRACT: Gilbert (Compassion: Conceptualisations, Research, and Use in Psychotherapy. London: Routledge, 2005) theorized that self-critical individuals have more severe psychopathology due in part to their elevated feelings of shame. We sought to test this model in a sample of eating disorder sufferers. Seventy-four patients admitted to a specialized day or inpatient eating disorders treatment programme completed the Forms of Self-Criticism and Self-Reassurance Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, Experience of Shame Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. We tested our mediational model with Preacher and Hayes' (Behavior Research Methods, 40, 879, 2008) bootstrapping approach entering self-criticism as a predictor, self-esteem as a covariate, and shame, negative affect, positive affect, and depressive symptoms as simultaneous mediators. Applying a 95% confidence interval, the total indirect effect of self-criticism on eating disorder pathology was significantly different from zero suggesting that its influence occurred through the proposed set of mediators. Specific indirect effects revealed that shame was the only mediator to contribute significantly to the model. Results support the theory that among eating disorder patients, higher self-criticism is associated with elevated eating disorder pathology through feelings of shame. Interventions that target the shame of self-critical patients might therefore facilitate their recovery. Assessing and intervening with the feelings of shame experienced by high self-critical patients might be particularly important in helping them overcome their eating disorder. Working with patients to understand and alter the links between their self-criticism, shame, and eating disorder behaviours might be a fruitful therapeutic avenue. Case conceptualizations in the eating disorders and perhaps other forms of psychopathology might benefit from integrating theoretical models that integrate a focus on self-criticism and shame. This is a cross-sectional study, meaning that we cannot make conclusions about the directionality of the relationships observed. It will be important to examine the temporal relationships between self-criticism, shame, and eating disorder symptoms in future research. We rely on correlational data and so can only make predictive inferences based on our results. An experimental study in which self-criticism and/or shame are manipulated will be an important next step to allow for causal inferences.
    British Journal of Clinical Psychology 06/2013; 52(2):148-61. · 1.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Our objective was to employ a novel genetic methodology - whereby functional variants of the dopamine pathway were aggregated to reflect a polygenic liability - in the study of food addiction. We anticipated that the composite index of elevated dopamine signaling (a multilocus genetic profile score [MLGP]) would distinguish those with a designation of food addiction (according to the Yale Food Addiction Scale [YFAS] criteria), and age and weight equivalent controls. Our second aim was to assess whether this index was positively associated with eating-related sub-phenotypes of food addiction (e.g. binge eating and food cravings). METHODS: Adults (n=120) recruited from the community were solicited for an overeating/overweight study. Eating-behavior questionnaires were completed and a blood sample was taken for genotyping. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The YFAS identified 21 participants with food addiction. As predicted, the MLGP score was higher in those with YFAS-diagnosed food addiction, and it correlated positively with binge eating, food cravings, and emotional overeating. We then tested a multiple-mediation model proposing that reward-driven overeating facilitates the relationship between the MLGP score and food addiction. The model was statistically significant, supporting the view that the relationship between a composite genetic index of dopamine signaling and food addiction is mediated by certain aspects of reward-responsive overeating.
    Physiology & Behavior 05/2013; · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Anorexia nervosa is characterised by a chronic course that is refractory to treatment in many patients and has one of the highest mortality rates of any psychiatric disorder. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been applied to circuit-based neuropsychiatric diseases, such as Parkinson's disease and major depression, with promising results. We aimed to assess the safety of DBS to modulate the activity of limbic circuits and to examine how this might affect the clinical features of anorexia nervosa. METHODS: We did a phase 1, prospective trial of subcallosal cingulate DBS in six patients with chronic, severe, and treatment-refractory anorexia nervosa. Eligible patients were aged 20-60 years, had been diagnosed with restricting or binge-purging anorexia nervosa, and showed evidence of chronicity or treatment resistance. Patients underwent medical optimisation preoperatively and had baseline body-mass index (BMI), psychometric, and neuroimaging investigations, followed by implantation of electrodes and pulse generators for continuous delivery of electrical stimulation. Patients were followed up for 9 months after DBS activation, and the primary outcome of adverse events associated with surgery or stimulation was monitored at every follow-up visit. Repeat psychometric assessments, BMI measurements, and neuroimaging investigations were also done at various intervals. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01476540. FINDINGS: DBS was associated with several adverse events, only one of which (seizure during programming, roughly 2 weeks after surgery) was serious. Other related adverse events were panic attack during surgery, nausea, air embolus, and pain. After 9 months, three of the six patients had achieved and maintained a BMI greater than their historical baselines. DBS was associated with improvements in mood, anxiety, affective regulation, and anorexia nervosa-related obsessions and compulsions in four patients and with improvements in quality of life in three patients after 6 months of stimulation. These clinical benefits were accompanied by changes in cerebral glucose metabolism (seen in a comparison of composite PET scans at baseline and 6 months) that were consistent with a reversal of the abnormalities seen in the anterior cingulate, insula, and parietal lobe in the disorder. INTERPRETATION: Subcallosal cingulate DBS seems to be generally safe in this sample of patients with chronic and treatment-refractory anorexia nervosa. FUNDING: Klarman Family Foundation Grants Program in Eating Disorders Research and Canadian Institutes of Health Research.
    The Lancet 03/2013; · 39.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Engaging patients with an eating disorder in change is difficult and intensive treatment programs have high drop-out rates. The purpose of the study was to determine whether Motivational Interviewing (MI) in the form of a brief, pre-treatment intervention would be associated with higher completion rates in subsequent intensive treatment for an eating disorder. Thirty-two participants diagnosed with an eating disorder participated in the study. All participants were on the waitlist for admission to an intensive, hospital-based treatment program. Sixteen participants were randomly assigned to four individual sessions of MI that began prior to entrance into the treatment program (MI condition) and 16 participants were assigned to treatment as usual (control condition). The main outcome was completion of the intensive treatment program. Participants also completed self-report measures of motivation to change.
    International Journal of Eating Disorders 01/2013; 1:34. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 'Food addiction' shares a similar neurobiological and behavioral framework with substance addiction. However whether, and to what degree, 'food addiction' contributes to obesity in the general population is unknown. to assess 1) the prevalence of 'food addiction' in the Newfoundland population; 2) if clinical symptom counts of 'food addiction' were significantly correlated with the body composition measurements; 3) if food addicts were significantly more obese than controls, and 4) if macronutrient intakes are associated with 'food addiction'. A total of 652 adults (415 women, 237 men) recruited from the general population participated in this study. Obesity was evaluated by Body Mass Index (BMI) and Body Fat percentage measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. 'Food addiction' was assessed using the Yale Food Addiction Scale and macronutrient intake was determined from the Willet Food Frequency Questionnaire. The prevalence of 'food addiction' was 5.4% (6.7% in females and 3.0% in males) and increased with obesity status. The clinical symptom counts of 'food addiction' were positively correlated with all body composition measurements across the entire sample (p<0.001). Obesity measurements were significantly higher in food addicts than controls; Food addicts were 11.7 (kg) heavier, 4.6 BMI units higher, and had 8.2% more body fat and 8.5% more trunk fat. Furthermore, food addicts consumed more calories from fat and protein compared with controls. Our results demonstrated that 'food addiction' contributes to severity of obesity and body composition measurements from normal weight to obese individuals in the general population with higher rate in women as compared to men.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(9):e74832. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Gilbert (2005) proposed that the capacity for self-compassion is integral to overcoming shame and psychopathology. We tested this model among 74 individuals with an eating disorder admitted to specialized treatment. Participants completed measures assessing self-compassion, fear of self-compassion, shame, and eating disorder symptoms at admission and every 3 weeks during treatment. At baseline, lower self-compassion and higher fear of self-compassion were associated with more shame and eating disorder pathology. Multilevel modeling also revealed that patients with combinations of low self-compassion and high fear of self-compassion at baseline had significantly poorer treatment responses, showing no significant change in shame or eating disorder symptoms over 12 weeks. Results highlight a new subset of treatment-resistant eating disorder patients.
    Psychotherapy Research 08/2012; · 1.75 Impact Factor
  • Jacqueline C. Carter, Allison C. Kelly, Sarah Jane Norwood
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    ABSTRACT: Interpersonal difficulties are thought to play a central role in both the development and maintenance of anorexia nervosa (AN). The primary aims of this study were to examine the nature of interpersonal problems in AN and to determine whether interpersonal problems are related to AN psychopathology and treatment outcome. The participants were 218 individuals with AN admitted to a specialized treatment program. Overall, in comparison with a normative community sample, a pattern of difficulties with submissiveness, nonassertiveness and social inhibition emerged among patients with AN. Results indicated a positive association between interpersonal problems and eating disorder psychopathology at baseline. The overall level of interpersonal problems decreased from baseline to post-treatment and higher levels of social inhibition at baseline predicted treatment noncompletion. Our findings suggest that AN is associated with a pattern of submissive and socially inhibited interpersonal behavior which contribute
    Personality and Individual Differences. 08/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious psychiatric disorder with a high rate of relapse. The goal of this study was to identify predictors of relapse in adult AN using a prospective, longitudinal design. Participants were 100 AN patients who had successfully completed specialized inpatient/day treatment, were weight-restored to a body mass index (BMI) of at least 20 for a minimum of 2 weeks, and reported less than one binge-purge (BP) episode over the previous 28 days at the end of treatment. Predictor variables included baseline demographic and clinical features, behavioral and psychological changes during treatment, residual psychopathology at post-treatment, and motivation to recover. Results indicated that 41% of participants relapsed during the 1-year follow-up period. The highest risk period for relapse was between 4 and 9 months post-treatment. Predictors of relapse included: the BP subtype of AN, severity of checking behaviors at pre-treatment, decrease in motivation to recover during treatment, and lower motivation to recover at post-treatment. These findings suggest that individuals with the BP subtype of AN are particularly susceptible to relapse. Increasing and maintaining motivation to recover during acute treatment may have an important impact on long-term outcome.
    Psychiatry Research 05/2012; · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: While the study of binge eating disorder (BED) has burgeoned in the past decade, an understanding of its neurobiological underpinnings is still in the early stages. Previous research suggests that BED may be an overeating syndrome characterized by a hyper-responsiveness to reward, and a strong dopamine signaling in the neuro-circuitry that regulates pleasure and appetitive behaviors. We investigated the D2 receptors genes (DRD2/ANKK1) and their relation to the BED phenotype and four sub-phenotypes of BED that reflect an enhanced response to positive food stimuli. In a sample of 230 obese adults with and without BED, we genotyped five functional markers of the D2 receptor: rs1800497, rs1799732, rs2283265, rs12364283, and rs6277, and assessed binge eating, emotional eating, hedonic eating, and food craving from dimensionally-scored, self-report questionnaires. Compared to weight-matched controls, BED was significantly related to the rs1800497 and rs6277 genotypes that reflect enhanced dopamine neurotransmission. BED participants were also less likely to carry the minor T allele of rs2283265. The same markers related to the sub-phenotypes of BED with rs1800497 showing the strongest effects in the predicted direction. This study supports the view that BED may be a condition that has its causal origins in a hypersensitivity to reward - a predisposition that is likely to foster overeating in our current environment with abundant availability of highly palatable and calorically-dense processed foods.
    Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 05/2012; 38(2):328-35. · 3.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is growing evidence of 'food addiction' (FA) in sugar- and fat-bingeing animals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the legitimacy of this disorder in the human condition. It was also our intention to extend the validation of the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) - the first tool developed to identify individuals with addictive tendencies towards food. Using a sample of obese adults (aged 25-45 years), and a case-control methodology, we focused our assessments on three domains relevant to the characterization of conventional substance-dependence disorders: clinical co-morbidities, psychological risk factors, and abnormal motivation for the addictive substance. Results were strongly supportive of the FA construct and validation of the YFAS. Those who met the diagnostic criteria for FA had a significantly greater co-morbidity with Binge Eating Disorder, depression, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder compared to their age- and weight-equivalent counterparts. Those with FA were also more impulsive and displayed greater emotional reactivity than obese controls. They also displayed greater food cravings and the tendency to 'self-soothe' with food. These findings advance the quest to identify clinically relevant subtypes of obesity that may possess different vulnerabilities to environmental risk factors, and thereby could inform more personalized treatment approaches for those who struggle with overeating and weight gain.
    Appetite 09/2011; 57(3):711-7. · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Females typically show greater behavioural responses to stimulant drugs than males, including loss of appetite; as seen, for example, in those who use methylphenidate (MP) therapeutically for treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This is a relevant issue because of the strong link between ADHD and obesity. In a sample (n=132) of normal-weight (BMI <25) and obese (BMI >30) men and women we assessed appetite, cravings, and snack-food intake in response to MP (0.5 mg/kg) and placebo. Results indicated a significant three-way interaction for the three dependent variables--food-related responding diminishing in all groups from placebo to MP, except in obese males who showed no decreases to the MP challenge. These data show for the first time the existence of gender differences in the appetite response to MP, and are relevant for finding a dopamine pathway to new weight-loss medications, which would be utilized differently in males than in females.
    The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 07/2011; 15(2):181-7. · 5.64 Impact Factor
  • Jacqueline C Carter, Carmen V Bewell-Weiss
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare patients admitted to a specialized inpatient program for anorexia nervosa (AN) with and without a fear of weight gain in terms of specific eating disorder symptoms, general psychopathology, and treatment outcome. Measures of specific and general psychopathology were administered at admission to and discharge from the inpatient program. Of the 138 participants, 81% (n = 112) were categorized as having clinical levels of "fear of weight gain" and 19% (n = 26) were categorized as having subclinical levels of this feature. The subclinical-level group had lower scores on measures of eating disorder psychopathology, depression, general psychiatric disturbance, and obsessive-compulsive symptomatology, but higher self-esteem scores. There were no differences found in terms of age of onset of AN, duration of illness, AN subtype, body mass index, or treatment outcome. The current findings provide evidence that underweight patients who deny a fear of weight gain are less disturbed in terms of both eating disorder pathology and general psychopathology.
    International Journal of Eating Disorders 04/2011; 44(3):220-4. · 2.88 Impact Factor
  • Carmen V Bewell-Weiss, Jacqueline C Carter
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to replicate and amalgamate findings from previous research into a comprehensive regression model predicting excessive exercise in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN). Participants were 153 patients admitted to an inpatient treatment program for AN. Excessive exercise status was defined as a minimum of 1 hour of obligatory exercise aimed at controlling shape and weight, 6 days per week in the month before admission. Thirty-four percent (n = 52) of participants met criteria for excessive exercise. A logistic regression was conducted with excessive exercise status as the dependent variable and a number of variables previously found to be predictors of excessive exercise entered as independent variables on the same step. The overall regression model was statistically significant (P < .0005) and explained 31% of the variance in exercise status. Higher levels of dietary restraint (P = .03), depression (P = .04), and self-esteem (P = .02); lower levels of obsessive-compulsive symptomatology (P = .04); and the restricting subtype of AN (P = .03) were significantly associated with excessive exercise. Excessive exercise is associated with a number of independent psychologic and behavioral variables, some that suggest a negative impact and others that suggest positive effects.
    Comprehensive psychiatry 01/2010; 51(6):566-71. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    Caroline Davis, Jacqueline C Carter
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we argue that compulsive overeating has compelling similarities to conventional drug addiction. Our case is based on their comparable clinical features, the biological mechanisms they have in common, and on evidence that the two disorders have a shared diathesis. In making the argument for overeating as an addictive behaviour, it is clearly not appropriate to include all cases of excessive food consumption in this taxon. Nor are we claiming that obesity and addiction are one and the same. However, it is proposed that Binge Eating Disorder (BED) is a phenotype particularly well-suited to such a conceptualization, and that sound clinical and scientific evidence exists to support this viewpoint. We have provided some recommendations for treatment modifications that recognize the similarities between treating drug dependence and compulsive overeating.
    Appetite 07/2009; 53(1):1-8. · 2.54 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

698 Citations
166.68 Total Impact Points


  • 2014
    • Memorial University of Newfoundland
      • Department of Psychology
      St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada
  • 2009–2013
    • York University
      • • School of Kinesiology and Health Sciences
      • • Faculty of Health
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2006–2013
    • University Health Network
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2001–2012
    • University of Toronto
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      • • Institute of Medical Sciences
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2003–2010
    • UHN: Toronto General Hospital
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada