[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This investigation includes an evaluation of the percutaneous absorption of bupropion (BUP) and hydroxybupropion (BUPOH) in vitro and in vivo. In addition, a carbamate prodrug of BUPOH (But-BUPOH) was evaluated in vitro. In vitro diffusion studies were conducted in a flow-through diffusion cell system. The in vitro mean steady-state flux of BUP was significantly higher (p < 0.001) compared to BUPOH (320 +/- 16 nmol cm(-2) h(-1) vs. 27 +/- 4 nmol cm(-2) h(-1)). Additionally, a good correlation existed between in vitro and in vivo results. Mean steady-state plasma concentrations of 442 +/- 32 ng/mL and125 +/- 18 ng/mL were maintained over 48 h after topical application of BUP and BUPOH in hairless guinea pigs in vivo, respectively. Although BUP traversed human skin at rates sufficient to achieve required plasma levels, it is chemically unstable and hygroscopic, and unsuitable for transdermal formulation. On the other hand, BUPOH is stable but its transport across skin is much slower. Alternatively, the prodrug But-BUPOH was found to be stable, and also provided a 2.7-fold increase in the transdermal flux of BUPOH across human skin in vitro. Thus, But-BUPOH provides a viable option for the transdermal delivery of BUPOH.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 07/2008; 98(2):583-94. · 3.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 6-Beta-naltrexol is the major active metabolite of naltrexone, NTX, a potent mu-opioid receptor antagonist used in the treatment of alcohol dependence and opioid abuse. Compared to naloxone, NTX has a longer duration of action largely attributed to 6-beta-naltrexol. This study was carried out in order to determine percutaneous absorption of a transdermal codrug of naltrexol, 6-beta-naltrexol-hydroxybupropion codrug (CB-NTXOL-BUPOH), in hairless guinea pigs as well as to evaluate the safety of 6-beta-naltrexol for development as a transdermal dosage form. This codrug may be useful in the simultaneous treatment of alcohol dependence and tobacco addiction. The carbonate codrug traversed the skin at a faster rate than 6-beta-naltrexol. 6-Beta-naltrexol equivalent steady state plasma concentrations of 6.4 ng/ml were obtained after application of the codrug as compared to 1.2 ng/ml from 6-beta-naltrexol base. The steady state plasma concentration of hydroxybupropion after codrug application was 6.9 ng/ml. Skin sensitization and irritation tested in the hairless guinea pigs using the Buehler method revealed that 6-beta-naltrexol had no skin sensitizing potential. The method was validated with a known sensitizer, p-phenylenediamine, which induced sensitization in 90% of the animals. 6-beta-Naltrexol caused only mild transient skin irritation after the initial application of the patch. During subsequent applications, erythema was slightly increased but no skin damage was observed. In conclusion, a transdermal codrug of 6-beta-naltrexol could be a viable alternative treatment for alcohol and opiate abuse.
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 05/2008; 33(4-5):371-9. · 2.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A codrug approach for simultaneous treatment of alcohol abuse and tobacco dependence is considered as very desirable because of substantial evidence that smoking is increased significantly during drinking, and that smoking is regarded as a behavioral 'cue' for the urge to consume alcohol. The purpose of this study was to design and synthesize codrugs for simultaneous treatment of alcohol abuse and tobacco dependence. Two novel tripartate codrugs of naltrexone (NTX) and naltrexol (NTXOL) covalently linked to hydroxybupropion (BUPOH) were synthesized (25 and 26, respectively), and their hydrolytic cleavage to the parent drugs was determined. These codrugs were generally less crystalline when compared to NTX, or NTXOL, as indicated by their lower melting points, and were expected to be more lipid-soluble. Also, the calculated clogP values were found to be higher for the codrugs compared to those for NTX and NTXOL. The studies on the hydrolysis of the codrugs provided good evidence that they could be efficiently converted to the parent drugs in buffer at physiological pH. Thus, these codrugs are likely to be cleaved enzymatically in vivo to generate the parent drugs, and are considered to be potential candidates for simultaneous treatment of alcohol abuse and tobacco dependence.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Naltrexone (NTX) is a potent opioid antagonist used in the treatment of alcohol dependence and heroin abuse. Compared with naloxone, NTX has a longer duration of action largely attributed to its major active metabolite, 6-beta-naltrexol. The purpose of this study was to increase the delivery of 6-beta-naltrexol across human skin in vitro via a novel codrug. A carbonate codrug of 6-beta-naltrexol linked to hydroxybupropion was synthesized and evaluated. In vitro human skin permeation rates were measured using a flow-through diffusion cell system. The drug melting points, solubilities, chemical stability, and skin disposition were determined. The carbonate codrug was hydrolyzed on passing through skin and appeared as a combination of intact codrug and parent drugs, 6-beta-naltrexol and hydroxybupropion, in the receiver solution. The codrug provided a significantly (p<0.05) higher 6-beta-naltrexol flux across human skin than 6-beta-naltrexol base. The extent of parent drug regeneration in the skin ranged from 56 to 86%. A higher stratum corneum partition coefficient and rapid bioconversion of the carbonate codrug in the skin correlated with increased 6-beta-naltrexol delivery rates.
Journal of Controlled Release 06/2006; 113(2):137-45. · 7.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the transdermal delivery of 6-beta-naltrexol (NTXOL), the active metabolite of naltrexone (NTX), across human skin and guinea pig skin in vitro and in hairless guinea pigs in vivo. NTXOL may be responsible for much of NTX's pharmacologic activity. In vitro diffusion studies on NTXOL were compared with similar studies on NTX using a formulation of propylene glycol and buffer in a flow-through diffusion cell system. In vivo guinea pig studies were carried out involving topical application of both drugs in patches containing identical formulations. The in vitro flux of NTX was about 2.3- and 5.6-fold higher than for NTXOL across guinea pig skin and human skin, respectively. NTXOL lag times were longer than NTX in both skin types. In vivo studies in guinea pigs showed that the steady-state plasma level of NTX was twofold greater than NTXOL, which correlated well with in vitro data. The results of the present study indicated that substantial levels of NTX and NTXOL could be delivered via the transdermal route, although the plasma levels of NTXOL were significantly less than NTX. Further transdermal formulation development will be investigated for permeation enhancement.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 10/2005; 94(9):1965-75. · 3.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Synthetic cannabinoids have a promising future as treatments for nausea, appetite modulation, pain, and many neurological disorders. Transdermal delivery is a convenient and desirable dosage form for these drugs and health conditions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro transdermal permeation of two synthetic cannabinoids, WIN 55,212-2 and CP 55,940. Transdermal flux, drug content in the skin, and lag times were measured in split-thickness human abdominal skin in flow-through diffusion cells with receiver solutions of 4% bovine serum albumin (BSA) or 0.5% Brij 98. Differential thermal analysis (DSC) was performed in order to determine heats of fusion, melting points, and relative thermodynamic activities. The in vitro diffusion studies in 0.5% Brij 98 indicated that WIN 55,212-2 diffuses across human skin faster than CP 55,940. The WIN 55,212-2 skin disposition concentration levels were also significantly higher than that of CP 55,940. Correspondingly, CP 55,940 was significantly metabolized in the skin. WIN 55,212-2 flux and skin disposition were significantly lower into 4% BSA than into 0.5% Brij 98 receiver solutions. There was no significant difference in the flux, lag time, and drug content in the skin of CP 55,940 in 4% BSA versus 0.5% Brij 98 receiver solutions. The DSC studies showed that CP 55,940 had a significantly lower melting point, smaller heat of fusion, and corresponding higher calculated thermodynamic activity than the more crystalline WIN 55,212-2 mesylate salt. The permeation results indicated that WIN 55,212-2 mesylate, CP 55,940, and other potent synthetic cannabinoids with these physicochemical properties could be ideal candidates for the development of a transdermal therapeutic system.
International Journal of Pharmaceutics 07/2004; 278(1):173-80. · 3.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Opioid therapies have been and will continue to be a vital part of opioid addiction and alcoholism treatments, as well as
a vital part of chronic and acute pain management regimens. Transdermal delivery of opioid antagonists and ago nists can be
advantageous in order to help improve the quality of life of many patients. This mode of drug administration offers many advantages
when compared to the traditional oral route of drug delivery, including avoidance of hepatic first-pass metabolism, the potential
for long-term controlled release with smoothing of the typical peak-trough plasma drug concentration profiles associated with
multi ple dosing regimens, the ease of administration, and the possibility of immediate withdrawal of the treatment. Although
the majority of the opioids used in clinical practice do not have ideal physicochemical properties that would allow them to
reach therapeutic plasma levels by passive skin permeation, many advances have been made in the transdermal delivery of these
agents with the advent of novel approaches including prodrugs, codrugs, microneedle (MN)-enhanced delivery, and other new
formulation technologies. Many research and development avenues exist for the growth potential of the opioid transdermal drug
delivery market in the next decade.