[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cells cope with the threat of xenobiotic stress by activating a complex molecular network that recognizes and eliminates chemically diverse toxic compounds. This "chemoimmune system" consists of cellular Phase I and Phase II metabolic enzymes, Phase 0 and Phase III ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) membrane transporters, and nuclear receptors regulating these components. In order to provide a systems biology characterization of the chemoimmune network, we designed a reaction kinetic model based on differential equations describing Phase 0-III participants and regulatory elements, and characterized cellular fitness to evaluate toxicity. In spite of the simplifications, the model recapitulates changes associated with acquired drug resistance and allows toxicity predictions under variable protein expression and xenobiotic exposure conditions. Our simulations suggest that multidrug ABC transporters at Phase 0 significantly facilitate the defense function of successive network members by lowering intracellular drug concentrations. The model was extended with a novel toxicity framework which opened the possibility of performing in silico cytotoxicity assays. The alterations of the in silico cytotoxicity curves show good agreement with in vitro cell killing experiments. The behavior of the simplified kinetic model suggests that it can serve as a basis for more complex models to efficiently predict xenobiotic and drug metabolism for human medical applications.
PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(2):e0115533. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0115533 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABCB6 is a homodimeric ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter present in the plasma membrane and in intracellular organelles. The intracellular localization of ABCB6 has been a matter of debate, as it has been suggested to reside in the mitochondria and the endo-lysosomal system. Using a variety of imaging modalities including confocal and electron microscopy we confirm the endo-lysosomal localization of ABCB6 and show that the protein is internalized from the plasma membrane through endocytosis, to be distributed to multivesicular bodies and lysosomes. In addition to the canonical nucleotide binding (NBD) and transmembrane domains (TMD), ABCB6 contains a unique N-terminal transmembrane domain (TMD0), which does not show sequence homology to known proteins. We investigated the functional role of these domains through the molecular dissection of ABCB6. We find that the folding, dimerization, membrane insertion and ATP binding/hydrolysis of the core ABCB6 complex devoid of TMD0 is preserved. However, in contrast to the full-length transporter, the core ABCB6 construct is retained at the plasma membrane, and does not appear in Rab5-positive endosomes. TMD0 is directly targeted to the lysosomes, without a passage to the plasma membrane. Collectively, our results reveal that TMD0 represents an independently folding unit, which is dispensable for catalysis, but has a crucial role in the lysosomal targeting of ABCB6.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three novel pyrimidinylhydrazones substituted at either the aromatic moiety or at the imine carbon atom were synthesized and characterized by standard analytical methods. All compounds were found to be toxic in the micro- to submicromolar range against a diverse panel of cancer cell lines including multidrug resistant (MDR) derivatives expressing P-glycoprotein (Pgp). Using UV-visible spectrophotometry experiments demonstrated that the most active compound (3) forms highly stable complexes with iron(III) and copper(II) in a wide pH range with a stronger preference towards iron(III). The redox activity of the iron and copper complexes of ligand 3 was investigated using cyclic voltammetry and was tested with cellular reductants. The impact of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the mechanism of toxicity was assessed using the ROS-sensitive cell permeable dye 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFDA). Our results demonstrate that the studied pyrimidinylhydrazones form redox-active iron and copper complexes that are capable of producing intracellular ROS, which might lead to cellular damage and cell death in cancer cells regardless of their resistance status.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lan is a high-incidence blood group antigen expressed in more than 99.9% of the population. Identification of the human ABC transporter ABCB6 as the molecular basis of Lan has opened the way for studies assessing the relation of ABCB6 function and expression to health and disease. To date, 34 ABCB6 sequence variants have been described in association with reduced ABCB6 expression based on the genotyping of stored blood showing weak or no reactivity with anti-Lan antibodies. In the present study we examined the red blood cell (RBC) surface expression of ABCB6 by quantitative flow cytometry in a cohort of 47 healthy individuals. Sequencing of the entire coding region of the ABCB6 gene in low RBC ABCB6 expressors identified a new allele (IVS9+1G>A, affecting a putative splice site at the boundary of exon 9) and two nonsynonymous SNPs listed in the SNP database (R192Q (rs150221689) and G588 S (rs145526996)). The R192Q mutation showed co-segregation with reduced RBC ABCB6 expression in a family, and we found the G588 S mutation in a compound heterozygous individual with undetectable ABCB6 expression, suggesting that both mutations result in weak or no expression of ABCB6 on RBCs. Analysis of the intracellular expression pattern in HeLa cells by confocal microscopy indicated that these mutations do not compromise overall expression or the endolysosomal localization of ABCB6. Genotyping of two large cohorts, containing 235 and 1039 unrelated volunteers, confirmed the high allele frequency of Lan-mutations. Our results suggest that genetic variants linked to lower or absent cell surface expression of ABCB6/Langereis may be more common than previously thought.
PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10). DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0111590 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of multidrug resistance (MDR) in patients suffering cancer remains a significant clinical challenge, with drug efflux by ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters contributing significantly. Theoretically, one could restore the efficacy of first-line drugs by circumventing these resistance mechanisms. However, cancer is a heterogeneous disease that can exhibit different characteristics from patient to patient or even within a single patient. Spatial and temporal heterogeneity is a result of continuous adaptation to selective pressures through sequential genetic changes that ultimately convert a normal cell into intractable cancer. Thus, cancer cells are moving targets, as individual cells in a tumor mass constantly adapt to local environmental challenges. Biological membranes represent a significant permeation barrier and thus play a critical role in the protection of pharmacokinetic compartments. Conversely, the activity of a drug ultimately depends on the ability of the compound to reach its target, which might reside in a well-protected pharmacological sanctuary.
Chemical Reviews 04/2014; 114(11). DOI:10.1021/cr4006236 · 45.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We recently identified a chromone derivative, 5-(4-bromobenzyloxy)-2-(2-(5-methoxyindolyl)ethyl-1-carbonyl)-4H-chromen-4-one, named here chromone 1, as a potent, selective, non-toxic and non-transported inhibitor of ABCG2-mediated drug efflux (Valdameri et al. J. Med. Chem. 2012, 55, 966). We now synthesized a series of 14 derivatives to study structure-activity relationships controlling both drug efflux and ATPase activity of ABCG2, and to elucidate their molecular mechanism of interaction and inhibition. It was found that the 4-bromobenzyloxy substituent at position 5 and the methoxyindole are important for both inhibition of mitoxantrone efflux and inhibition of basal ATPase activity. Quite interestingly, methylation of the central amide nitrogen strongly altered the high-affinity and complete inhibition of mitoxantrone efflux, as well as the inhibition of coupled ATPase activity. These results allowed the identification of a critical central inhibitory moiety of chromones that has never been investigated previously, in any series of inhibitors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABCG2 is a key human ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter mediating cancer cell chemoresistance. In the case of ABCC1, another multidrug transporter, earlier findings documented that certain modulators greatly increase ABCC1-mediated glutathione (GSH) efflux and, upon depletion of intracellular GSH, induce "collateral sensitivity" leading to the apoptosis of multidrug resistant cells. Recently, it has been suggested that ABCG2 may mediate an active GSH transport. In order to explore if ABCG2-overexpressing cells may be similarly targeted, we first looked for the effects of ABCG2 expression on cellular GSH levels, and for an ABCG2-dependent GSH transport in HEK293 and MCF7 cells. We found that, while ABCG2 overexpression altered intracellular GSH levels in these transfected or drug-selected cells, ABCG2 inhibitors or transport modulators did not influence GSH efflux. We then performed direct measurements of drug-stimulated ATPase activity and (3)H-GSH transport in inside-out membrane vesicles of human ABC transporter-overexpressing Sf9 insect cells. Our results indicate that ABCG2-ATPase is not modulated by GSH and, in contrast to ABCC1, ABCG2 does not catalyze any significant GSH transport. Our data suggest no direct interaction between the ABCG2 transporter and GSH, although a long-term modulation of cellular GSH by ABCG2 cannot be excluded.
Frontiers in Pharmacology 11/2013; 4:138. DOI:10.3389/fphar.2013.00138 · 3.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rationale: ABCC6 plays a crucial role in ectopic calcification; mutations of the gene cause pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) and general arterial calcification of infancy (GACI). To elucidate the role of ABCC6 in cellular physiology and disease, it is crucial to establish the exact subcellular localization of the native ABCC6 protein. Objective: In a recent paper in Circulation Research, ABCC6 was reported to localize to the mitochondria-associated membrane (MAM) and not the plasma membrane. Since the suggested mitochondrial localization is inconsistent with published data and the presumed role of ABCC6, we performed experiments to determine the cellular localization of ABCC6 in its physiological environment. Methods and Results: We performed immunofluorescent labeling of frozen mouse and human liver sections as well as primary hepatocytes. We used several different antibodies recognizing human and mouse ABCC6. Our results unequivocally show that ABCC6 is expressed in the basolateral membrane of hepatocytes and is not associated with the mitochondria, MAM or the ER. Conclusions: Our findings support the model that ABCC6 is expressed in the basolateral membrane, mediating the sinusoidal efflux of a metabolite from the hepatocytes to the systemic circulation.
Circulation Research 04/2013; 112(11). DOI:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.111.300194 · 11.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have developed a rapid, simple and reliable, antibody-based flow cytometry assay for the quantitative determination of membrane proteins in human erythrocytes. Our method reveals significant differences between the expression levels of the wild-type ABCG2 protein and the heterozygous Q141K polymorphic variant. Moreover, we find that nonsense mutations on one allele result in a 50% reduction in the erythrocyte expression of this protein. Since ABCG2 polymorphisms are known to modify essential pharmacokinetic parameters, uric acid metabolism and cancer drug resistance, a direct determination of the erythrocyte membrane ABCG2 protein expression may provide valuable information for assessing these conditions or for devising drug treatments. Our findings suggest that erythrocyte membrane protein levels may reflect genotype-dependent tissue expression patterns. Extension of this methodology to other disease-related or pharmacologically important membrane proteins may yield new protein biomarkers for personalized diagnostics.
PLoS ONE 11/2012; 7(11):e48423. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0048423 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Seeding of bone implants with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may promote osseointegration and bone regeneration. However, implant material surfaces, such as titanium or bovine bone mineral, fail to support rapid and efficient attachment of MSCs, especially under serum-free conditions that may be desirable when human applications or tightly controlled experiments are envisioned. Here we demonstrate that a branched poly[Lys(Ser(i)-DL-Ala(m))] polymer functionalized with cyclic arginyl-glycyl-aspartate, when immobilized by simple adsorption to tissue culture plastic, surgical titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V), or Bio-Oss(®) bovine bone substitute, significantly accelerates serum-free adhesion and enhances seeding efficiency of human adipose tissue-derived MSCs. Moreover, when exposed to serum-containing osteogenic medium, MSCs survived and differentiated on the peptide-coated scaffolds. In summary, the presented novel polypeptide conjugate can be conveniently used for coating various surfaces, and may find applications whenever quick and efficient seeding of MSCs is required to various scaffolds in the absence of serum.
Journal of Materials Science Materials in Medicine 11/2012; 24(2). DOI:10.1007/s10856-012-4809-x · 2.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABCB6, a member of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, has been proposed to be responsible for the mitochondrial uptake of porphyrins. Here we show that ABCB6 is a glycoprotein present in the membrane of mature erythrocytes and in exosomes released from reticulocytes during the final steps of erythroid maturation. Consistent with its presence in exosomes, endogenous ABCB6 is localized to the endo/lysosomal compartment, and is absent from the mitochondria of cells. Knock-down studies demonstrate that ABCB6 function is not required for de novo heme biosynthesis in differentiating K562 cells, excluding this ABC transporter as a key regulator of porphyrin synthesis. We confirm the mitochondrial localization of ABCB7, ABCB8 and ABCB10, suggesting that only three ABC transporters should be classified as mitochondrial proteins. Taken together, our results challenge the current paradigm linking the expression and function of ABCB6 to mitochondria.
PLoS ONE 05/2012; 7(5):e37378. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0037378 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human ABCG2 is a plasma membrane glycoprotein that provides physiological protection against xenobiotics. ABCG2 also significantly influences biodistribution of drugs through pharmacological tissue barriers and confers multidrug resistance to cancer cells. Moreover, ABCG2 is the molecular determinant of the side population that is characteristically enriched in normal and cancer stem cells. Numerous tumors depend on unregulated EGFR signaling, thus inhibition of this receptor by small molecular weight inhibitors such as gefitinib, and the novel second generation agents vandetanib, pelitinib and neratinib, is a promising therapeutic option. In the present study, we provide detailed biochemical characterization regarding the interaction of these EGFR inhibitors with ABCG2. We show that ABCG2 confers resistance to gefitinib and pelitinib, whereas the intracellular action of vandetanib and neratinib is unaltered by the presence of the transporter. At higher concentrations, however, all these EGFR inhibitors inhibit ABCG2 function, thereby promoting accumulation of ABCG2 substrate drugs. We also report enhanced expression of ABCG2 in gefitinib-resistant non-small cell lung cancer cells, suggesting potential clinical relevance of ABCG2 in acquired drug resistance. Since ABCG2 has important impact on both the pharmacological properties and anti-cancer efficiencies of drugs, our results regarding the novel EGFR inhibitors should provide useful information about their therapeutic applicability against ABCG2-expressing cancer cells depending on EGFR signaling. In addition, the finding that these EGFR inhibitors efficiently block ABCG2 function may help to design novel drug-combination therapeutic strategies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The phenomenon of multidrug resistance in cancer is often associated with the overexpression of the ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters Pgp (P-glycoprotein) (ABCB1), MRP1 (multidrug resistance-associated protein 1) (ABCC1) and ABCG2 [BCRP (breast cancer resistance protein)]. Since the discovery of Pgp over 35 years ago, studies have convincingly linked ABC transporter expression to poor outcome in several cancer types, leading to the development of transporter inhibitors. Three generations of inhibitors later, we are still no closer to validating the 'Pgp hypothesis', the idea that increased chemotherapy efficacy can be achieved by inhibition of transporter-mediated efflux. In this chapter, we highlight the difficulties and past failures encountered in the development of clinical inhibitors of ABC transporters. We discuss the challenges that remain in our effort to exploit decades of work on ABC transporters in oncology. In learning from past mistakes, it is hoped that ABC transporters can be developed as targets for clinical intervention.
Essays in Biochemistry 09/2011; 50(1):209-32. DOI:10.1042/bse0500209 · 4.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase type IIIa (PI4KIIIα) is one of four mammalian PI 4-kinases that catalyzes the first committed step in polyphosphoinositide synthesis. PI4KIIIα has been linked to regulation of ER exit sites and to the synthesis of plasma membrane phosphoinositides and recent studies have also revealed its importance in replication of the Hepatitis C virus in liver. Two isoforms of the mammalian PI4KIIIα have been described and annotated in GenBank: a larger, ~230kDa (isoform 2) and a shorter splice variant containing only the ~97kDa C-terminus that includes the catalytic domain (isoform 1). However, Northern analysis of human tissues and cancer cells showed only a single transcript of ~7.5kb with the exception of the proerythroleukemia line K562, which contained significantly higher level of the 7.5kb transcript along with smaller ones of 2.4, 3.5 and 4.2kb size. Bioinformatic analysis also confirmed the high copy number of PI4KIIIα transcript in K562 cells along with several genes located in the same region in Chr22, including two pseudogenes that cover most exons coding for isoform 1, consistent with chromosome amplification. A panel of polyclonal antibodies raised against peptides within the C-terminal half of PI4KIIIα failed to detect the shorter isoform 1 either in COS-7 cells or K562 cells. Moreover, expression of a cDNA encoding isoform 1 yielded a protein of ~97kDa that showed no catalytic activity and failed to rescue hepatitis C virus replication. These data draw attention to PI4KIIIα as one of the genes found in Chr22q11, a region affected by chromosomal instability, but do not substantiate the existence of a functionally relevant short form of PI4KIIIα.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Anticancer tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are small molecule hydrophobic compounds designed to arrest aberrant signaling pathways in malignant cells. Multidrug resistance (MDR) ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters have recently been recognized as important determinants of the general ADME-Tox (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, toxicity) properties of small molecule TKIs, as well as key factors of resistance against targeted anticancer therapeutics. AREAS COVERED: The article summarizes MDR-related ABC transporter interactions with imatinib, nilotinib, dasatinib, gefitinib, erlotinib, lapatinib, sunitinib and sorafenib, including in vitro and in vivo observations. An array of methods developed to study such interactions is presented. Transporter-TKI interactions relevant to the ADME-Tox properties of TKI drugs, primary or acquired cancer TKI resistance, and drug-drug interactions are also reviewed. EXPERT OPINION: Based on the concept presented in this review, TKI anticancer drugs are considered as compounds recognized by the cellular mechanisms handling xenobiotics. Accordingly, novel anticancer therapies should equally focus on the effectiveness of target inhibition and exploration of potential interactions of the designed molecules by membrane transporters. Thus, targeted hydrophobic small molecule compounds should also be screened to evade xenobiotic-sensing cellular mechanisms.
Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology 03/2011; 7(5):623-42. DOI:10.1517/17425255.2011.562892 · 2.93 Impact Factor