[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spinal infections remain a challenge for clinicians because of their variable presentation and complicated course. Common management approaches include conservative administration of antibiotics or aggressive surgical debridement. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of percutaneous endoscopic debridement with dilute betadine solution irrigation (PEDI) for treating patients with lumbar infectious spondylitis.
From January 2005 to July 2010, a total of 32 patients undergoing PEDI were retrospectively enrolled in this study. The surgical indications of the enrolled patients included single-level infectious spondylodiscitis, postoperative infectious spondylodiscitis, advanced infection with epidural abscess, psoas muscle abscess, pre-vertebral or para-vertebral abscess, multilevel infectious spondylitis, and recurrent infection after anterior debridement and fusion. Clinical outcomes were assessed by careful physical examination, Macnab criteria, regular serologic testing, and imaging studies to determine whether continued antibiotics treatment or surgical intervention was required.
Causative bacteria were identified in 28 (87.5%) of 32 biopsy specimens. Appropriate parenteral antibiotics for the predominant pathogen isolated from infected tissue biopsy cultures were prescribed to patients. Twenty-seven (84.4%) patients reported satisfactory relief of their back pain after PEDI. Twenty-six (81.3%) patients recovered uneventfully after PEDI and sequential antibiotic therapy. No surgery-related major complications were found, except 3 patients with transient paresthesia in the affected lumbar segment.
PEDI was successful in obtaining a bacteriologic diagnosis, relieving the patient's symptoms, and assisting in the eradication of lumbar infectious spondylitis. This procedure could be an effective alternative for patients who have a poor response to conservative treatment before a major open surgery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The treatment of spinal infection remains a challenge for spinal surgeons because of the variable presentations and complicated course. The diagnostic and therapeutic value of percutaneous endoscopic lavage and drainage (PELD) has been proved in some recent studies. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of PELD in patients with advanced infectious spondylitis which may traditionally require open surgery.
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 21 patients who underwent PELD to treat their advanced lumbar infectious spondylitis. Patients with severe infection resulting in significant neurological deficit and mechanical instability were excluded from the PELD procedure, which was only used on selected patients with less severe disease. The 21 patients were categorized into three groups based on their past history, clinical presentation, and imaging studies: those with paraspinal abscesses, postoperative recurrent infection, and multilevel infection. Clinical outcomes were assessed by careful physical examination, Odom's criteria, regular serologic testing, and imaging studies to determine whether continued conservative treatment or surgical intervention was necessary.
Causative bacteria were identified in 19 (90.5 %) of 21 biopsy specimens. Appropriate parenteral antibiotics for the predominant pathogen isolated from the infected tissue biopsy cultures were prescribed for the patients. All patients reported satisfactory recovery and relief of back pain, except three with multilevel infections who underwent anterior debridement and fusion within 2 weeks after treatment with PELD. The overall infection control rate was 86 %. One patient with epidural abscess and spondylolytic spondylolisthesis of the L5-S1 received instrumented fusion surgery due to mechanical instability 5 months later. No surgery-related major complications were found, except 2 patients who had transient paraesthesia in the affected lumbar segment.
PELD was successful in obtaining a bacteriologic diagnosis, relieving the patient's symptoms, and assisting in eradication of lumbar infectious spondylitis. The indications of this minimally invasive procedure could be extended to treat patients suffering from spinal infections with paraspinal abscesses and postoperative recurrent infection. Patients with multilevel infection may have trivial benefits from PELD due to poor infection control and mechanical instability of the affected segments.
European Spine Journal 01/2014; · 2.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this prospective randomized study was to compare the radiological and clinical outcome after treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis L4L5 with or without spondylolisthesis, with either posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) (26 patients) or Dynesys posterior stabilization (27 patients). Demographic characteristics were comparable in both groups. Dynesys stabilization resulted in significantly higher preservation of motion at the index level (p < 0.001), and significantly less (p < 0.05) hypermobility at the adjacent segments. Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and VAS for back and leg pain improved significantly (p < 0.05) with both methods, but there was no significant difference between groups. Operation time, blood loss, and length of hospital stay were all significantly (p < 0.001) less in the Dynesys group. The latter benefits may be of particular importance for elderly patients, or those with significant comorbidities. Complications were comparable in both groups. Dynesys posterior stabilization was effective for treating spinal stenosis L4L5 with or without spondylolisthesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aims to compare radiographic and clinical outcomes of Dynesys and posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) for the treatment of multisegment disease.
Thirty-five consecutive patients who received Dynesys implantation at three levels from L1 to S1 from November 2006 to July 2007 were studied. A retrospective analysis of the medical records of 25 patients with the same indications who received 3-level PLIF (L1-S1) was also conducted. Radiographic and clinical outcomes between the groups were compared. All patients included in the analysis completed 3-year follow-up. Dynesys stabilization resulted in higher preservation of motion at the operative levels, as well as total range of motion from L1 to S1. A decrease of anterior disc height was seen in the Dynesys group and an increase was seen in the PLIF group. An increase in posterior disc height was noted in both groups; however, was greater in the PLIF group at 3 years.
The Dynesys group showed a greater improvement in Oswestry Disability Index and visual analogue scale back pain scores at 3 years postoperatively. There were no differences in complications between the two groups.
In conclusion, Dynesys is an acceptable alternative to PLIF for the treatment of multisegment lumbar disease.
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery 01/2012; 132(5):583-9. · 1.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Dynesys system is a nonfusion pedicle-screw stabilization system, an implant device designed to preserve intersegmental kinematics and reduce loading at facet joints. Several biomechanical in vitro experiments and clinical studies have proven the efficacy of the Dynesys. The most common complication associated with the use of this system is loosening of the pedicle screw. We present here a case of a patient who developed the rare complication of pedicle screw breakage following Dynesys instrumentation. Seven months after surgery, the patient experienced progressive, intractable back pain radiating to both the buttocks. Radiography revealed breakage of the left L5 pedicle screw in addition to a halo sign around the right pedicle screw. Revision surgery with a new Dynesys instrumentation and autologous bone graft was used to treat this complication.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have suggested that there is a positive correlation between doctors' emotional intelligence (EI) and patients' trust in their attending physicians; however, there is only limited evidence of specialty differences between internists and surgeons for such an association.
This study examined the association of nursing director assessments of doctors' EI, outside observer assessments of doctors' health care climate (HCC) in the examining room and patient-rated trust in internists and surgeons. Health care climate refers to a key component in communication and reflects the extent to which patients perceive their health care providers as supporting patient autonomy rather than controlling the provision of treatment.
In this observational study, 2702 patients seen by 110 internists and 2642 patients seen by 101 surgeons were surveyed in face-to-face interviews by trained nurses in two teaching hospitals in Taiwan. Using hierarchical linear modelling, we examined the association between EI and HCC as well as patient trust in doctors working in the specialties of internal medicine and surgery.
We found a significantly positive correlation between doctor EI and patient trust for all patients (p<0.01). In addition, although HCC was positively associated with patient trust for internists (p<0.01), it was not so for surgeons.
We conclude that doctors might benefit from training programmes aimed at improving EI and that differences in patient expectations might be considered when hospitals attempt to evaluate doctors in different specialties.
Medical Education 09/2011; 45(9):905-12. · 3.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
In response to the major concerns of cement leakage and associated neurological injuries with regards to percutaneous vertebroplasty, balloon kyphoplasty (BK) was devised and introduced in 1998. This study retrospectively evaluated the clinical outcomes and radiological findings of the first 100 patients receiving BKs because of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) at our institute.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Locking proximal humerus plate (LPHP) fixation has recently become available for the treatment of proximal humeral fractures. However, the preliminary results were contradictory. The technical requirements for success when using LPHP remain to be defined. Maybe the approach to the proximal humerus plays an important role, not the implants. We analyzed two surgical approaches to proximal humeral fractures.
Between April 2004 and October 2007, 63 consecutive patients with displaced proximal humeral fractures who underwent LPHP osteosynthesis in our institute were classified to two treatment groups retrospectively: the deltopectoral incision and the deltoid-splitting incision according to surgeon's preference. The Constant and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand scores were recorded for clinical assessment. Quality of reduction, fracture union, and radiographic complications were recorded for radiographic assessment. Electrophysiological abnormalities were also assessed.
There were no significant differences between the groups with regard to demographic data, preoperative radiographic findings, and duration of follow-up. There were also no significant differences between the groups with regard to operative time (p = 0.918), blood loss (p = 0.407), hospital stay (p = 0.431), postoperative head-shaft angle (p = 0.769), union time (p = 0.246), final head-shaft angle (p = 0.533), Constant score (p = 0.677), Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score (p = 0.833), radiographic complications (p = 1.000), and presence of electrophysiological abnormalities (p = 0.296). Avascular necrosis of the humeral head was found in three patients, all of whom in the deltopectoral approach group.
We found no statistically significant difference in clinical, radiographic, and electrophysiological outcomes between the deltopectoral approach and deltoid-splitting approach while surgical treatment of proximal humeral fractures.
The Journal of trauma 07/2011; 71(5):1364-70. · 2.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the associations of surgeons' emotional intelligence and surgeons' empathy with patient-surgeon relationships, patient perceptions of their health, and patient satisfaction before and after surgical procedures. We used multi-source approaches to survey 50 surgeons and their 549 outpatients during initial and follow-up visits. Surgeons' emotional intelligence had a positive effect (r = .45; p < .001) on patient-rated patient-surgeon relationships. Patient-surgeon relationships had a positive impact on patient satisfaction before surgery (r = .95; p < .001). Surgeon empathy did not have an effect on patient-surgeon relationships or patient satisfaction prior to surgery. But after surgery, surgeon empathy appeared to have a significantly positive and indirect effect on patient satisfaction through the mediating effect of patients' self-reported health status (r = .21; p < .001). Our study showed that long-term patient satisfaction with their surgeons is affected less by emotional intelligence than by empathy. Furthermore, empathy indirectly affects patient satisfaction through its positive effect on health outcomes, which have a direct effect on patients' satisfaction with their surgeons.
Advances in Health Sciences Education 02/2011; 16(5):591-600. · 2.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The best treatment for unstable proximal femoral fractures is controversial. In this prospective study, we assessed the outcomes of reverse less invasive stabilisation system (LISS) plates for treatment of unstable proximal femoral fractures that are expected to be difficult to nail. From April 2004 to January 2007, 20 patients with unstable proximal femoral fractures that were assessed to be difficult to nail were managed with reverse less invasive stabilisation system-distal femur (LISS-DF) plates, which included (1) subtrochanteric fractures with extension into the piriform fossa, (2) short skeletons with narrow femoral canals, (3) adolescents with open physes and (4) severely bowed or deformed femurs. These patients were enrolled in this study. There were 11 females and nine males, with a median age of 58 years (range, 14-95 years). The average follow-up period was 24 (range, 12-32) months. Functional recovery (Parker and Palmer mobility score), pain, bony union, varus deformity, implant failure and leg length discrepancy were assessed. The fractures united at a median of 7 months (range, 3-15 months) postoperatively. Parker and Palmer mobility scores were 9 points for 17 patients and 6 points for three patients. Pain was absent in 15, mild in three, and moderate in two patients. Patients with poor quality of reduction were more likely to have pain results (p=0.009). Although patients with advanced age were not more likely to have pain results, they were more likely to have 'delayed union' radiographic results (p=0.033). Two limbs were shortened by 1.5 and 2 cm, respectively. Reverse LISS plate fixation led to complete union of unstable proximal femoral fractures without additional procedures. The surgical technique was simple and safe. We recommend considering the use of this locked-plate device as the alternative management of unstable proximal femoral fractures that are unsuitable for nailing procedures.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Based on reported success with staged treatment of distal tibial fractures, we designed a 2-stage protocol including external/internal locked plating. We retrospectively assessed the outcome of open distal tibial fractures treated according to this protocol.
From March 2006 through July 2008, 16 patients who sustained open distal tibial fractures were treated by a two-stage protocol. The first stage consisted of low-profile, locked plates for temporary external fixation after debridement and anatomic reduction, followed by soft tissue reconstruction. The second stage consisted of locked plates for definitive internal fixation, using minimally invasive percutaneous osteosynthesis. All fractures were followed for median 2 (1-3) years.
The reduction was classified as being good in 15 patients and fair in 1 patient. All fractures united at a median of 6 (6-12) months. At the latest follow-up, 7 patients had excellent and 9 had good Iowa ankle scores; ankle motion ranged from a median of 10 (5-20) degrees of dorsiflexion to 40 (20-60) degrees of plantar flexion.
We believe that the 2-stage external/internal locked plating technique is an effective procedure for treatment of open distal tibial fractures in patients who need a long period of external fixation. We achieved good reduction with immediate ankle-sparing stable fixation. Soft tissue reconstruction and subsequent definitive fixation led to union of all fractures with good function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A retrospective study assessing new adjacent vertebral compression fracture (VCF) after percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV).
To evaluate the relationship between cement leakage into the disk during initial PV and development of subsequent new adjacent VCF.
Cement leakage outside the vertebral body during PV has been reported and usually responds to conservative treatment. Sometimes bone cement may leak into the intervertebral disk and result in painful new adjacent VCF that usually requires another PV for pain relief.
From January 2002 to December 2002, a total of 106 consecutive patients underwent PVs for osteoporotic VCFs. The risk of new fractures of adjacent vertebral bodies, the amount of cement injection, and the duration of development of new adjacent fractures in relation to cement leakage into the disk were retrospectively assessed and statistically compared.
New adjacent VCFs occurred in 20 (18.9%) of 106 patients at 22 adjacent vertebral bodies after PVs during at least 24 months of follow-up. The difference in number of new adjacent fractures between both patients and vertebral bodies with cement leakage and those without leakage into the disk were statistically significant (P<0.001 and P<0.001). Amounts of cement injected and duration to development of new adjacent fractures differed between patients with or without cement leakage (P<0.001 and P=0.005, respectively).
PV is a simple and effective, but not risk-free or complication-free procedure for the treatment of osteoporotic VCF. Patients undergoing PV should be informed of the possibility of new adjacent fractures and the higher risk if cement leaks into the disk.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High-energy proximal tibial fractures are complex injuries that may lead to significant complications. Staged treatment of these injuries using a spanning external fixator across the knee joint in the acute setting decreases the incidence of complications. This article is a prospective evaluation of outcomes using a two-stage procedure for treatment of 15 patients who sustained open proximal tibial fractures between April 2006 and January 2008. In the first stage, we used low profile, less-invasive stabilisation system (LISS) plates for temporary external fixation to immobilise the fractures after anatomic reduction, followed by soft-tissue reconstruction. In the second stage, we applied LISS plates for definitive internal fixation, using minimally invasive percutaneous osteosynthesis. All fractures were monitored for a mean of 20.4 months (range, 12-32 months). All fractures united at a mean of 38.6 weeks (range, 18-66 weeks). Knee motion ranged from a mean of 1 degrees (range, 0 degrees to 5 degrees ) to 125 degrees of flexion (range, 100 degrees to 145 degrees ). The reduction was scored as good in 13 patients and fair in two patients. At follow-up, 10 patients had excellent, and five had good knee scores. The complications included minor screw-track infections in three patients. In conclusion, the two-stage technique was well suited for treating these difficult injuries, and for patients who needed longer periods of external fixation. Surgeons were able to achieve gross anatomy restoration, soft-tissue reconstruction, stable fixation and high union rates. Patients obtained good-to-excellent motion, function and comfort after treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The treatment for mangled lower extremities poses a clinical challenge for orthopaedic surgeons. The complexities of soft-tissue injury combined with open fractures and osteomyelitis have frequently resulted in amputation of the lower extremity. The current advances in soft-tissue flap reconstruction techniques have significantly improved the results of limb-salvage attempts. Understanding the reconstructive ladders around the zone of injury, debridement, timing and nuances of techniques regarding skin graft, local and distant flaps and microsurgical reconstruction is necessary to complete limb salvage in a timely and appropriate fashion. Various soft-tissue flap applications have been described, including emergent flow-through flap, acute soft-tissue flap, acute combined soft-tissue and bone flap, pedicle gastrocnemius/soleus flap, pedicle sural artery flap, soft-tissue flap for chronic osteomyelitis, composite osseous-myocutaneous flap for chronic osteomyelitis and free functioning muscle flap for functional reconstruction of mangled lower limbs. Clinical experience of 850 flaps reconstructions for mangled lower limbs in both acute and chronic stages has revealed that adequate application of flap technique was able to achieve quite acceptable results. This article provides a comprehensive review of the soft-tissue injury management and flap reconstruction for mangled lower limbs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reconstruction of large soft-tissue defects of an upper extremity is very challenging due to the unavailability of expendable local muscle. Appropriate soft-tissue restoration is an essential component of such reconstruction treatment protocols, and often requires a vascularised flap to protect the exposed neurovascular and musculotendinous structures. The latissimus dorsi muscle makes an ideal pedicled flap because of its long neurovascular pedicle, large size, ease of mobilisation and expendability. Moreover, the flap provides well-vascularised tissue from a region far from the area of injury. This paper describes the technique for pedicle latissimus dorsi flap transfer and also reports the authors' experience of its application for the acute treatment of massive upper-extremity soft-tissue injuries. 20 patients with large soft-tissue defects over the upper extremity caused by trauma and infection underwent aggressive debridements and immediate soft-tissue reconstruction using a pedicled latissimus dorsi muscle flap. Successful reconstructions were achieved and primary healing of wounds occurred in all patients, with minor complications. The donor site morbidity was minimal. At a mean of 3.6 years' follow-up (range: 1.5-6 years), all functional results were good and the patients were satisfied with their outcomes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cigarette smoking is hazardous to a range of human tissues. For instance, cigarette smoke inhalation has been proven to delay bone healing. This study analysed the effects of cigarette smoking on tibial vascular endothelium and blood flow using the bone-chamber model. The effects of smoking cessation and hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) on the damage caused by smoking were also compared. 54 adult New Zealand rabbits were divided into three groups. Group 1: control, Group 2: 1 week smoking, and Group 3: 6 weeks' smoking. This study on rabbits confirmed that both short-term and long-term cigarette smoking is dangerous to the bony vascular endothelium of the tibia. The vasodilatation caused by nitric oxide production was significantly attenuated in Group 2 and 3's tibia. Long-term smoking damaged the vascular endothelium more severely than short-term smoking (P<.01). Cessation of smoking effectively reduces the adverse effects of smoking when the cessation time equals the smoking time. HBO also effectively reduces the adverse effects of smoking.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Percutaneous vertebroplasty is widely discussed in the management of osteoporotic spinal compression fracture, but few reports are available concerning salvage procedures after failure of this technique. We studied 22 percutaneous vertebroplasty patients who required revision surgery upon presentation of new symptoms postoperatively. The indications for revision surgery included recurrent intractable back pain with no response to medical treatment, infectious spondylitis, cement leakage with neurologic deficit, and cement dislodgement and/or fragmentation. Five patients underwent repeated percutaneous vertebroplasty of the initially cemented vertebrae. Seventeen patients underwent anterior, posterior, or combined anterior and posterior surgery. Four patients required a third surgical procedure because of poor augmentation with cement, subsidence of the anterior bone graft, or pullout of the instrumentation. Finally, four (18%) patients underwent repeat vertebroplasty, two (9%) patients underwent anterior surgery only, one (5%) patient underwent posterior surgery only, and 15 (68%) patients underwent combined anterior and posterior surgery; all but one regained ambulatory status equivalent to that prior to surgery. In conclusion, percutaneous vertebroplasty is a simple and effective, but not risk- or complication-free procedure for the treatment of osteoporotic spinal compression fracture. The spine surgeon should be familiar with varied approaches and techniques for revision surgery. Combined anterior and posterior surgery seems to be the most secure salvage method to treat severely osteoporotic patients in whom percutaneous vertebroplasty initially failed.
European Spine Journal 08/2008; 17(7):982-8. · 2.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A case of inferior vena cava syndrome following percutaneous vertebroplasty is described herein.
To alert clinicians to the potential occurrence of inferior vena cava syndrome following percutaneous vertebroplasty.
Vertebroplasty is a less invasive treatment solution for the osteoporotic compression fracture. There complications of the cement leakage would appear to have been rather infrequent. We report a case of inferior vena cava syndrome related to the cement leakage.
A 59-year-old woman underwent percutaneous vertebroplasty for painful T11, L1, L2, and L3 compression fractures, under general anesthesia at a community hospital. A contralateral transpedicular approach was made in order to inject polymethylmethacrylate resin into the fractured vertebra.
Just subsequent to surgery, this patient developed dyspnea, arthralgia, myalgia, and progressive right lower-limb pain, redness, and swelling., conservative treatment being then undertaken, albeit in vain. One week after the attempted remediation of this patient's condition, she was transferred to our hospital for further management. After admission, radiography of the patient's lumbar spine (lateral view) revealed multiple cement leakage in the area of the posterior longitudinal ligament and also in the anterior paravertebral area. The abdominal and pelvic CT scan and venography revealed vertebroplasty cement leakage into the lumbar vein, the left renal vein, and the inferior vena cava. Thrombosis at the left common iliac vein and left femoral vein were noted with extension into the inferior part of the inferior vena cava. Intravenous heparin was then administered to our patient for the ensuing 20 days, at which time heparin was replaced by warfarin, in order to attempt to prevent progressive venous thrombosis. The patient's leg edema appeared to improve 10 weeks subsequent to her surgery, she then being able to perambulate using a rigid walker.
This case illustrates the need for clinicians to be critically aware of the potential occurrence of inferior vena cava syndrome among patients who have undergone percutaneous vertebroplasty, especially when multiple levels of vertebra are injected as part of the vertebroplasty procedure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the classic Hirabayashi procedure, the lamina door is tethered open by sutures between the spinous process and facet capsule or para-vertebral muscle. Our early experiences showed, however, that the loosened sutures result in dislodgement and reclosure of the lifted lamina. We present a modified method to ensure secure fixation and prevent restenosis due to hinge closure.
12 patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy underwent unilateral open-door laminoplasty using suture anchor fixation between 2000 and 2004. The sutures were tied and fixed onto the holed lateral mass screws, instead of using the conventional suture technique. We used radiography, MRI, and CT for imaging studies. The Nurick score was used to assess severity of myelopathy, and the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score was used to evaluate clinical outcomes before surgery and at the last follow-up visit.
All patients experienced functional improvement of at least 1 Nurick score after surgery. The JOA score for the 12 patients increased significantly from 6.9 (SD 3.0) before surgery to 13 (SD 1.6) at final follow-up. Postoperative radiography and CT showed increased sagittal diameter and canal expansion. Average preoperative and postoperative ranges of motion for the cervical spine were 48 (SD 4.6) and 36 (SD 2.7), respectively. No neurological deterioration due to hinge reclosure and no major surgery-related complications were observed during the follow-up period.
Open-door laminoplasty using suture anchor fixation effectively maintains expansion of the spinal canal and resists closure while preserving alignment and flexibility. This modified technique is easy to use, has a low complication rate, and provides marked functional improvement for patients with cervical spondylolytic myelopathy.